Skip to main content

Full text of "The history of Prussia: tracing the origin and development of her military organization"

See other formats


This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 






VOIi. II. 













VOL. I. A.D. 700-1390. 
VOL. IL A.D. 1390-1525. 









I Conrad von Wallenrod, 1390 1 

IL Coniad von Jnngingen, 1393 15 

IIL XTlrich Yon Jongingen, 1407 38 

IV. Heinrich von Planen, 1410 63 

y. Michael EucluneiBter, 1414 80 

VI Paul von Rusdorf, 1422 97 

VIL Conrad von Eriichshatusen, 1441 .137 

Vm. Hans von Baysen, 1454 165 

IX. Hens von Planen, 1467 211 

X. Albrecht von Brandenburg, 1511— 1525 .233 

XI. Albrecht von Brandenburg (continued) 252 




I. Early Hhtoiy of Brandenburg 279 

11. Albert the "Bear," 1133 305 

IIL Waldemar the Great, 1308 329 

IV. The Margrave Lotus, 1323 353 

V. LoniB 11, 1351 369 

Pedigree of the House of Hohenzollem .... 391 

The Imperial Citiea 427 

The Early History of Nuremberg 456 



A.D. 1390-1393. 

Connd yon Wallenrod made Stadtholder (1390) — Inyasion of 
Lithuania — Siege of Wilna — ^Walleprod elected Grand Master 
(1391) — Second Invasion of Lithuania — Border Warfare — 
Intrigues of Yitold — His Reconciliation with Jagello — The 
Beformed Movement in Prussia under Doctor Leander — 
Wallenrod sides with the Priests — Death of lleander — Per- 
secution of his Disciples— -Dobrin and the Neumark offered 
to the Order by Sigismund (1392) — Another Invasion of 
Lithuania — Defeat and Retreat of the Knights — Untimely 
Death of the Qrand Master (1393). 

On the death of the. Grand Master, Conrad Zolhier, 
in 1390, the Grand Comthur, Conrad von Wallenrod, 
was appointed Stadtholder. The position of the 
Order was at this time very critical, but fortunately 
it had able counsellors. 

Up to the death of the late Grand Master, both 
Poland and the Order were straining every nerve 
to make ample preparations for the ensuing cam- 
paign. Jagello had gained over to his side John, 
Duke of Masovia, and Duke Wladislaus of Oppeln, 

VOL. II. 6 


together with the Duke Wratislaus of Pomerania. 
The latter had not only concluded an offensive 
and defensive alliance with Jagello, but he had also 
declared himself and his brothers, Boguslaus and 
Bamim, vassals of the King of Poland. 

This alliance was a great blow to the Order and 
the Margrave of Brandenburg ; for it was through 
Pomerania that most of the reinforcements of 
Crusaders pasted on their way to the scene of 
hostilities in East Prussia. The merchants of Bran- 
denburg and Prussia were also sufferers, as the 
Pomeranian Duke would not allow the route from 
Stettin to be used by them. The only alKes that 
the Order could count upon were Sigismund, Duke 
Semowit of Masovia, the Margrave of Brandenburg, 
and the King of Bohemia. 

The Earl of Derby, at this critical' juncture, 
arrived with his knights, and it seems he was after- 
wards joined by a considerable number of Scottish 
Crusaders, in addition to whom numerous German 
and French nobles had repaired to the scene of 
hostilities. Unfortunately a dispute arose between 
the English and Scottish knights, ending in a broil, 
in which a member of the house of Douglas lost his 
life. Scarcely had peace been made between the 
parties when another quarrel took place between 
the representatives of France and England. The 
Stadtliolder, fearing that these petty jealousies might 
cause the break up of the army of Crusaders, deter- 
mined to lead them at once against the Lithuanians. 


Having eflfected a concentration of all his available 
forces at Kauen, lie advanced against the town of 
Troky, which soon fell into his hands, and Skirgallo, 
Jagello's brother, w^ho does not appear to have had 
a large force with him, was defeated. The knights 
and their allies thereupon commenced the siege of 
Wilna. The garrison and the inhabitants of the 
town offered a most stubborn resistance, but part of 
the castle, owing to an act of treachery, was burnt 
down, and 14,000 people lost their lives — Carigal, 
Vitold^s brother, and Prince Narimant being taken 
prisoners: The remaining portion of the citadel 
successfully resisted the attacks of the knights. In 
accordance with the military usages of the time, the 
two princes ought to have been released on ransom, 
but both were put to death. Vitold sentenced his 
elder brother to be beheaded, and ordered Prince 
Narimant to be suspended from a tree by his feet, 
and shot at with arrows until he expired. 

After three months occupied in unsuccessful at- 
tempts to capture the citadel, their losses, coupled* 
with the want of provisions, compelled the allies to 
withdraw and return to Prussia. Vitold behaved in 
a most barbarous manner towards his countrymen, 
with the object, according to some, of weakening 
their opposition to his schemes of subjugation, by 
the terror his name would inspire ; added to which 
was the desire to avenge his brother's death before 

The Order and their allies appear, however, to 

6 2 


have arrived in Prussia, bringing with them a con- 
siderable quantity of booty. The greatest loss 
which they experienced was the death of Alard, 
Count of Hohenstein, who fell during the siege. 
Vitold took up his winter quarters at Insterburg 
and Ragnit, and thence undertook an expedition 
into Samogitia, but was obliged to retire, as Jagello 
suddenly advanced against him with an overwhelm- 
ing force. 

In the year 1391, on the great festival of St. Jude, 
in a Chapter consisting of 300 brothers, Conrad 
von Wallenrod was raised to the dignity 'of Grand 
Master. He had previously been Marshal, in 1384, 
Grand Comthur since 1387, and Stadtholder 
for the past year. Shortly after his election 
Von Wallenrod marched against the Lithuanians, 
accompanied by Vitold, who expected to obtain 
possession of Wilna by treachery. In this he was 
disappointed ; but the Grand Master totally defeated 
Skirgallo, capturing the forts of Novgorod and 
Wilkomirz, which had been recently erected by 
him. Great dissatisfaction was now aroused in 
Lithuania against this prince, partly on account of 
his defeat, partly owing to the incorporation of 
Lithuania with Poland. An important feature in 
the aggressive policy of Von Wallenrod was the 
fomenting of disunion among the Lithuanian princes, 
in which his eflforts were attended by much success. 
He also endeavoured, by offering high pay, to raise 
a large number of mercenary troops. During this 


time Vitold was ordered to despatcli frequent 
marauding bands into Lithuania, and, in order to 
afford them places of refuge, three fortresses were 
built on the islands of the Memel, namely, Xeuen- 
burg, Nettenburg, and Ritterswerder. By order of 
Skirgallo, Ritterswerder, which was occupied by 
Vitold, was unsuccessfully attacked by Prince 
Wigand, who, in the course of the siege, was him- 
self poisoned. Some attributed his untimely end to 
Vitold, by whom he was regarded as a most dan- 
gerous rival. As Skirgallo, on account of his 
unpopularity, had been removed from his govern- 
ment to the town of Kiew, Vitold now entered into 
negotiations with Jagello, through the medium of 
his nephew Henry (son of Semowit, Duke of Maso- 
via), offering to break off his alliance with the 
knights, on condition of his receiving the Grand 
Duchy of Lithuania. With the aid of his numerous 
followers he was then enabled treacherously to make 
prisoners of all the knights and retainers who were 
serving under him. After destroying the strongholds 
which had been entrusted to his guardianship, he 
returned to Lithuania, pursued by the garrisons of 
the two remaining forts on the islands. Vitold, 
having secured his prisoners and booty in a safe 
place, took up a position which commanded the 
mountain passes, and there surprised and totally 
routed his pursuers. He now entered Wihia, where 
he was received with great rejoicings by the people. 
Henry, the negotiator of these nefarious transac- 


tions, although a priest, demanded in man'iage 
Vitold's daughter, who was renowned for her 
beauty ; but he was ultimately induced to accept a 
bishopric in lieu of the lady. 

The losses which the Poles had experienced in 
maintaining Jagello's authority in Poland rendered 
them unwilling to make further sacrifices. It was 
therefore a great advantage to that prince to form 
an alliance with Vitold, whose military talents 
would enable him to withstand the Order in Lithu- 
ania. Having secured Vitold*s support, Jagello 
now despatched ambassadors to the different Euro- 
pean ports to intrigue against the Order. Unfor- 
tunately for the latter, their story was but too true, 
for no one could deny that Jagello had done his 
utmost to convert his subjects to Christianity, and 
that the knights were not actuated by the principles 
they professed, as they were doing their best for- 
cibly to annex his native country by fomenting 
intestine strife. This caused those who had aided 
the knights from the belief that they were the 
warrior-monks of Christ to waver in their allegiance 
to the Order ; and the only support on which the 
knights could now rely was from mercenaries. In 
Vitold they had lost one of their most able par- 
tisans. Nothing daunted at such a blow, they 
induced Swidrigail to revolt, and with his assistance 
took possession of Grodno and some other districts, 
together with 3,000 Lithuanians, who were brought 
captives into Prussia. 


To ensure the adherence of the bishops and 
priests, the Grand Master allowed them to pursue a 
series of persecutions against those who would not 
implicitly accept their religious teaching. We 
formerly mentioned the fact that the Order was not 
very orthodox as regards the peculiar dogmas of the 
Eoman Catholic Church. It would be idle to sup- 
pose that the members of the Teutonic Order, by 
their residence in foreign countries and their know- 
ledge of Papal policy in the East, should not have 
arrived at the conclusion that it was dangerous for 
any State, that desired to retain its sovereign powers, 
to seek priestly assistance in temporal matters. A 
certain Leander, a follower of the Albanian faith, 
had been taken under the protection of Wal- 
lenrod, who, as Grand Master, had allowed him 
openly to proclaim his doctrines ; and, in a very 
short time, the reformer had gained a large number 
of proselytes. The Grand Master decided to forsake 
his former favourite for the purpose of obtaining the 
support of the priests. The principal charge laid 
against Leander was his condemnation of the monks 
for the indolent life they led. He sent to his oppo- 
nents a declaration of his religious opinions, and 
challenged any one to come forward and publicly 
controvert them ; and t ne challenge was accepted. 
This act of audacity forced the Grand Master to 
make some show of fair play, and he therefore de- 
cided that Marienwerder should be the scene of this 
theological discussion. On the way to the town 


History of jprussia. 

Leander was upset by his driver, and, falling into a 
clay-pit, was killed. His followers maintained that 
this act was committed at the instigation of the 
priests. The latter, not contented with the death of 
their opponent, formed themselves into a religious 
synod, for the purpose of trying any person who 
had attached himself to the reformed movement; 
and the court was allowed to summon all those who 
were known to have favoured Leander to appear 
before it. Nor was this all, for they actually 
ordered the bodies of deceased proselytes to be 
taken from their graves, and to be reinterred by 
the hangman in the place allotted to felons. 

About this time the citizens of the town of 
Braunsberg, being greatly discontented with the 
conduct of their bishop, Heinrich Sorbaum, applied 
privately to the Grand Master, requesting that they 
should be placed under the immediate protection of 
the Order. To ingratiate himself with the priestly 
party. Von Wallenrod communicated to the bishop 
the request of his rebellious subjects. A revolt broke 
out, and the bishop narrowly escaped being kilUed. 
The knights put down the insurrection by force, 
and compelled the town to pay 2,000 Hungarian 
florins as a fine ; while the burgomaster, to save his 
life, had to appear before the bishop, barefooted and 
kneeling, with a rope round his neck. 

By these conciliatory measures the Grand Master 
induced the bishops and clergy to consent to the 
payment of an income-tax, together with a poll-tax. 


which was to be devoted to the payment of the 

The cost of the approaching campaign was esti- 
mated at the sum of 600,000 marks. This smn 
having been collected, the Grand l^aster despatched 
agents to all parts of Europe to enlist mercenaries, 
and was profuse in his promises of reward for ser- 
vices rendered. 

Before the beginning of the war, the Grand 
Master experienced the usual consequences of having 
sacrificed his temporal power to the priests. The 
first dignitary who opposed him was Bishop Hein- 
rich Sorbaum, whom he l)ad lately reinstated. He 
had ordered the bishop to supply him with sufficient 
labour for fortifying the towns of Salon, Memel, 
Wohnsdorf , and Ragnit ; a request to which Hein- 
rich declined to accede. The ruler of the Order, 
not wishing to have a dispute with the prelate as to 
the extent of his public privileges, himself ordered 
the labourers to discontinue their employment, and 
to proceed to work on the fortifications. He also 
despatched a body of soldiers into the bishopric, 
with orders to cut off the right hand and foot of any 
one who should refuse to obey his commands. By 
this high-handed measure he obtained upwards of 
1,000 labourers. 

The Grand Master, having been informed that 
the Archbishop of Riga intended to deliver into the 
hands of the Russians and Lithuanians some of the 
archiepiscopal castles in liefland, ordered them to 


be occupied by his soldiery. Thereupon the arch- 
bishop fled to the Court of Wenceslaus, King of 
Bohemia^ who, believing that the former had 
been unjustly treated, ordered all the property of 
the Order in Bohemia and Moravia to be confis- 
cated. The Grand Master, however, proved by a 
letter of the archbishop's of which he had got pos- 
session, that the latter was really in secret corre- 
spondence with the Lithuanians, and the King can- 
celled the decree. 

In the month of May, 1392, an envoy arrived at 
Marienburg with the offer on the part of Sigismund, 
King of Hungary, to sell or pledge the Neumark for 
the sum of 500,000 gulden ; but the Grand Master 
declined to buy the province until the King was in 
a position to guarantee it against certain claims on 
the part of either the King of Bohemia, the Duke 
of Gorlitz, brother of Sigismund, or the Duke of 
Moravia, son of the Emperor Charles IV. The 
King of Himgary's envoy also offered to sell to the 
Order the districts of Dobrin and Cujavia. But 
here again the claims of the King of Poland and 
Duke Wladislausof Oppeln prevented any satisfactory 
arrangement being made. A little later, however, 
Duke Wladislaus pledged to the Order the district of 
Itaria for the sum of 6,632 Hungarian florins. This 
transaction led to a further loan, by which Dobrin 
and its districts became the property of the knights. 
The news of these negotiations greatly alarmed the 
King of Poland; for he had just concluded an 


alliance with the King of Hungary, and, being 
fully aware of the treacherous character and the 
financial difficulties of Sigismund, he felt convinced 
that thei^e arrangements were nothing else than the 
preliminary to an offensive and defensive alliance 
against himself. 

During these transactions the recruiting agents 
of the Grrand Master had been so successful that no 
less than 46,000 mercenaries arrived in Prussia. 
The Grrand Master had besides at his disposal 18,000 
men, and with these, in the year 1393, he advanced 
against the Lithuanians. On reaching the island, 
not far from Kauen, the site of the old Marion- 
werder, which had been destroyed by Vitold, the 
Grrand Master carried out a promise he had made 
of entertaining twelve of the most distinguished 
knights at a feast. A magnificent tent was erected 
on the island ; on one side of the river was drawn 
up the army of the Order under its Marshal, and on 
the opposite bank that of the foreigners under the 
Grand Comthur. The curtains of the tent were 
taken down, so that the soldiers could see the 
banquet, and a broad hat embroidered with gold 
was held over the head of each of the guests during 
the repast, to protect him from the sun. The first 
of these distinguished knights was an Austrian 
named Kinodius, of Richardsdorf, who had per- 
formed the wondrous feat of slaying sixty Turks 
with his own hand, and had also made a crusade to 
Jerusalem. Frederick, Margrave of Meissen, had 


thb second place of honour, in consideration of the 
protection always afforded by him and his family 
to the interests of the Order. Among the other 
guests was a Scotch nobleman, for the heroic conduct 
of his father in nobly sacrificing his life to save that 
of his king ; Count Rupert of Wiirtemberg, in con- 
sideration of his humility in declining the dignity 
of emperor, because, in the interests of the Order, 
he had renounced his desire to marry the rich and 
beautiful Countess of Hapsburg; Degenhard, a 
standard-bearer from Westphalia, because he had 
forgiven the assassins of his father in obedience to 
a vision ; and Frederick of Buchwold, of whom it is 
said that he never refused a request made in the 
name of the Order of St. George. The repast com- 
menced at nine o'clock in the morning, and lasted 
until two in the afternoon ; thirty courses were 
served up, on silver, the knives and forks being of 
the same metal ; the wines, of the most costly kind, 
were presented to the guests in silver goblets 
ornamented with gold. During the feast heralds 
came forward and proclaimed the deeds of the 
guests, and descanted on the treacherous conduct of 
Vitold, declaring that, to ensure the triumph of the 
Crusaders, the banner of the Order must float on 
the citadel of Wilna. 

The Grand Master now returned to Prussia to 
superintend the organization of fresh reinforce- 
ments, while the army continued its advance. The 
Crusaders, however, had forgotten that, from the 


constant inroads which they had made into Lithu- 
ania, a great tract of land over which they had to 
pass before reaching Wilna had been so devastated, 
that it was totally nnable to support their numerous 
forces. Notwithstanding, in the belief that their 
numbers would overcome all difficulties, they com- 
menced the siege of Wilna. Vitold, who wisely 
offered no opposition to their advance, directed his 
immediate attention to the organizing of a large 
army among his own subjects, which he reinforced 
by numerous levies of Russians, Tartars, and 
Poles. For some time he contented himself with 
cutting off all the sources from which the knights 
could obtain supplies. Learning that his opponents 
were in urgent want of provisions, he advanced to 
the attack, the Polish garrison of Wilna supporting 
him by a general sortie. A disastrous defeat ensued, 
and the Order was compelled to retire, with a loss 
of 30,000 men. The remnants retreated to Prussia, 
but the foresight of the Grrand Master, in raising 
fresh levies, enabled him shortly to undertake a 
series of small expeditions into Lithuania, Vitold 
in retaliation making an inroad into the district of 

The failure of this campaign and other troubles 
had such an effect on the mind of the Grand Master 
that he shortly afterwards lost his reason, and died 
on the 25th of July, 1393. 

Wallenrod was a stem and determined ruler, and 
at the same time a crafty politician. His prede- 


cessor had, in his opinion, given too much authority 
into the hands of the guilds of the towns. In order 
to curtail their rising power, Wallenrod built suburbs 
to the towns, in which he placed Courlanders, 
Lithuanians, and Poles, who received the same 
rights of citizenship as those possessed by the Ger- 
mans. This naturally led to jealousies ; and there 
can be but little doubt that he secretly did his 
utmost to undermine the power of the priests and 
monks, although he did not scruple to proclaim 
publicly that he ruled by Gottesgnade^ or " Divine 
right." During his government the territory of 
the knights was extended, botli by purchase and 
by force of arms, and the influence of the Order 
throughout Germany was increased considerably. 



A.I). 1393-1407. 

Election of Conrad von Jungingen (1393) — Increased Taxation — 
Resistance of the Quilds — ^Affairs of Denmark and Sweden — 
Battle of FalkopiDg— Capture of Qothland by Pirates (1397) 
— ^The Grand Master undertakes to Protect the Neumark for 
Sigismund — Peace with Vitold — Samogitia Subjugated — ^Visit 
of the Grand Duchess Vitold to Marienburg (1400) — Second 
Marriage of Jagello (1401) — ^Invasion of Prussia— Vitold 
Defeated — Purchase of the Nenmark (1403) — Expedition to 
Gothland (1404)— Trade with England— English DepuUtion 
at Marienburg — Treaty of Reciprocity — ^Interview of the 
Grand Master with Jagello-— Death of Von Jungingen (1407). 

The knights now elected as their chief Conrad 
von Jungingen, who had formerly been the Campan 
of Conrad ZoUner of Rotenstein. The fii;st act of 
the new Grand Master was to endeavour, with 
the assistance of the ecclesiastics, to continue for 
one year the additional taxes which his pre-' 
decessor had levied, to furnish funds for the 
prosecution of the Lithuanian war; but so violent 
was the opposition to his proposal that he had to 
abandon the idea of continuing hostilities. The 
guilds being the chief opponents of increased taxa- 


tion, the Grand Master enlarged the privileges of 
the mechanics and labourers. He issued an edict 
against the abuse of luxuries; citizens were for- 
bidden to have the direction or management of the 
artillery in time of peace. Every knight was 
allowed to have ten horses for his use, and a 
Comthur one hundred. To counteract the concessions 
made by his predecessor to the priestly party, Von 
Jungingen enacted that no ecclesiastic could become 
a bishop imless he were a member of the Order. 

From a statute punishing heathen priests with 
death by fire, it would seem that some ren^nants of 
the ancient religion were still in existence. 

To prevent commercial frauds, a class of custom- 
house officers was instituted about this time, who 
had to determine on oath the value of all articles 
of commerce. 

We now return to the relations between Denmark 
and Sweden. The throne of Sweden, after several 
years of war, was formally handed over to Albrecht, 
by King Magnus, in the year 1371. The Swedes, 
howeveTi were dissatisfied with Albrecht, who 
favoured his German countrymen at their expense, 
and on the death . of Waldemar, King of Denmark, 
in 1376, they oflfered the crown of Sweden to that 
monarch's daughter Margaret, who had married 
Haymin, Kong of Norway, in 1363.* This naturally 

* Margaret, Queen of Denmark, by the death of her husband 
Haymin, became regent over Norway for her son Olaus, who 
died in the year 1387, when the Danes acknowledged Margaret as 



led to war between Albrecht and Margaxet ; and in 
the great battle of Falk5ping, in 1388^ the Queen's 
forces were successful, and Albrecht and his son 
were taken prisoners. By the victory of Falkoping 
the naval power of Denmark was greatly in-* 

The ports Bostook and Wismar, always jealous 
of Danish supremacy, informed the Grand Master 
that they would not permit Prussian vessels to 
supply the Danes with munitions of war, but also 
promised him not to commit acts of violence, and 
to forego molesting Prussian vessels trading with 
Denmark and Sweden. At their instigation, how- 
ever, a numerous piratical fleet was soon assembled, 
which not only revictualled Stockholm, then be- 
sieged by the royal troops, but captured Gothland,* 
and fortified Wisby, which latter they made their 
head-quarters, so that the Prussian trader no longer 
dared appear alone in the open sea. The Prussian 
Hanseatic towns, in conjunction with Lubeck, 
expressed a willingness to pay a good ransom if 
Margaret would release King Albrecht, conclude a 
peace with him, and indemnify Prussian traders 

their queen. In 1396 the States General of the kingdomB of Nor- 
way, Sweden, and Denmark assembled at Calmar, where it was agreed 
that they should all be ruled by one and the same sovereign. This 
act was called the *' Calmar Union," on which occasion Margaret 
designated Eric as her successor. She died in NoTember, 1411. 

* This idand had been mortgaged by Albrecht to the Qrand 
Master Yon Botenstein for 20,000 dobloona 

VOL. n. c 


for the losses they had experienced. Margaret 
declining these proposals, all intercourse with Danish 
ports was broken off. 

In 1894 the Grand Master, Conrad von Jungingen, 
reopened negotiations with Duke John of Mecklen- 
burg and Queen Margaret for the release of the 
Bang of Sweden, and for the renewal of commercial 
relations between the Prussian and Danish ports. 
It was arranged that the Prussian and Hanseatic 
towns should first demand from the Duke of Meck- 
lenburg, and the towns of Rostock and Wismar, a 
satisfactory compensation for all the losses which 
their traders had experienced at their hands, and 
that, this being effected, the Duke should be invited 
to join in requesting the Queen to release the King 
of Sweden on ransom ; and further, it was proposed 
that the town of Stockholm should be held by the 
Hanseatic Confederation until the King had repaid 
his ransom money. To this the towns and the 
Duke agreed, and in the month of July their repre- 
sentative met those of the Queen at Helsingfors. 

Here the Queen's envoy stated that Margaret was 
willing to release Albrecht on parole for a limited 
period, sufficient to enable him to arrange a durable 
peace, failing which, the King and his son must give 
themselves up to the Danish authorities, or pay the 
Queen the sum of 60,000 marks, eight of the Han- 
seatic towns being responsible for the King. Un- 
fortimately, before the peace could be signed, a 
violent dispute arose between some of the Germans 


and DaneSj which ended in bloodshed, and caused the 
break up of the conference. 

Wratislaus, Duke of Pomerania, an opponent of 
the Order, died about this time, and the Grand 
Master concluded a treaty with his successor, Duke 
Bamim, by which he secured the right of passage 
through the Duke's territory. At the commence- 
ment of the year 1396 the conference of Helsing- 
fors was renewed. The King of Sweden was 
released, and Stockholm was occupied by the Han« 
seatic towns. In the same year, the Duke of Q-el- 
dem having arrived in Prussia, the Grand Master, 
in defiance of Sigismund, invaded Lithuania; but 
an accumulation of snow which had taken place 
forced the Crusaders to retire. The Duke seems to 
have undertaken this expedition in consideration of 
a loan of 6,000 nobles from the Grand Master. 
Shortly after this Duke John of Gorlitz died, 
and the Neumark fell to the inheritance of Sigis- 
mund, at whose request the Grand Master undertook 
to defend that province from external attack. 

During this period disputes again arose between 
the Order and the Archbishop of Riga, which were, 
however, finally settled at the conference of Dantzic. 
Swidrigail, who had taken refuge in Prussia, with 
the assistance of the knights now invaded Lithuania 
from Liefland, and got possession of the stronghold 
of Vitepsk, but was shortly after defeated and made 
prisoner by Vitold, and the expedition collapsed. 
Both parties being now weary of the struggle, a 



peace was proposed and concluded between the 
Grand Master and Vitold, who were thus enabled — 
the latter to extend his conquests in Russia, and 
the former to direct his energies to the acquisition 
of Gothland and the Neumark. Having equipped a 
large fleet, on board of which were 4,000 men, the 
Grand Master, in conjunction with some vessels from 
Lubeck, the whole being commanded by Conrad 
yon Biberau, proceeded to Gothland, where be 
destroyed a piratical fleet, and captured the greater 
part of the island. The expedition then proceeded 
along the coasts of Sweden and Denmark, seising 
and destroying several other vessels, amongst them 
some Danish ships, which had been despatched, as 
the Queen afterwards alleged, on their way to Goth* 
land to assist the Prussian fleet. 

All the Prussians could urge in their defence was, 
that the Danish vessels were confounded with piratical 
cruisers, and so destroyed, the pirates being in the 
habit of hoisting the colours of foreign nations. 
After this the knights appear to have reshipped 
their men from Gothland, and to have returned to 

Eric of Gothland having died, his mother handed 
the government of Gothland over to a certain Swen 
Sture, who became the open protector of the pirates, 
and even shared their plunder. The King of Sweden 
was first of aU urged to eject the pirates and restore 
order, but, he being unable or imwilling to do this, 
the Grand Master called upon Duke John of Meek- 

t3OTHtAN». 21 

lenburg to assist him in freeing the Baltic from the 
scourge ; and in the month of March, 1397, a fleet 
of eighty vessels, having on board between 4,000 and 
6,000 men, together with the necessary artillery, set 
sail from Dantzic for Gothland, where they landed. 
The pirates, imder Swen Sture, now took forcible 
possession of the citadel of Wisby, where the Duke 
of Mecklenburg and the mother of Eric resided. 

As a heavy fall of snow prevented the artillery 
being brought up to effect a breach, negotiations 
were opened with the pirates through the medium 
of the Duke of Mecklenburg, during which the town 
and citadel were completely surrounded by the 
knights, by land and sea. A general assault then 
took place, and the pirates and their accomplices 
wer6 slaughtered without mercy, their captain, with 
400 of his followers, however, managing to escape. 
The Duke of Mecklenburg now agreed that the 
island should be handed over to four Prussian com- 
missioners, who should conduct its government until 
the Order had come to a regular understanding with 
the King of Sweden. 

The Baltic pirates having next made Friesland 
the basis of their operations, and the trade with 
Norway being at a standstill, the Lubeckers and the 
Order now set about a second expedition ; but the 
Grand Master found the greatest difficulty in raising 
the necessary funds, for his Gothland policy had 
compelled him eyery year to increase the taxation 
of his subjects. 


Queen Margaret of Denmark had viewed with 
extreme jealousy the occupation of Grotbland by the 
Order^ and the rise of their naval power, and she 
was believed to be in secret negotiations witibi the 
pirate commandant of that island for its cession to 
her — ^a scheme which was frustrated by the final 
capture of Gothland by the Order, to which, on the 
25th of May, 1399, the entire island was handed 
over by Albrecht, who received for the transfer the 
sum of 10,000 nobles. 

It was agreed that, should any future King of 
Denmark wish to regain possession of Gothland, he 
was to ^pay the Order the sum of 30,000 nobles, 
with a year's notice in advance. In case the notice 
were given, but the money not paid, the Order might 
dispose of the island to any other State. Albrecht 
and Duke John of Mecklenburg were co-signataries 
to this treaty. Margaret, considering that Goth- 
land belonged to her dominions, on hearing of the 
arrangement with Albrecht, protested against it; 
and the Grand Master, declaring his willingness to 
cede the island in accordance with the compact he 
had entered into with Albrecht, called upon the 
latter to come to an amicable settlement with Mar- 
garet as to her claims. 

The Grand Master was also, at this time, engaged 
in a difference with the Bang of Poland, concerning 
the districts of Dobrin, which Jagello declared 
belonged to him ; and Conrad von Jungingen ex- 
pressed his readiness to cede the territory in dispute, 


if the Duke of Oppeln's consent could be obtained, 
and the money for which it had been pledged were 

H^iry IV. of England, who ascended the throne 
on the deposition of Eichard II., in 1399, despatched 
ambassadors to Marienbnrg, shortly after his acces- 
sion, to renew friendly relations with Prussia. 

Pope Boniface IX. at this period was a great pa- 
tron of the Order, and Sigismund, King of Hungary, 
who was adverse to the increasing power of Poland 
and to Margaret, also maintained friendly relations 
with it ; and it may be presumed that this needy 
monarch had already received pecuniary assistance 
from the Grand Master. 

With the aid of the Pope, Charles the Bold, Duke 
of Lorraine, at the head of 200 knights, about this 
time proceeded to Prussia, where he was joined by 
Duke William of Geldern, who however, on account 
of ill-health, was obliged to return to Germany. 
The Marshal, Werner von Tettingen, assumed the 
command of the army, and advanced into Samogitia^ 
from Ragnit, in February, 1400. Here the Cru- 
saders devastated the country for twelve days ; and 
the unfortunate inhabitants, being totally unprepared 
for the attack, were terrified into submission, and 
embraced Christianity. By these means the greater 
part of Samogitia was annexed, and we are told that 
the Duke of Lorraine and his followers returned 
loaded with presents and plunder. 

In the month of July the Grand Duchess 


Vitold visited the different shrines in Prussia, 
and *was entertained with great splendour at 

The forcible annexation of Samogitia was a 
measure highly unjustifiable in many ways. A 
characteristic of the people was their love of inde- 
pendence and attachment to their ancient religion. 
Many of the inhabitants, to escape the yoke of the 
knights, had taken refuge in Lithuania, and the 
Order demanded that Vitold should send them back, 
in accordance with the treaty. This he only par- 
tially carried out; but at last, being pressed, he 
collected all the Samogitians, and ordered them to 
return to their native country, following up this step 
by sending letters of justification to the Pope and 
all the German princes, and the Grand Master did 
the same. Conrad, knowing that, should war break 
out with Vitold, it was highly necessary to have the 
King of Poland on his side, did his utmost to con- 
ciliate the latter by presents, and by assurances of 
the friendship of the Order. The Grand Master 
knew that, if Jagello and Vitold remained united, 
all the external assistance he could depend upon 
would be that of mercenary leaders, and the favour 
of the Pope depended on his being able to outbid 
Jagello. Added to this, Margaret of Denmark would 
take advantage of hostilities to force the Order to 
cede Gothland to her* 

Unfortunately for the Order, Sigismund, who 
had been defeated in the great battle of Nicopolis 


against the Turks (in 1396), had been imprisoned 
by the nobles in the castle of Siklos. 

Jagello, who had concluded an offensive and 
defensive alliance with the Russian prince John 
von Twer and the Duke of Masovia, now began 
sending reinforcements into Lithuania; and the 
Grand Master to counteract this opened negotiations 
with Swidrigail, who possessed considerable influence 
amongst the Podolians, Wallachians, and Russians, 
and raised mercenaries in Pomerania and in various 
parts of Germany. 

Jagello, suspecting that he was not sufficiently 
strong at once to begin the struggle, despatched 
Duke Semowit to Marienburg, in September, 1401, 
to reassure the Order of his friendship, and to 
induce the Grand Master to suspend his military 
preparations; but this the latter declined to do 
until the King had given substantial guarantees of 
his peaceful intentions. It is probable that Jagello's 
real reason for wishing to postpone the outbreak of 
war was his approaching marriage with the daughter 
of Count Hermann von Celly, a grand*daughter of 
Casimir, and whom^ although frightfully ugly, he 
had selected as his queen on account of her legal 
claim to the crown,* 

Vitold was also unwilling to commence hostilities^ 
as he was at that time unsuccessful in a war with 
the Duke of Smolensk, a Russian prince ill alliallce 

* The Queen Hedwig had died broken-hearted in the year 


with Swidrigail) indirecily assisted by the Order. 
In the month of November Swidrigail^ who had 
been invited to attend the marriage ceremony of 
Jagello, appeared in the disguise of a merchant at 
Marienburgy to conclude a regular alliance with the 
Grand Master. He was received with open arms, 
and his visit to Prussia was celebrated bv two 
inroads into Lithuania. Vitold, with all his nobles 
and principal retainers, being absent at Cracow, to 
assist at the marriage of Jagello, and the people 
being taken by surprise, the knights returned to 
Prussia laden with plunder, cattle, and many hun- 
dred prisoners. 

About this time Swidrigail concluded an offen- 
sive and defensive alliance with the Order, and 
ceded to it a large portion of his territory, on the 
condition that the Order should assist him to the 
utmost in obtaining Lithuania. In this document 
he styles himself " Heir and Prince of Lithuania 
and Russia, and ruler of Podolia.'' 

This Lithuanian prince now repaired to Liefland 
to prepare for an expedition agdinst Vitold ; but the 
operations were delayed by Jagello's having for the 
time being obtained the favour of the Pope, and 
by the appearance of a comet, which passed over 
Europe in the March of 1402, and which was 
supposed to forebode disaster. The Grand Master, 
moreover, knew that if he invaded Lithuania, the 
Pope and Europe would declare that he was the 
instrument of evil. 


In the month of May the Samogiiians took by 
surprise the town of Memel^ which they sacked and 
set on fire, and Vitold appearing with a large force 
before Gotteswerder, which he took and burnt, 
Conrad ordered the immediate invasion of lithuaniai 
and the knights, with an army of 40,000 men, in 
conjunction with Swidrigail, crossed the river Wihia, 
where they defeated Vitold. Little or no opposition 
seems to have been offered by the inhabitants, who 
had retired to the towns and fortresses. These 
being so well defended that the knights did not 
venture to attack them, the army was com- 
pelled to return to Prussia, and Swidrigail took up 
a position at the fort of Baiselauken (Beeslack), for 
the purpose of instigating a revolt in Lithuania, 
aided by the funds abimdantly supplied by the 

Margaret, Queen of Denmark, had at this tune 
renewed her claims on Gothland, with such perti- 
nacity as foreshadowed her intention of obtaining 
her demands by force of arms. In this dilemma the 
Grand Master referred the dispute to the Hanseatic 
Bund, but, fortunately for the Order, an event now 
took place which forced Margaret to change her 
demeanour for a time. 

After the death of Margaret's son Olaus, in 1387, 
it had been rumoured that he had been poisoned at 
her instigation. Some Danish merchants, passing 
through a village near Graudenz, encountered a 
poor man who bore a most striking resemblance to 


the deceased prince. On being questioned he denied 
being in any way connected with the royal family, 
but, when several other persons declared positively 
that they recognized him as Olaus, he affirmed that 
sixteen years before his mother had ordered him to 
be poisoned; but that another person had been 
the victim, and that he had fled from his country. 
The pretender was taken to Dantzic, where he 
was treated with great distinction, and openly 
acknowledged as King of Denmark and Nor- 

Margaret, fearing that the Grand Master might 
follow the example of the Dantzigers, requested 
that the pretender should be sent to Denmark, so 
that she might hear his story in person. 

Von Jungingen, seeing that, if he granted such 
an important favour, Margaret would probably 
come to an arrangement with him as to Gothland, 
sent the pretender, under the escort of several 
knights, to the Queen, where, on being examined, 
it was found he could not speak the Danish lan- 
guage, and he himself owned that he was a native 
of Eger, in Bohemia, and that his father was named 
Wolf and his mother Margaret. He was taken to 
Schonen, where he was burnt alive, together with 
all the papers to which he had affixed his signature 
as king. 

The Grand Master was deceived in his expecta- 
tions as regards Margaret's generosity, for, as soon 
as the pretender was out of the way, she threatened 


the Order with a declaration of war if Gothland 
was not given up. 

Sigismnndi who had now returned to power, wasi 
as usual, in great want of money, and he offered to 
sell the Neumark unconditionally to the Order, 
stating that it had been pledged to the King of 
Poland, and that, if the sum was not repaid within 
a very short time, he must deliver the province 
over to Jagello. It was impossible for the Grand 
Master to allow this to take place, and accordingly, 
in the month of July, the Order purcha^ied the 
Neumark for the sum of 63,000 Hungarian gulden, 
on condition of its being restored to Sigismund or 
Wenceslaus, or to the Margrave Jobst of Moravia, 
on the repayment of the above-mentioned sum; and 
the same condition was extended to the children or 
heirs of Sigismund during his life and that of 
the other two princes. If the province was not 
redeemed during the period of these lives, the 
territory should remain for ever in the possession 
of the knights. All expenses incurred in improving 
the condition of the country had to be repaid, to 
the amount of 1,500 marks. Stybor, Waiwode 
of Transylvania, represented the Emperor in this 

In 1403 three successful expeditions were made 
into Lithuania by the knights and Count Frederick 
of Zollem, Gomthur of Ragnit. 

In the same year the Pope issued a Bull repri- 
manding the Order, in severe terms, for their 


conduct towards Poland and Lithuania. At an 
interview wliich took place between the Grand 
Master and the Eling of Poland at Christmas, 
Swidrigail was reconciled to the King, and it was 
agreed that another meeting should take place at 
Whitsuntide of the ensuing year, when all disputes 
were to be settled. 

As the Grand Master had been unable to induce 
Albrecht to treat with the Queen, and the period 
having elapsed which she had prescribed for the 
settlement of the dispute, her fleet took possession 
of Gothland, suflFering a defeat, however, while 
attempting to take Wisby. 

The Grand Master sent an expedition to the 
island, but on approaching the shore the knights 
found that it had entirely fallen into the hands of 
the Queen's forces. They, however, captured and 
brought into the port of Dantzic seven Danish 
vessels laden with plunder from Gothland. 

In the month of March, 1404, another expedition 
was despatched to Gothland. After landing an 
army of 16,000 men, consisting of cavalry, infantry, 
and artillery, the fleet blockaded the island, and the 
knights proceeded to besiege one of the three forts 
erected by the Danes. The defenders made a most 
stubborn resistance, so that, their supply of powder 
running short, the knights found themselves, at 
Whitsuntide, forced to conclude an armistice for 
three weeks, in order to enter into fresh negotia- 
tions. Margaret, insisting on the unconditional 


cession of the island, equipped a fleet at Calmar, 
with the necessary troops for the relief of the be- 
leaguered territory ; but the knights boldly attacked 
the Danish fleet, the greater part of which they 
either captured or destroyed. Margaret now, having 
lost 200 vessels and a large number of her best 
saUors in attempting to maintein her Bupremacy in 
the island, expressed her willingness to come to 
terms with the Grand Master ; and in the month of 
July, with the mediation of the Burgomaster of 
Lubeck and his town council, a fresh armistice was 
arranged between the contending parties, during 
which negotiations were to be opened either at 
Schonor or Calmar. 

In the same year a fresh peace was concluded 
with Vitold and Jagello, through the mediation of 
Swidrigail, Vitold undertaking to restore all the 
captured districts; and it was further stipulated 
that, if the Polish and Prussian commissioners could 
not decide as to the right of proprietorship of the 
territory of Dobrin, the question was to be left to 
the decision of Sigismund. No sooner was this 
treaty concluded than fresh difficulties axose with 
Duke Stolpe of Pomerania, with reference to his 
claims on the Neumark. 

At this time the fortress of Driesen, being claimed 
as a fief by both Poland and the Order, gave rise to 
a dispute with Poland. Notwithstanding that the 
river Netze was regarded by the Order as the fron- 
tier of the Neumark, Driesen, which by the cutting 


of a dam was oonverted into au island, was claimed 
by the Poles; there can, however, be little doubt 
that it bad been sucoessivelj under the rule oi both 

A great hindrance to the trade between England 
and Prussia was the opposition of the Prussian manu- 
facturers to the importation of English cloth, which 
was far cheaper than the native article. So great 
was the jealousy of the Prussian traders in this 
respect, that it was enacted that all English stuffs 
should be confiscated. 

Bobert lU. of Scotland, who was then engaged 
in a war with England, was constantly suppHed 
by the Prussians with provisions and munitions of 
war. King Henry, in a letter dated Westminster, 
December 7, 1404, besought the Grand Master, aa an 
ally, to forbid this traffic ; his request ww, however, 
disregarded. Subsequently two Prussian embassies 
appear to have been despatched to England, but the 
demands of the Order were so exorbitant that Henry 
could not accede to them. The Grrand Master 
accordingly not only prohibited trade with Eng- 
land, but also confiscated all English goods, and 
expelled such of our countrymen in Dantzic who 
were not naturalized. He also forbade any English- 
man from acquiring the rights of citizenship in 
Prussia. Not content with these severe measures. 
Von Jungingen induced the Hanseatic Confedera- 
tion and the Poles to join him in this restrictive 
policy. The King of England seems to have 


been forced to come to terms, for we find that in 
August, 1405, a deputation, consisting of William 
Brampton and others, came to Marienburg, bringing 
with them a letter from Henry, dated May 11, 1405, 
in which he says : — 

^^ Lites ortse inter nos, ligeos et subditos nostros, 
et illos de Prusia et alios dicti Magistri subditos 
quoscumque ratione vel occasione arrestacionum 
navium et aUorum vasorum capcionum bonorum 
nomine marque sive reprisalium.'' 

In October, 1405, a treaty of reciprocity was con- 
cluded between Prussia and England ; Englishmen 
were to enjoy the same rights as other foreigners in 
Prussia, and vice versd. Certain restrictions were 
placed on the importation of English cloth. It was 
agreed that English commissioners should meet 
those of Prussia and their allies at Dordtrecht, 
within the space of a year, for the settlement of the 
indemnification for the losses which the two con- 
tracting parties had inflicted on each other ; should 
no satisfactory arrangement be made, English and 
Prussian traders should, within three months, return 
to their respective countries, taking with them their 

With the rest of Europe Prussia would have been 
able to carry on a flourishing trade, but the depre- 
dations of the pirates rendered the navigation of the 
Sound extremely dangerous. In fact, no ship was 
allowed to leave any part of Prussia alone, so that 
the expenses entailed in equipping the necessary 

VOL. n. d 


armed vessels to guard the incrcliaiitmen caused the 
profits of the traders to be seriously decreased. 

Commerce with the neighbouring territories had 
greatly improved since the peace with Poland; 
and the greatest proof of the prosperity of the towns 
was their readiness to pay the increasing taxes. 

About Whitsuntide the King of Poland, at an 
interview with the Grand Master, Von Jungingen, 
at Thorn, paid over to him the sum of 50,000 Hun- 
garian gulden, for which Dobrin had been pledged, 
and 400 marks for Slotoria ; the pledged districts 
thereupon returning to the original owners. The 
boundary of the Neumark was also more clearly 

During the years 1405, 1406, the plague was rife 
in Prussia, destroying a great number of the poorer 

At the commencement of the year 1407 the cele- 
brated Persian Archbishop, John of Sulthanien, 
visited the Grand Master at Marienburg. For cen- 
turies before, various ecclesiastics had attempted to 
unite the chaos of sects which existed in the East. 
During the pontificate of John XXII. strenuous 
efforts had been made by him to induce the Patri- 
arch of Armenia to assist in carrying out such a 
desirable object, but the jealousy of the Armenian 
Church offered insurmountable difficulties. The 
archbishop, prior to his visit to the Grand Master, 
had visited many foreign Courts to obtain their 
assistance in uniting the various Christian sects. 


This prelate believed the time had amved when the 
project could be again renewed with more prospect 
of Buccess. He therefore requested the Grand 
Master to furnish him with a letter to the King of 
Cyprus, from which we give the following short 
extract : — 

" Serenissimo magnificoque principi ac domino 
rege CiprisB et Armeniee domino nostro nobis in 
Christo dilecto : placeat vestre magnificentiaa denuo 
tractare cum patriarcha Armenorum et majoribus, 
ut se humilient, ad unionem festinent ac laborent." 

Conrad von Jungingen also gave him another 
letter to Mirza Miranschach, son of Tamerlane, in 
which he expressed his gratitude for the protection 
afforded to Christians in the East, and congratulated 
him on the success of his arms against the hitherto 
invincible Bajazet. 

In another letter to Tamerlane the Grand Master 
informed that great warrior that his merchants would 
be treated in Prussia in the same hospitable manner 
as were all other foreign traders, and that the bearer 
of the letter had but one object, viz. the unification 
of the various Christian sects over which he ruled ; 
and that, if he succeeded in his enterprise, Tamer- 
lane's subjects would become far more peaceful. 

As the Patriarch of Constantinople persecuted the 
nobles and persons attached to the Eomish Church, 
the Grand Master entrusted the archbishop with a 
letter to Manuel II., the Greek Emperor, requesting 
him to protect the followers of the Catholic Faith 

d 2 


and listen to the proposals of the Archbishop of 
Sulthanien. The following epistle from the Grand 
Master to John the Presbyter shows that the prelate 
had brought some communication from the latter : — 

^^ Serenissimo ac magnifico principi a regi abassio 
sive Presbytero Johanni, domino nostro nobis in 
Christo dilecto, exhilirati animo nobis jucundissima 
preconia de yestre majestatis statu et persona gra- 
tissime accepimus a venerabili patre f ratre Johanne 
archiepiscopo Soltaniensi sive tocius orientis, qui, 
zelum vestrum et fervorem oraculo vive vocis nobis 
per ordinem preclare multipliciter peroravit, qualiter 
vestra magnificentia ad ecclesiam Catholicam et 
quod sinum amplissimum liberalitatis et clementise 
ad Ghristi fideles et ad nuncios sedis apostolicaa 
habeat ipsis munifice proyidendo et consultissime 

Some time after this occurrence the Grand Master, 
Conrad yon Jimgingen, felt his end approaching. He 
had long been suffering from a painful malady, 
which now threatened to prove fatal. Shortly before 
his death, Conrad summoned his principal council- 
lors to his chamber, to deliberate as to the choice of 
a successor, and strongly advised them not to elect 
his brother Ulrich, who would, in all probability, 
embroil the Order in a war with Poland, The 
Grand Master breathed his last in the month of 
March, 1407, universally regretted. 

Although peacefully inclined, Conrad von Jun- 
gingen appears to have been a man of great deter- 


minatioii of character, and of a self-possession which 
never failed him under the most trying circum- 
stances; whilst the success which attended his 
foreign poUcy entitles him to take rank amongst 
the most able statesmen of the day. During his 
rule the prosperity of all classes was greatly in- 
creased, although Prussia had suffered severely 
from terrible epidemics. 



A.D. 1407-1410. 

Election of Ulrich von Jungingen (1410) — Purchase of Driesen — 
Sale of Gothland to Denmark — Treaty with England — Sump- 
tuary Laws — Negotiations with Jagello — ^Revolt in Samogitia 
— Outbreak of Hostilities — ^Victorious Advance of the Knights 
into Poland — ^Armistice Concluded — ^Decision of Wenceslaus 
and Sigismund — Protest of Jagello — The Polish Army ad- 
vances into Prussia — Battle of Tannenberg (1410) — Defeat 
and Death of the Grand Master — Heinrich von Plauen 
appointed Stadtholder — Siege of Marienburg — Vigorous De- 
fence of the Castle — ^Intrigues of Vitold — Jagello retires to 

On the death of Conrad von Jungingen, Werner 
von Tettingen was elected Stadtholder, and the Order 
obtained possession of Santok, which had been 
pledged by the King of Poland to the Knights of 
St. John. On the 29th of August, 1407, the Order 
elected ULrich von Jungingen as Grand Master, 
without regard to the dying counsels of his brother 
Coiu'ad, who was opposed to his succession. Ulrich 
had already distinguished himself in the war with 
the Samogitians, and since the year 1388 he had 


been Companion of the Grand Master, Conrad 
Zollner von Eotenstein. 

In the year 1404 he was promoted to the high 
rank of Marshal, in which office he acquired a 
reputation for great military capacity. 

The first act of the new Grand Master was to 
arrange for the final purchase of Driesen and its 
districts from Ulrich von der Ost, whose wife and 
cousin, Hans von der Ost, were parties to tho 
agreement. Driesen was of value to the Order, as 
affording a good basis of operations in defence of 
the Neumark. The peaceful disposition of Ulrich's 
predecessor had produced such a laxity of discipline 
amongst the Teutonic Knights, that they were no 
longer regarded by the citizens of the larger towns 
with the same respect as formerly. For the purpose 
of restoring the former prestige of the Order, the 
Grand Master issued a series of edicts relating to 
the interior economy of the Order and the privi- 
leges of its members. Ulrich, in addition to these 
ordinances, renewed several of the oivil laws of his 
predecessors, especially those concerning marriage 
without the sanction of relations. He prohibited 
turbulent assemblies, and enacted that members of 
the Order were not to be accompanied to the 
Chapter-house by more than ten retainers. 

From these regulations it would appear that many 
knights led an extravagant life, and openly violated 
jtlie statutes of the Order. 

In order to avoid the possibility of war with 


Denmark, which would probably have prevented 
the Grand Master from carrying out his reforms, 
and to be in a fit condition to defend himself 
against Poland, he sold the island of Gothland to 
Eric* and Margaret of Denmark, for the sum of 
9,000 English nobles. 

The surrender of a maritime stronghold of such 
importance might seem a mistake on the part of the 
Order, but, on the contrary, it was a proof of the 
sagacity of the Grand Master, his object being to 
remain on friendly terms with all those States whose 
ships frequented Prussian ports. For this reason he 
followed up the surrender of Gothland by a treaty 
of reciprocity with England, which was highly 
advantageous to both countries, especially to Eng- 
land, which was then suffering from a succession of 
bad harvests, and was obliged to import com from 
Prussia. These measures of the Grand Master prove 
that he really desired peace. 

* Eric XIIL, son of the Dake of Pomerania, colleague and sue* 
cessor of Queen Margaret of Waldemar. He married, in 1410, 
Fhilippa, daughter of Henry lY. of England; and in HI 2, on Mar- 
garet's death, became King of Denmark and Sweden. His in- 
capacity, tyranny, and caprice so disgusted the Swedes and Danes, 
that both rcTolted. He became involyed in a war with the Hanse 
towns ; and the Danes chose for their king his nephew, Christo- 
pher, Duke of Bavaria, Eric being allowed to retain possession of 
the island of Gothland. In 1448 Eric*s cruisers attempted to levy 
contributions on the Prussian flag; he was besieged in Wisby, 
whence he escaped, but was afterwards sent to the island of Rugenf 
where he ended his days. 


One of the jmncipal articles of the convention 
(1404) was, that the frontiers of the Neumark should 
remain unchanged. This appears by some over- 
sight not to have been introduced in the final treaty, 
but it was shortly afterwards inserted by order of 
the King of Poland at Thorn. 

This prince now pretended to have a ground of 
complaint against the Order in its purchase of 
Driesen, which transaction, he maintained, was a 
violation of the before-mentioned treaty, as Driesen 
was, properly speaking, a fief of Poland. 

Polish writers state that in an audience which 
Jagello granted to the Comthur of Thorn, who 
came to present him with a letter from the late 
Grand Master, written shortly before his death, and 
to thank him for the respect he had shown to his 
memory, the Polish King not only declined to read 
the letter, but expressed his discontent with the 
occupation of Driesen. On the other hand, we find 
that the King of Poland invited the Grand Master 
to pay him a visit at Kauen, where he waa most 
sumptuously entertained on the 6th of January, 1408. 
At this meeting the affairs of Santok and Driesen 
were discussed in the presence of the nobles of 
Poland and Prussia. As regards Driesen, Vitold 
was chosen arbitrator, and he pronounced in favour 
of the Eang of Poland. The Grand Master refused 
to accept the decision, and the meeting broke up, 
with the understanding that the disputes should be 
settled by some friendly arrangement. 


The beginning of hostilities was caused by a 
rising of the Samogitians, who had only been 
induced to acknowledge the supremacy of the Order 
through the influence of Vitold, who had remained 
faithful to his engagements. This outbreak origi- 
nated in the following manner. Vitold had under- 
taken an expedition against his son-in-law Basilius, 
who ruled in Beussen, and at his request the knights 
despatched a contingent to assist him; they also 
ordered a number of Samogitians to join Vitold's 
standard. This the Samogitians declined to do, for, 
being subjects of the knights, they wished to be 
supplied with horses and attached to the contingent 
of the Order. The knights, however, forced them 
to act as infantry, wliich was considered as a mark 
of inferiority. In revenge for this insult these people 
suddenly surprised and destroyed the rising tcwTi 
recently built at the junction of the rivers Memel 
and Dangau. 

Vitold was greatly incensed by an inroad which 
Swidrigail made at this time into his territory, 
instigated, as he believed, by the Order. Ho there- 
fore secretly despatched his Marshal, Rumpold, to 
organize a regular rising among the Samogitians. 
The Polish and Prussian writers differ very much 
in their accoimts of the opening act of hostility 
committed by the Order. The Grand Master, on 
hearing of the revolt which was being organized, 
seized twenty Polish vessels, which he suspected to 
contain munitions of war intended for the Samo* 

OOTBRlfiAK 01^ flOStlLIflE^. 43 

gitians ; but it turned out that they were laden with 
com for Lithuania, which was then suffering from 
the effects of a bad harvest. 

Vitold immediately ordered his officers in Lithuania 
to commence hostilities. The Order, on learning 
this, despatched the Comthur of Thorn to Jagello, 
demanding that he should punish Vitold for aiding 
the Samogitians. The King declared that he knew 
nothing of the matter, and requested that the Grand 
Master should wait until he obtained the opinion 
of the Reichstag as to the conduct of the delinquent. 
On the 17th of July, 1409, after the meeting of the 
Reichstag, the Archbishop of Gnesen, Nicolaus von 
Kurowski, was despatched to the Grand Master, to 
bring about an interview between the latter and 
Jagello. It soon becoming apparent that the ambas- 
sador only sought to gain time, as the Poles were 
not yet ready to take the field, the Grand Master 
declared that he woidd at once advance on Lithuania 
unless his demand was complied with. The arch- 
bishop, losing his temper, replied that in that case 
Poland would retaliate on Prussia — a remark which 
was regarded by Ulrich as an open declaration of 
war. The Grand Master appears to have been quite 
prepared for eventualities, for, on the first sign of 
Vitold^s contumacy, ho had demanded reinforce- 
ments from various friendly princes, and had also 
induced the Dukes of Pomerania, Swantibor of 
Stettin, and Boguslaus of Stolpe, to renounce their 
alliance with the King of Poland. The Polish 


envoys had evidently acted at variance with their 
instructions, for by their indiscretion they enabled 
Ubich thus to bring matters to a crisis desired 
neither by Vitold nor by the King of Poland. 

The former now eflFected a reconciliation with his 
rival Swidrigail, and called to his assistance his 
Tartar allies. The Grand Master, to forestall the 
attack of the Lithuanians, divided his army into 
three corps, which advanced simultaneously into 
Poland at diflPerent points. The first corps captured 
Dobrin, Slotoria, and Bobrovniki, the second corps 
took Bromberg, and the third overran Masovia. 
The rapid successes of the knights produced a very 
disheartening effect upon the Poles, and their king, 
finding that Vitold would be imable to assist him 
before the end of the next year, and that he would 
therefore have to contend single-handed against the 
three armies of the Order, determined to avail him- 
self of the friendly offers made by Wenceslaus and 
Sigismund, who had despatched envoys to Swetz 
for the purpose. These two princes had already 
agreed to assist the Order in the war, but they 
were not imwilling to mediate, as they wished to 
preserve the balance of power between Poland and 
Prussia. The Grand Master agreed to an armistice, 
October 8, 1409. Both parties were to remain in 
statu qm ; the conditions formerly entered into with 
King Casimir were to remain in force ; should any 
dispute arise, it was to be decided by the Emperor 
Sigismund; and should one of the contracting 


parties break the armistice, the Emperor bound 
himself to attack the aggressor. 

Vitold, who had not been invited to take part in 
the negotiations, despatched ambassadors to the 
Emperor, demanding his aid in obtaining redress 
fi'om the knights. His envoys were informed that 
the Emperor could have no communication with 
him, as he was a declared enemy of the Christian 
religion, by having called in the alliance of the 
heathen Russians and Tartars to destroy the cham* 
pions of that holy faith. 

After the settlement of the armistice, the Emperor 
called upon the Polish King and the Grand Master 
to lay before him their grounds of mutual complaint. 
Jagello maintained that Driesen, which had been 
purchased by the Order, had belonged from time 
immemorial to Poland; Von Jimgingen, on the 
other hand, produced documents by which it was 
proved that the family Von der Ost had possessed 
it, for more than a century, as a fief of Branden- 

As regards the complaint that the Grand Master 
had not fulfilled his promise at Kauen, not to 
increase his power in the district of Santok, he 
stated that its' inhabitants maintained that it had 
always belonged to the Neumark, and that they 
were determined to risk everything to prevent their 
separation, and, as he held the Neumark as a pledge, 
he was compelled to return it in its original extent, 
should the Emperor Sigismund redeem it. In 


answer to the charge that Prussian officials had pre- 
vented Polish merchants conveying their merchan- 
dise to the sea coast through the territory of the 
Order, the Grand Master replied that this restric- 
tion should cease the moment similar rights were 
granted to Prussians. Von Jungingen further 
stated that the reason he forbade the export of 
horses to Poland was, that there did not exist in 
Prussia a sufficient number of animals for the 
requirements of the Order, but that he had never 
forbidden the export of armour to Poland. Touch- 
ing the restoration of the territory which Duke 
Semowit had pledged to the knights, the Grand 
Master stated that he was perfectly ready to give 
them up, on the sum being paid for their redemp- 
tion ; and, as a proof that the knights had no desire 
to occupy them permanently, he informed the 
Emperor that the revenues received from them had 
been regarded as instalments of the money for 
which they had been pledged. After .mature 
deliberation, King Wenceslaus gave the following 
decision at Prague: that all former documents or 
treaties should bo valid ; that each of the contracting 
parties should remain for ever in possession of all 
the territory and rights each possessed prior to the 
breaking out of hostilities ; that the Order should 
restore Dobrin and receive Samogitia ; and that 
neither party should seek the alliance of infidels for 
the pui-pose of attacking one another. 

The Polish envoys declined to adhere to the 


(locisiou of Wcnceslaus, althougli their king had 
solemnly promised to obey it. This conduct proved 
but too clearly that Jagello had resolved not to be 
bound by his engagements, unless he obtained his 
object. Wenceslaus, not wishing the renewal of the 
war, gave the King of Poland time to reconsider 
his refusal, his answer to be given by Wliitsuntide, 
but no Polish envoys appeared on the day ap- 
pointed. Wenceslaus informed the envoys of the 
Order that they had carried out all their engage* 
ments in accordance with the armistice, but that the 
King of Poland, by not accepting his judgment, had 
forfeited all right of demanding any concessions 
from the knights, Polish writers have done their 
utmost to prove that the King was prejudiced, and 
that he had an understanding vnth the Order to 
decide in their favour. 

Neither Jagello nor Vitold was prepared to com- 
mence war. The latter had availed liimself of the 
armistice to collect a numerous force of Russians 
and Tartars, and the King of Poland had managed 
to entice a large number of mercenary Germans and 
Bohemians into the ranks of his army. Towards 
the end of May the Grand Master received infor- 
mation from the governor of the Neumark that the 
Poles had taken the field in strength, and were 
thre£ttening Driesen, and that they had collected 
numerous boats for the passage of the Netze. This 
intelligence of the forward movement of the Polish 
army was confirmed by a report from the Comthur 


of Slochau, on tlie 13th of June, that ho was in 
hourly expectation of an attack. On the 13th of 
May the Grand Master had issued a decree, calling 
on every able-bodied man in Prussia to be ready to 
march at a moment's notice. The Order was not 
only reinforced by a body of German knights, but 
also received considerable sums of money from 
various allies to assist in carrying on the war. The 
Bishops of Liefland and Courland were also sum* 
moned with their retainers. 

Ukich von Jungingen assembled his army near 
Swetz, where the envoys of Wenceslaus and Sigis* 
mund succeeded in bringing about a ten days' armis« 
tice. The King of Poland, who never really trusted 
Vitold, became so alarmed, and showed so much 
incapacity, that the direction of state affairs had to 
be given over to the Archbishop of Gnesen^ and the 
command of the army to Zindramus de Moscho- 
wykze, assisted by a military council. 

The Polish army numbered in all about .163,000, 
consisting of 60,000 Poles, 21,000 Bohemian and 
German mercenaries, a corps of 42,000 Lithuanians, 
and 40,000 Russians and Tartars, besides 60 pieces 
of heavy artillery*. In vain did Vitold, on his 
knees, entreat the pusillanimous King not to dis- 
grace himself in the eyes of his country; he 
only replied with tears and lamentations. Vitold, 

* These numbers, which we give as we find them in the old 
historians, are probably exaggerated. 


enraged, left him, and took command of the left 
wing of the army. 

The Grand Master, before the battle, sent the 
Marshal, Frederick von Wallenrode, to the King 
with two double-handed swords, one dipped in blood 
and the other unstained, requesting that, if he 
desired peace, he would accept the latter, and, if 
not, the former. The King took both in his hands, 
with the remark that he receiyed them as a favour- 
able omen, inasmuch as the vanquished always 
tenders his sword to the victor. After some hours 
passed in devotion, he seems to have sumyioned 
sufficient strength of mind to give orders for a for- 
ward movement. Having destroyed Gilgenberg, the 
Polish army massed itself for the purpose of march- 
ing against Marienburg. To prevent this move- 
ment, the Grand Master, at the head of 83,000 men, 
with a considerable train of artillery, determined to 
risk a battle- at Tannenberg, July 15, 1410, and 
drew up his army in three ranks to the south of the 
village Griinwald. 

The right wing of the first line rested on a wood, 
the left on the village of Tannenberg ; the second 
was parallel to the first ; the third line was composed 
of two distinct corps, which served as reserves, in the 
vicinity of Grtinwald. 

Both wings of the first rank were protected by 
advanced bodies of troops. Another corps remained 
behind to guard the camp at Trogenau. 

Just before the engagement a Bohemian knight, 
VOL. II. e 


named Methodius von Trautenau, with 800 cavalry, 
offered his services to the Grand Master, who, fear- 
ing treachery, sent a refusal. The Bohemian then 
went over to Jagello, who also declined, and ordered 
him to take up a position at some distcmce, and not 
to take part in the battle. 

That the spirit of the mercenaries of the Polish 
army was not good, was proved by the fcict that 
300 Bohemians, who had not received their pay, 
attempted to desert to the Order. Jagello himself 
anticipated a defeat, for we are told he kept himself 
out of the reach of danger in a concealed spot, and 
had relays of horses ready should he require them. 

The Grand Master opened the engagemient with 
a murderous fire from his artillery, hoping to shake 
the ranks of his opponents. Believing he had 
effected this, a general attack was ordered along the 
entire line. For some time both armies fought 
without gaining ground, but the Lithuanians and 
Tartar allies, who were stationed on the left flank, 
at length began to waver. The Grand Master perceiv- 
ing this, at once reinforced his right, and in a very 
short time Vitold's contingent fled in wild confusion 
from the field, and he himself, unable to rally the 
fugitives, returned' to assist the King, whom he in- 
duced to leave his place of concealment. The 
knights lost a great advantage by continuing the 
pursuit of the Lithuanians, instead of attacking the 
flank and front of the Poles. Already the principal 
standard of the Polish army was laid low, and that 


of the King's body-guard had been carried to the 
rear for security, when numerical superiority at last 
began to tell on the troops of the Order, and gradu- 
ally they were forced to give way. At this critical 
juncture the knights who had been in pursuit re- 
turned, and at once reinforced their comrades. The 
reserve corps then came into action, and advanced 
on the spot occupied by the King and his guards. 

Unfortunately at this moment the Grand Master, 
who had received several wounds, fell, slain by a 
Tartar, who despoiled him of his long beard. 

The remnant of the army, disheartened by this 
calamity and overpowered by numbers, retreated, 
leaving on the field 40,000 men. The Poles are 
estimated to have lost upwards of 60,000. Duke 
Casimir of Pomerania, Conrad von Oels, and the 
Knight Reggersdorf , commander of the mercenaries, 
were taken prisoners. The victory appears to have 
been due, in great measure, to the Bohemians, 
who had been eye-witnesses of the battle, and only 
took part in it when they perceived that the deci- 
sive moment had arrived. Writers censure the 
Grand Master for having brought up his reserve, 
and are of opinion that he ought to have preserved 
this intact, and retired on his camp covered by his 
numerous artillery ; but it is probable that, finding 
it impossible to disentangle his troops, he had no 
other resource than to risk all, hand to hand, and 
trust to the bravery of his knights. 
Jagello appeara not to have behaved with great 




severity to his prisoners, who are said to have 
amounted to 40,000. The principal officers were 
interned in different Polish castles, and the common 
soldiers were allowed to return to their homes, after 
having given their word of honour as soldiers that 
they would present themselves at Cracow on a 
certain day. 

The extraordinary fatigue which the Polish army 
had undergone, together with the numerous losses 
it had experienced, prevented Jagello from appear- 
ing before Marienburg until seven days after his 
victory. This valuable time enabled Heinrich von 
Plauen, Comthur of Swetz, a veteran soldier of the 
Order, to reinforce Marienburg with 4,000 men, 
and prepare for the expected siege. He was shortly 
after joined by 4,000 sailors from Dantzic, together 
with a number of fugitives. Rather than that the 
town should fall into the hands of the Poles, he 
burned it with its suburbs to the ground, having 
previously conveyed all the valuables and provisions 
to the castle. The basement or ground floor of the 
stronghold was defended by 1,000 men, under the 
conmiand of Von Plauen, a namesake and cousin of 
the commandant. The first story was defended 
by 2,000 men, under Gilmach von Zepfen, and the 
upper part of the castle by the rest of the garrison, 
under the commandant himself. 

The first result of Jagello's victory was the ap- 
pearance in his camp of envoys sent by the Bishop 
of Ermland to offer his obedience, and the Bishops 

gEll^BICH VON t»LAU£K. .^3 

of Samland and Culm also submitted. Jagello 
ordered all the distinguished officers who had f alleil 
on both sides to be buried together at the church of 
Tannenberg, and he released the wounded, whom 
he treated like his own soldiers. As a mark of 
respect to the memory of Von Jungingen, he sent 
his body to Osterrode for interment in the vault of 
the Grand Masters. 

Vitold did not treat his captives so leniently. He 
ordered the Comthur of Brandenburg and Mar- 
quard von Salzbach to be beheaded, it is said in 
revenge for some old insult which he had nursed in 
his memory. 

The strongholds in the possession of the knights 
at this time were Rheden, Dantzic, Schlochau, Swetz, 
Brandenburg, Balga, Ragnit, and Memel. 

Heinrich von Plauen after the death of the Grand 
Master had been elected Stadtholder. The Poles 
soon occupied the ruins of the town of Maxienburg, 
but they were unable to surround the castle, the 
knights having destroyed the bridge over the Nogat. 
On the 26th of July, Jagello issued a proclamation 
from his camp, calling on the inhabitants of Prussia 
to swear allegiance to him, either personally or by 
letter, an order which appears to have been univer- 
sally obeyed. The Stadtholder finding, after several 
weeks' defence, that further resistance would be 
useless, resolved to treat with the King, and accord- 
ingly, on August 1, repaired to his camp, whore 
Heinrich offered to restore to Poland all the con- 


quered telritory. Jagello appears to have been 
wilKng to 'accept the conditions, but his councillors 
overruled, and by their advice he demanded the 
annexation of all Prussia, the knights having the 
option either to submit or quit the country. The 
Stadtholder answered that in making his ofiEer he 
had gone as far as honour would permit, and, after 
this humiliation, he believed that God and the 
Virgin would still preserve the Order. 

The Stadtholder, finding the King inexorable, 
retraced his steps to Marienburg with a determina- 
tion to hold out to the last. It appears extraor- 
dinary in this invasion of Prussia that the supremacy 
of Jagello was acknowledged by all classes. Town 
after town sent deputies, tendering to him their 
allegiance, and we are told that both sexes vied with 
each other in discarding their former costume and 
adopting that of Poland. This wholesale submission 
enabled Jagello to bestow the confiscated property 
of the knights upon his followers, and give into 
their hands the principal posts of the government. 
One of the towns most indebted to the Order was 
Elbing, yet so ready was it to acknowledge the 
conqueror, that tlie citizens actually expelled the 
governor of the fortress, and presented Jagello with 
a magnificent set of silver plate, which the com- 
mandsmt was unable to carry off with him. Dantzic 
did not behave much better ; the people undertook 
not to disturb tlie garrison, provided it evacuated 
the fortifications after the fall of Marienburg. 


On the return of Heinrich von Plauen to 
Marienburg, in order to counteract rumours of bad 
success, he ordered it to be proclaimed by flourish of 
trumpets that the King of Hungary was marching 
to the relief of the castle. He also managed to con- 
vey to the Comthurs of Dantzic, Swetz, and Schlo- 
chau, through a disguised priest of the Order, the 
sum of 30,000 ducats for the purpose of raising 
mercenaries. The Poles in vain attempted to sur- 
round the castle, as Von Plauen, under cover of his 
superior artillery, made constant sorties; besides 
this, the want of discipline in the Polish army and 
tlieir usual excesses soon produced a great amount 
of sickness amongst them. They also suffered con- 
siderably from want of provisions, as a disease 
which broke out amongst the horses at that time 
made the army dependent upon manual labour for 
the conveyance of stores. 

That Sigismund must have entered into some 
arrangement to assist the knights is evident from 
the fact that the Dantzigers, by order of the Com- 
thur prior to the battle of Tannenberg, gave his 
envoys the sum of 20,000 marks to raise mercenaries 
in aid of the Order, although they readily gave in 
their allegiance to the Polish Eang. In a very short 
time the Polish people were alarmed by the rumours 
of Sigismund's intended advance into Poland, and as 
their entire army was absent in Prussia, they de- 
manded that Jagello should detach a sufficient force 
from his army to protect his own territory. 

A fresh cause of alarm arose from the fact that 
the governor of Liefland, Conrad Wittinghoff, 
having collected a small but well-disciplined force, 
had marched to the relief of Marienburg, and that 
Vitold with his corps had been ordered to check his 
advance. Conrad, knowing the ambitious disposition 
of his opponent, requested an interview, in which 
he oflFered him the independent sovereignty of 
Lithuania, together with that of Samogitia, Vitold, 
who had always aspired to become an independent 
prince, and in fact to succeed to the Polish throne, 
undertook to do his utmost to raise the siege of 
Marienburg. It was accordingly arranged that 
Conrad Wittinghoff should proceed to the camp of 
the King, accompanied by fifty knights, and request 
a free passage for himself and followers to Marien- 
burg, under the specious pretext that he intended 
informing the Stadtholder that no relief could be 
expected, and thereby bring about the surrender. 
Jagello consented, and, after an interview between 
Wittinghoff and Von Plauen, it was determined that 
the former should return to the King, expressing 
his regret that he had been unsuccessful. The 
King, whose fears as to the safety of the army had 
been worked upon by Vitold, now expressed his 
readiness to accept the terms offered by the Stadt- 
holder, who however now refused to abide by his 
former proposal. Vitold's troops were suffering 
from dysentery, and under this plea he withdrew 
from the siege, and shortly after returned to Lithu- 


ania, his example being followed by the Duke of 
Masovia. Several of the Polish nobles also, who 
wished to place their booty in some place of safety, 
now retired to their country. The besieged were 
suffering considerably, and they had only sufficient 
food for fourteen days ; but before that period elapsed 
the King of Poland, pressed by these losses, raised 
the siege September 19, 1410, by the advice of 
Andreas von Thaczin, one of his principal nobles. 
It is said that the Bohemian mercenaries offered to 
deliver Marienburg into the hands of the Poles for 
the sum of 40,000 gulden, but the King, although in 
possession of a large quantity of booty, had not 
sufficient ready money to pay the traitors. 

No sooner had the King of Poland passed the 
Vistula and Nessau than he disbanded his army, 
that is to say, he could no longer keep them 
together ; in fact, it was with the greatest difficulty 
that he retained a sufficient number to protect the 
frontiers. The Stadtholder now commenced col- 
lecting all his available forces for the purpose 
of regaining possession of his lost strongholds. 
Dantzic opened its gates to its former masters. 
Michael Kuchmeister was despatched to besiege 
Tauchel, but was defeated with heavy loss by the 
Poles at Crone. The latter, however, unaccountably 
retired without following up their success, and the 
commandant, fearing that Kuchmeister would bo 
reinforced, surrendered on condition that the garrison 
should retreat unmolested to Poland. The Order 


now received considerable reinforcements, under the 
command of Johann Eglosstein, Bishop of Wurz- 
burg, and Johann von Munsterburg, Duke of Silesia; 
and with some of these troops the stronghold of 
Tauchel was garrisoned. Jagello in rain attempted 
to induce the Prussians by promises or threats to 
remain faithful to him; they now displayed the 
same eagerness to submit to the Order as they had 
formerly shown in throwing off their allegiance 
to it. 

Before narrating the events which succeeded the 
battle of Tannenberg, it is necessary to give some 
accoimt of the Order and its internal organization 
at this period. The following were the most im- 
portant officers: — The Gross Comthur (Commendatur 
magnus) ; the Land MarschaJl, commander-in-chief 
in war ; the Oberster Spittler, who had the super- 
intendence of the hospitals, assisted in his duties by 
minor officials. His seat was at Elbing. 

The Trapierer had the superintendence of the stores 
and armoury, and took care that the poorer mem- 
bers of the Order were duly supplied with clothes 
and provisions. 

The Treasurer always accompanied the Grand 
Master with the insignia of his office ; his seal 
represented a key in the hand. The Grand Master 
was also attended by the Campan or Companion, 
whose duty it was to see personally all who sought 
an audience. 

The following were inferior in rank : — the Com- 


tliur, Land Comthur, House Comthur, Marshal of 
the Horse, who superintended the studs; the Steward, 
who controlled the domains ; the Ranger, who had 
charge of the forests; and the Superintendent of 
the fisheries. 

The brothers were also divided into several classes. 
Some of them lived in the convents, which each 
contained twelve knights and six priests, amongst 
whom Werner von Orseln established a species of 
ecclesiastical discipline. 

The Grand Master possessed almost absolute 
power, and was only responsible to the Order, by 
which alone he could be deposed ; for the delibera- 
tion of momentous questions he was bound to call a 
General Chapter, sometimes as many as 800 knights 
assembling on such occasions. Questions of peace 
and war rested with an assembly of the Chapter. 
The Bishop of Ermland tried to make himself 
independent of the Order by drawing up a military 
constitution for his see, but this attempt failed. 

The Order assessed all imposts ; it is not certain 
whether the nobles and burghers were consulted, 
but it is probable that the Order asked consent of 
both land-owners and ecclesiastics before imposing a 
new tax. The Order had also extensive private 
domains, especially in Samogitia and in the Neu- 
mark. A good revenue was derived from the tolls, 
and also by the imposition of a pf undzoU (poundage), 
that is, a tax on all ships and on all goods entering 
the harbours and conuiiercial towns. This tax was 

60 HI8T0RY 01* t^fiUSSlA. 

very rarely suspended, and, with skilful management, 
yielded a large return. A yery considerable revenue 
was also afforded by the fisheries. It would seem 
that the domains held by the knights were increased 
by the owners of estates frequently dying intestate 
or without issue, a consequence either of the con- 
stant wars or of the irregular life led by those 
who had received fiefs. The revenue amounted 
to 800,000 marks, equal to 1,600,000 Hungarian 

The members of the Order enjoyed the following 
advantages : — ^board, lodging, clothing, military out- 
fit, and the possession of a certain number of horses. 
Those who resided in the convents appear to have 
been compelled to submit to certain restrictions as 
regards diet and amusement, and we have already 
seen that Ulrich von Jungingen imposed regulations 
in order to check growing luxury among the brother- 
hood, and which were specially directed to the 
number of horses allowed to each knight. The 
legislative power and administration of justice were 
vested in the Grand Master and the Order. The 
bishops had probably a voice by right of territory, 
especially since the Bishop of Ermland had raised 
himself to the rank of prince, and nearly succeeded 
in making himself independent. In ecclesiastical 
matters, the prelates exercised a certain authority in 
making laws and arrangements; yet prior to the 
battle of Tannenberg we never hear of a synod 
having been summoned by a bishop. 


The towns also had authority, by right of their 
privileges, to enact local laws and impose local 
taxation ; also over trade licences, police arrange- 
ments, the defence of the town, and the supply of 
municipal garrisons. 

The Teutonic Order may be truly regarded as 
the first Government which possessed a regular 
standing army ; in fact, the present organization of 
district command is only a development of the old 
system. In the towns the Haus Comthur sat on the 
bench ; in country places the Comthur, who, assisted 
by some local man of rank or position, decided all 
ordinary cases. Certain towns, such as Elbing, 
Braunsberg, Tannenberg, and Memel, held their 
own Court of Appeal ; but in criminal matters the 
Orfler reserved to itself the power of imposing 
punishments and granting pardons. Although each 
locality enacted its own municipal police laws and 
arrangements, yet the Order retained its rights of 
occasionally interfering and imposing special restric- 
tions ; for instance, in cases of epidemic disease, or 
in matters for the regulation of the standard of 
weights and measures. The Grand Master had the 
power of conferring the rank of knight, but it is not 
certain whether he also appointed the notaries. In 
a document of the year 1342, of the Grand Master 
LudoU Konig, there occur the following words, 
"Paulus et Johannes notarii nostri" — ^Paul and 
John, our notaries, but it is not quite clear that 
this refers to the Grand Master. 


It will be hereafter seen how, after the battle of 
Tannenberg, this extraordinary brotherhood lost 
much of its influence in Northern Europe, whilst 
the order of knighthood became so common, that it 
fell in estimation and lost its original significance. 

The trade which had hitherto passed through the 
Prussian territory began to be absorbed by the Por- 
tuguese and Dutch, who conveyed their goods by 
other channels. In consequence also of the largo 
standing axmy of foreign mercenaries, who were 
always ready to seize provisions in lieu of pay, corn 
became scarce, for the agriculturists only cultivated 
sufficient for their own private consumption. The 
coinage also became depreciated, and foreign mer- 
chants did not care to send corn to the Prussian 
market. The union of Poland and Lithuania under 
one sovereign also contributed to diminish the power 
of the Teutonic Knights, who were now obliged to 
impose heavy taxes upon their subjects to meet the 
great expenses incurred by the hiring of foreign 
mercenaries, ever ready to give their services to the 
highest bidder. 

As the position of the Order became more and 
more embarrassing, it was obliged, by underhand 
means, to seek the assistance of the Pope, especially 
as the ecclesiastics began to reassert their former 
authority. Added to this, minor States, which had 
hitherto borne with impatience the yoke of the 
Order, began now to assert their independence, and 
to claim distinct constitutional rights. 



A.O. 1410-1414. 

Intrigues of Titold— Von Plaaen elected Qrand Master (1410) — 
Jagello's friendly Overtures — Armistice — Peace of Thorn 
(Ull)*-Financial Difficulties of the Order — ^Expedients for 
raising Money — ^Discontent in the large Towns — Bevolt of 
Dantzic — ^The Dantzigers forced to Submit — Claims of the 
Mercenaries — Further Taxation — ^The Knights invade Masovia 
(1413) — Internal Dissensions of the Order — Kuohmeister 
Leader of the Opposition — Abdication and Arrest of the 
Grand Master (1414)— Character and Policy of Heinrich von 

The knights having now expelled the Poles, the 
Stadtholder convoked a Grand Chapter, which 
unanimously raised him to the dignity of Grand 
Master on the 9th of November, 1410. 
: No sooner had Jagello heard of Von Plauen's 
election than he despatched to him on the 25th 
of November a letter of congratulation, expressing 
his desire to be on friendly terms with the Order ; 
and this official document was accompanied by a 
private communication, promising him his support 



in case his authority should be resisted. From this 
it appears that Jagello had received secret informa- 
tion of disunion among the knights. Von Plauen 
replied that, as Jagello had not obeyed the Pope*s 
injunction, and was enlisting mercenaries, he would 
be forced to do the same, and the war was thus con- 
tinued. Stein and Mohrungen, two strongholds held 
by the Poles, surrendered to Plauen, and the town 
of iThom again submitted, a number of citizens who 
remained loyal to the Order having compelled its 
surrender by a successful revolt. Sigismund's army, 
under the command of Stibor, had now advanced 
into Poland, placing the King in a perilous 
position; but the invaders met with several re- 
verses, which, together with the disunion amongst 
the knights, now becoming more apparent, induced 
the Grand Master to listen to those who counselled 
the necessity of peace. But the terms offered by 
Jagello were so humiliating, that the Grand Master 
could not accept them; a short time afterwards, 
however, through the medium of Vitold, Von 
Plauen concluded* a month's armistice at Thorn, 
the castle of which was still held by the Poles. 

Jagello availed himself of the armistice to increase 
the number of his mercenaries, and to raise fresh 
levies among his Polish subjects. Von Plauen, on 
the other hand, * issued a proclamation to all the* 
princes of Europe, describing the exhausted con- 
dition of Prussia, and exposing the ambitious designs 
of the King of Poland against the independence of 


the country. The Grand Master was also in com- 
munication with Vitold, urging him to ally himself 
with the Order, and guaranteeing to assist him in 
becoming the independent sovereign of Lithuania. 
Jagello, hearing that strong reinforcements were 
advancing to the assistance of the Order, determined 
to intercept them; and accordingly marched on 
Thorn with a numerous army for the purpose of 
surrounding the Grand Master's forces. Vitold, 
foreseeing the destruction of all his ambitious hopes, 
made common cause with the envoys of the Emperor 
and the Pope in persuading Jagello to come to terms 
with the knights. The King of Poland, fearing 
that his chief supporters, the bishops, might go 
against him, agreed to and concluded a peace on 
the Ist of February, 1411, on an island of the Vis- 
tula, near Thorn. The conditions were highly 
advantageous to the knights, being the immediate 
cessation of hostilities ; a mutual exchange of all 
prisoners, the Grand Master paying the sum of 
15,000 marks ready money; all conquests during 
the war to be restored, and the inhabitants to bo 
allowed to renounce the oath of allegiance to Poland; 
Samogitia to be ceded to Vitold and Jagello during 
their lives; Duke Semowit of Masovia to receive 
back without payment the district of Zobra, pledged 
by him to the Order. The above were the main 
articles of the treaty. As regards the possession of 
Driesen and Santok, the King of Poland and the 
Grand Master agreed to leave the decision of the 
VOL. n. / 


dispute to the arbitration of twelve commissioners, 
with the option of a final appeal to the Pope. A 
similar arrangement was made concerning any dis- 
pute between the knights, Vitold, and Jagello. These 
two princes xmdertook to renounce their alliance 
with the heathens, in forcibly converting whom the 
three parties were to make common cause. All 
Prussians who had sided with the enemy received 
full pardon, except the Bishop of Ermland. Finally 
it was agreed that, should Sigismund desire to 
become a party to the treaty, he was to be allowed 
to do so. The treaty was finally ratified on a plain 
near Slotoria. The King of Poland also concluded 
a truce for eight months with the King of Hungary, 
and the Lithuanian and Polish armies withdrew to 
their own territory. The first difficulty which the 
Grand Master had to grapple with was the imme- 
diate payment of the Polish indemnity, although he 
had received about this time a sum of 25,419 nobles 
from the King of England for losses the Prussians 
had experienced at the hands of English cruisers. 
The treasury, indeed, had become nearly exhausted 
from the large amount of money paid to the merce- 
naries on being dismissed. It had been hoped that 
a compromise for this payment might be effected, 
as the Pope had formerly declared that the war was 
an unjust one. During the time the Poles held 
possession of Prussia they had despoiled most of 
the churches of their valuables, and this it was also 
trusted would be regarded at Rome as part pa3nnent 


of the indemnity ; but the moment the treaty was 
ratified, Jagello, who was himself in great pecuniary 
difficulties, managed to raise a sum of money, which 
he despatched to the Holy See to propitiate the 
Pope in his f ayour ; nor was he deceived in the 
result, for when the question came on for the decision 
of John XXIII., that Pontiff declared that the war 
was justifiable, and that the articles taken from the 
Church were the lawful property of the King of 

The Grand Master was the first to break one of 
the principal articles of the treaty, viz, that past 
offences should be forgiven ; for, brought up in the 
school of obedience, he could not overlook the want 
of it in others. He accordingly severely punished 
all the principal officials who had betrayed their 
trust during the Polish invasion ; and several of the 
offenders were executed without trial. 

Many of the knights had sullied the honour of the 
Order by their pusillanimity »and cupidity during 
the invasion of Prussia, Some, after having actually 
collected all the valuables they could find, fled the 
country; some surrendered important strongholds 
without the least resistance ; and Von Plauen knew 
that, unless he made a severe example of the delin- 
quents, he never would be able to restore the morale 
which had once been so conspicuous. 

The Bishop of Ermland, finding himself excepted 
in the treaty, fled to Dantzic and thence to Lubeck, 
and the bishopric was handed over to the charge of 



a certain Count von Schwartzburg, who appointed 
one Lucas von Gelf enstein collector of the revenue. 
In the space of a few years this official paid into 
the exchequer of the Order the large sum of 58,000 
marks, which he was the more easily enabled to 
do, inasmuch as the bishop had, by his treachery, 
saved his see from Polish spoliation. 

Financial difficulties increased every day, owing 
to the demands made by the Bohemian and Hun- 
garian mercenaries, to whom back pay was stiU due. 
To raise money, the Grand Master sold several 
estates in Bohe^a belonging to the Order, to King 
Wenceslaus, who, under pretext of preventing the 
creditors of the Order from getting hold of them, 
seized their remaining property in that country. 
His example was followed by the King of Hungary, 
and both these princes complained to the Pope that 
the peace with Poland had been concluded without 
their consent. The debasement of the currency 
was another expedient of Von Plauen's, a measure 
which created great discontent in those sea-ports 
which had most to do with foreign trade, as the 
Prussian money had formerly been highly valued 
on account of its purity. Dantzic gave the most 
trouble, a town which had for many years displayed 
an insubordinate spirit, and since the last war had 
regarded the knights with feelings of hostility. 
Other causes for popular discontent were that the 
Grand Master had allowed the English merchants 
to have a storehouse for their cloth and linen, and 


that, to counteract the power of the citizens, the 
Order had introduced into the new town a number 
of artisans. About this time a certain Benedict 
Pfenning was commanded to superintend the co i ning 
of pfennings in the town. The indignation of the 
citizens manifested itself in a series of disorders, 
which ended in Pfenning's being thrown out of the 
window of the Council House, whereby he sustained 
serious injuries, and his being expelled from his seat 
in the municipality. The Comthur demanded that 
the councillors should be punished, but Von Plauen's 
financial difficulties induced him to attempt to con- 
ciliate the Dantzigers. He repaired to Dantzic in 
person, and persuaded the rival parties to meet in 
the church, where they shook hands in token of 
mutual reconciliation. The town council was, 
however, bent on becoming independent of the 

In 1411 the exigencies of the treasury compelled 
the Grand Master to levy an income tax, which 
Dantzic was determined to resist, if necessary, by 
force, and accordingly it appealed to the Hanseatic 
Confederation for assistance. The gates were bar- 
ricaded, and the commtmication between the town 
and the castle cut off, the Comthur appealing in 
vain to the loyalty of the citizens. Von Plauen 
now, finding all persuasion useless, resolved to resort 
to severer measures, and declared that Dantzic had 
forfeited its trading privileges, transferring them to 
Elbing and other towns* Ho also put an end to 


the communication between the town and the dif- 
ferent inland markets. The Grand Master before 
long, however, to the astonishment of all, totally 
changed his demeanour towards the Dantzigers, 
probably perceiving on reflection that he had gone 
too far. He expressed his readiness to overlook the 
past, should they be willing to tender obedience and 
to regard the Comthur as his representative. The 
unruly burghers made a show of submission, but 
stiU persisted in their resistance to the authority of 
the Comthur, whose proceedings they constantly 
opposed in the council chamber. 

A fresh quetrrel soon arose. The commander of 
Dirschau, in ignorance of the Grand Master^s 
recent actions, having, in pursuance of former 
orders, arrested certain merchants of the town who 
were traversing the district for the purpose of 
trade, the burgomaster and council, unknown to 
the Comthur, demanded their release. The com- 
mandant, not knowing what to do, forwarded the 
letter he had received to the Comthur, who called 
upon the town council for an explanation of this 
usurpation of authority. This they refused, and, in 
order further to show their contempt, they gave a 
public entertainment to one Palsart, who had for- 
merly occupied the post of Principal Administrator 
at the Court of the Grand Master at Marienburg, 
but who, on account of some delinquency, had been 
exiled. The Comthur now called upon the ring- 
leaders to appear before him in the citadel. 


Amongst these were Letzkau, Hecht, Gross, and 
Tidemann, two of whom were mayors. The coim- 
cillors used such threatening language that the 
Comthur, fearing an attempt on his life, and that 
an insurrection was imminent, had them arrested 
and searched, when it was found that they had 
armour under their clothes, and were also provided 
with weapons. The Comthur thereupon ordered 
the decapitation of Letzkau, Hecht, and Grross, and 
prepared to enforce his authority by means of the 
garrison. The Dantzigers now sent a deputation to 
the Grand Master, who was at Konigsberg. He 
at once seized the persons of the envoys, and at 
a general assembly of the bishops, officers of state, 
and the representatives of the towns, which was 
held at the following Easter, he condemned the 
Dantzigers to a heavy fine in money, the property 
of the ringleaders was confiscated, and the citizens 
were compelled to pay up the arrears of taxes and 
to submit to fresh contributions. 

The increased burden of taxation, however, was 
not sufficient to pay the arrears of the mercenaries, 
and the Grand Master accordingly hit upon an 
extraordinary plan of satisfying them by marrying 
their principal officers to wealthy widows and 
richly endowed maidens. The success of this 
ingenious expedient was short lived. The marriage 
portions were soon squandered in debauchery, and 
the claims on the treasury were renewed. 

Luckily for the Grand Master, the Poles, after 


having received the first instalment, did not release 
the prisoners, a circumstance which enabled Von 
Plauen to influence Pope John XXIII. and Charles, 
King of France, to intercede for the postponement 
of the payment of the remaining two instahnents. 
The French King, in a letter dated January 12, 
1412, informed the King of Poland that it was his 
wish, and that of several princes, that the peace 
should remain unbroken, and that he should not 
press for payment; and further, that should the 
Poles commence hostilities, France would assist the 
Order. The Grand Master, to be prepared for 
every emergency, again took into his pay a con- 
siderable number of mercenaries from Lubeck, 
Risbock, and Stralsimd to protect the borders, but, 
as he was imable to support the expense, these 
hirelings lived on the inhabitants until, having com- 
pletely beggared the frontier country, they left 
Prussia. Lieben, Ottelsburg, and Rhein, which 
they had garrisoned, were pledged to the Duke 
of Masovia. 

The claims made by the Bishop of Cujavia, for 
repayment of the losses which the bishopric had 
experienced during its occupation by the knights, 
were another cause of dispute between the Poles and 
the Order. Sigismund, who, we have before seen, 
had always allowed himself to be paid for the 
support he afforded the knights, — according to 
Prussian writers extorting as much as possible, — 
now again came forward in the capacity of arbi- 


trator. He first required that both parties should 
swear they woidd obey his decision. Jagello im- 
mediately agreed to this, but the Grand Master 
ordered his envoys not to consent tmtil they had 
seen it in writing. Sigismund then proceeded to 
demand the sum of 25,000 gulden, which he pre- 
tended was due to him from the Order. Von 
Plauen offered 10,000 gulden, which after some 
demur was accepted. To show beyond doubt that 
the Order was supported by all classes in Prussia, 
he despatched to Sigismund a deputation consisting 
of the following: — ^the Archbishop of Riga, John 
von Wallenrode, four Grand Commanders of the 
Order, Von Plauen, who helped to defend Marien- 
burg, two Canons of Ermland, two Prussian 
knights. Von Legendorf and Von Rulingen, and 
three burgomasters from each of the principal 
Prussian cities. 

To persuade his subjects that his sole object was 
peace, the Grand Master ordered prayers to be said 
in the grand chm*ch at Marienburg, and in other 
churches, day and night, from the departure of the 
embassy until its return. After considerable delay, 
the Emperor decided in favour of the Bishop of 
Cujavia, and on the 24th of August, 1412, the Order 
was called upon to fully indemnify him for all the 
losses he had sustained during the Polish war, and 
also to restore all properties which had formerly 
belonged to the bishoprici Sigismund further de- 
creed that, should Prussia or Poland refuse to 


acknowledge his judgment, each should pay the 
sum of 10,000 marks. 

In the yeax 1413 Jagello appears to have effected 
a compromise with the Order, with reference to the 
claims of the bishop, but at that very time the 
latter and Vitold were doing their utmost to in- 
crease their strength by forming an alliance with 
the Tartars and Russians. Vitold, from his charac- 
ter, was naturally regarded with far greater sus- 
picion than Jagello: It was in vain that the Grand 
Master despatched Greorge Eiglingen to the Roman 
Court, for the purpose of calling the attention of 
the Pope to these violations of the treaty, Vitold 
himself, not content with breaking the former 
treaty by entering into negotiations with the bar- 
barians, was also erecting a strong fortress at 
Wielun, and fortifying other places. 

The Grand Master, being convinced that he could 
not depend on the assistance of Germany in case of 
outbreak of hostilities with Poland, had no alterna- 
tive but to increase the taxation of his subjects. 
To raise fresh troops the actual wants of the 
treasury were 110,000 marks, but, owing to a bad 
harvest, the fresh taxes only realized 60,000. The 
Grand Master is accused of using a great part of 
this simi for the enrolment of fresh mercenaries, 
instead of paying outstanding debts, which to some 
extent was the case, but a large portion of the 
money went into the hands of Sigismund. 

When at last the Grand Master had paid the 


greater part of the indemnity^ he proceeded to 
negotiate for the release of all reinainiiig prisoners 
held by the Poles, and for the surrender of several 
forts. Sigismund despatched an envoy named 
Benedict Macra to treat with the representative of 
the Order, and settle cdl the remaining points of 
dispute. It would seem, however, that the envoy 
allowed himself to be bribed by Vitold, and decided 
every point in favour of the Poles. 

Ab a proof of the double dealing of JageUo and 
Vitold, it is stated that they now attempted to evade 
the stipulation that Samogitia after their death 
should belong to the Order, by pretending that the 
Polish Diet declared Samogitia to be the inheritance 
of the Princess Hedwig, and that they were bound 
to abide by its decision. 

The Grand Master now requested Sigismund to 
recall his envoy, and to appoint a fresh one. At 
the same time he called the attention of the princi- 
pal European Courts to the unjustifiable conduct of 
the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithu- 
ania. The latter now commenced preparations for 
war, and the Grand Master availed himself of this 
opportunity to invade Masovia and Pomerania, in 
return for the bad faith of the two dukes in desert- 
ing the cause of the knights ; and, notwithstanding 
that many of the mercenaries forsook his standard 
at Lauterberg, Von Plauen overran a large part of 
Masovia, and destroyed thirty villages. 

The Gh»nd Master had now not only to contend 


with external diflBculties, but with disunion and petty 
jealousies amongst the knights, Werner von Orseln 
had introduced the custom of bestowing the highest 
offices only on those of noble family. This rule 
Von Plauen utterly disregarded ; in fact, many of 
the most lucrative appointments had been vacant for 
some time, for the sake of economy and retrench- 
ment. Von Plauen's opponents also accused him of 
displaying great partiality towards North Germans, 
between whom and the South Germans there always 
existed great lealousy. The last and most serious 
ground of oomplamt L the protection he afforded 
to the different members of the reformed sects who 
had taken refuge in Prussia. The opponents of 
Von Plauen had for some time been attempting to 
thwart him in his foreign and domestic policy, but, 
having no leader of sufficient weight in the Chapter, 
they had to content themselves with secret intrigues. 
At last Kuchmeister von Sternberg, the Marshal, a 
very ambitious man, who fancied that he had not 
been sufficiently rewarded by the Grand Master, 
became the leader of the opposition. 

V()n Plauen, fully understanding that, unless he 
acted with determination, his power would be 
snatched from his grasp, expelled Kuchmeister from 
the Privy Council and placed him imder close 
arrest, at the same time summoning several of the 
principal officers before him on a certain day. Wo 
are also informed that a pilgrim, who attempted to 
frighten the Grand Master by relating a supema- 


tural apparition, foreshadowing Von Plauen'a future 
fate, was executed by his orders. In the mean time 
Kuchmeister and his fellow conspirators repeated 
their complaints to the Pope and the Emperor* The 
Pope declared that, if the Grand Master had really 
committed the acts attributed to him, he deserved 
to be deposed, but he would not take the responsi- 
bility. The senior knight. Otto von Lemstein, 
was deputed to communicate the Pope's opinion to 
the Grand Master, who was surrounded by a body 
of knights and forcibly deprived of the insignia of 
the Order, and conveyed as a prisoner to Tapiau, 

This violent proceeding was totally at variance 
with the fundamental law of the Order, and also in 
direct defiance of the privileges granted by the 
Emperor and the Pope to the Grand Master. In 
order to give their proceedings a certain appearance 
of legality, when the Chapter was assembled for 
the election of the new Grand Master, on the 6th of 
January, 1414, Von Plauen was called before the 
assembly, and the charges of which he was accused 
were read before him. In his defence he fully 
acknowledged that many of his acts had been 
arbitrary and at variance with the laws of the 
Order, but in extenuation he pleaded that the over- 
whelming difficulties which had surrounded him 
had forced him to act on his own responsibility. 
He undertook, should he be allowed to continue his 
office, to rule the country in accordance with the 
advice of the majority of his council. His opponents 


refused to accede to any compromise, but the choice 
of voluntary resignation was allowed him. On his 
accepting this he was made Comthur of Engelsburg, 
which was equivalent to confinement on parole. 
Most of his supporters were dismissed from their 
oflSces, but his cousin, the Comthur of Dantzic, was 
allowed to remain at his post, on account of the 
great influence he exercised, not only in Prussia, 
but also at many foreign Courts. Perhaps the 
gravest charge against Heinrich von Plauen was, 
that he had secretly misappropriated large sums of 
money, which he had handed over to his two cousins 
for the purpose of getting his family acknowledged 
as the hereditary Grand Masters of Prussia. The 
principal agents were stated to be the leaders of the 
different reformed sects who had taken refuge in 
Prussia. In a formal protest the two Von Plauens 
proved beyond doubt that they had never received 
moneys belonging to the Order for illegal purposes, 
and that all the charges brought against the Grand 
Master had been grossly exaggerated by his de- 

On the 9th of January the Chapter elected Her- 
mann Gans, Comthur of Elbing, as Stadtholder. 
Doubtless Von Plauen believed that, as he had saved 
the Order from destruction by his own personal 
talents, the knights would willingly submit to those 
arbitrary acts which the circumstances of the time 
rendered necessary, albeit unconstitutional. It is 
evident that Von Plauen possessed all the attri- 


bates necessary for a sovereign, a statesman, and a 
warrior, as the obstacles which he overcame amply 
show. Unfortunately for himself, he was the head 
of an aristocratic oligarchy, who were always eager 
to share the reins of government as soon as real 
danger passed away. That Heinrich von Plauen 
was not imbued with the intense spirit of Vaticanism 
of the age, appears from the fact that he allowed 
the followers of Wicliffe and Huss to settle in 
Prussia, and even to hold appointments ; whilst his 
nephew, William von Katzenellenbogen, was allowed 
to retain the post of Gomthur of Slochau after 
embracing the doctrines of the Reformers. Nor did 
he attempt to discourage monks from leaving their 
cloisters to contract matrimony. His apologists 
maintain that his religious policy was based on the 
fact that a large number of the fugitive Reformers 
belonged to the industrial classes, and, like the 
Flemings and French in England, created new 
sources of national wealth. 



A.D. 1414-1422. 

Miohael Kachmeister elected Qrand Master (1414) — Intrigaes of 
Jagello^-Yon Plaaen arrested and conveyed to Loohstadir— 
Invasion of Prussia by the Poles — Advance on^Elbing— -Siege 
of Culm raised by Yitold — Jagello and Kuchmeister agree to refer 
the Dispute to the Council of Constance (1415) — Oppressive 
Measures against the Hussites — Outbreak at Dantjdo-^Two 
Years' Truce with Poland (1417) — ^Economic Regulations — 
Decision of the Council of Constance in favour of the Order — 
Dispute referred to Sigismund (1420) — Sigismund's Decision 
-^^Prolongation of the Truce-^Unpopularity of Kuchmeister — 
His Resignation (1422) — General Condition of Prussia. 

After the resignation of Von Plauen, the Chapter 
elected Michael Kuchmeister von Sternberg, a man 
who had behaved most perfidiously to the late 
Grand Master, whose humiliation must have been 
still more embittered by such a choice. 

The first act of Kuchmeister was to despatch 
letters to the Pope, the Kings of Hungary, Bohemia, 
Poland, and the leading princes of Germany, in 
justification of the proceedings of the Order, and 


concluding by an assurance of his peaceful inten- 
tions as its ruler. 

Von Plauen's fall seems to have been regarded 
with satisfaction by Jagello, and the Kings of 
Bohemia and Hungary ; nor was the humiliation of 
the protector of the detested Reformers a spectacle 
at all displeasing to the Pope. 

We have before seen that Jagello had, on Von 
Plauen's accession to power^ offered to assist him in 
maintaining his authority over the knights, and he 
now secretly commenced negotiating with the sup- 
porters of the deposed Grand Master, for the purpose 
of restoring him to his former post, and thereby 
fomenting further discord in the Order. 

On this reaching the ears of Kuchmeister, he had 
Von Plauen at once conveyed to the fort of Bran- 
denburg, and thence to Lochstadt, where he was 
kept in close confinement. 

Sigismund, who had been constantly mediating 
between the Poles and the Order, so as to prevent 
the outbreak of war, now summoned Vitold and the 
Grand Master to appear before him at Of en, April 
10, 1414 ; but his endeavours had little result, as 
both parties were determined on war, and only 
wanted some pretext for commencing hostilities. 

The immediate cause of a rupture was the plimder 
and murder of several Polish merchants by soldiers 
belonging to the Order — a circumstance which was 
taken advantage of by the needy Polish magnates, 
who, having spent the proceeds of the campaign in 

VOL. u. q 


Prussia, called upon their king to demand immediate 
satisfaction, with a view to the replenishment of 
their coffers. Jagello, unable to stem the current 
of popular feeling, was forced to assemble a large 
army of Poles and Lithuanians for the invasion of 

Several encounters had already taken place on the 
frontiers, in which the knights were the aggressors. 
The Poles then advanced into Prussia, capturing 
the castles of Neidenburg and Allenstein, but, having 
lost their siege guns in the passage of the Vistula, 
they met with a check before Heilberg. Without 
waiting for a fresh supply of artillery, the Polish 
army pushed on towards Elbing, when their advance 
was suddenly arrested by the following stratagem : — 
Kuchmeister ordered the commandant of Strasburg 
— one of the most important fortresses — ^to forward 
him a letter describing the unprepared condition of 
the garrison to resist any attack on the part of the 
Poles. This letter was allowed to fall into the 
hands of Jagello, who immediately invested the 
place. After considerable delay the siege was com- 
menced, but could not be properly conducted, on 
account of the want of heavy artillery, and Jagello 
joined Vitold's army before Culm. The with- 
drawal of the Poles from the vicinity of Elbing 
enabled Kuchmeister to raise a fresh war contribu- 
tion and a large number of mercenaries, having 
recourse, like his predecessor, to the dangerous 
expedient of further debasing the coin, and raising 


money also on revenues due from Dantzlc and 

By these means he was enabled to invade and 
devastate Masovia and Cujavia, to recapture the 
castles of Neidenburg and AUenstein, and to occupy 
the Polish line of retreat. As before, the want of 
discipline among the Poles produced disease and 
discontent; and Vitold, who secretly aimed at 
undermining Jagello's popularity in Poland, sud- 
denly raised the siege of Culm, and retired to 
Lithuania. Happily for the King of Poland, the 
Pope now despatched his legate. Bishop John of 
Lausanne, to persuade the Grand Master and Jagello 
to lay their disputes before a Council of the Church 
about to assemble at Constance ; a suggestion which 
was adopted by both parties. 

This celebrated Council was convoked by the 
Emperor Sigismund, at the suggestion of Pope John 
XXIIL, to restore peace to the Church, which was 
then distracted by a great schism, no fewer than 
three Popes claiming at this time the homage of the 
Christian states. John XXIIL, who was elected 
Pope in 1410, had given great offence to Ladislaus, 
King of Naples, by whom he was driven from Bome, 
and Gregory and Benedict asserted their claims to 
the Papacy, whereupon the Emperor convoked a 
General Council at Constance. 

The fathers of the Council decided that all three 
Popes should renounce their claims, and elected 
Pope Martin V. 



Pope John signed the renunciation, but, being 
encouraged by Frederick of Austria, he retired from 
the city, and sought to resume his authority by 
ordering the Council to dissolve. The members, 
however, solemnly declared that a General Council 
once assembled was superior to the Pope, and con- 
tinued their deliberations, which were chiefly 
concerned with the following objects :— 

1. The union of the Catholic Church. 

2. The reformation of the clergy. 

3. The condemnation of heretical doctrines. 

4. The organization of a fresh crusade against 
the Turks. 

Through the legate's intervention a two years' 
truce was concluded, according to which all the 
conquered possessions were restored. Jagello, 
finding himself unable to pay his mercenaries, 
took refuge in Lithuania, leaving the hirelings to 
recoup themselves by ravaging the Polish pro- 
vinces. A large majority of the knights, and of 
the Prussians as well, who had been formerly 
opposed to Plauen, gradually foimd out the mistake 
they had made in supporting Kuchmeister, a man 
guided solely by personal ambition. All the prin- 
cipal places were occupied by his creatures, whose 
arbitrary measures and exactions soon extinguislied 
their former popularity. In the followers of Wicliffe 
and Huss the ex-Grand Master had found his 
staunchest supporters, and every day their ad- 
herents increased in number. In the town of 


Dantzicy Tidemann, relation of the former burgo- 
master, possessed so much influence that he was 
allowed to preach the Hussite doctrines openly. 
Von Plauen's adherents styled themselves the 
members of "the Golden Fleece,'' and their op- 
ponents assumed the cognomen of members of " the 
Golden Ship/' both parties designating each other 
by the most opprobrious nicknames. 

Just at the time when the Reform doctrines of 
Huss appeared to be rapidly gaining ground, the 
two principal leaders, Tidemann, whom we have 
just mentioned, and the Comthur of Dantzic, died 
suddenly, and their followers attributed their 
deaths to poison. 

Kuchmeister, fearing that the dissensions in the 
Order, and the discontent which prevailed in the 
towns, would bring about a revolution, summoned 
a Grand Chapter on the 1st of January, 1416, 
together with a Diet, at Braunsberg, to which were 
invited all the prelates, the principal nobles, and 
the representatives of different towns. The bishops 
and citizens called upon the Grand Master to' 
restore intact their former privileges, and proposed 
that a council of state should be nominated, con- 
sisting of the most learned and experienced men of 
the country, without whose concurrence no change 
in the laws should be made. The members were to 
be ten knights and two representatives from the 
towns of Elbing, Thorn, Dantzic, Konigsberg, and 
Culm. The Grand Master agreed to this proposal, 


and also promised to do his utmost to introduce 
a better description of coin into the country; but 
he soon discovered that he never would be able to 
make the Diet subservient to his rule unless he gained 
over the bishops and clergy, many of whom were 
adherents of Von Plauen. The decision which the 
Council of Constance had arrived at, as to the 
condemnation of all those who professed or taught 
the doctrines of the Eeformers, enabled the Grand 
Master to adopt coercive measures against his 
opponents. Thus he obtained the upper hand in 
the Diet, which, by his influence, established an 
inquisitorial council, having the right of inspecting 
and suppressing by purchase the writings of any 
one suspected of heretical doctrines. 

His siding with the priestly party naturally em- 
bittered the feeling, of hostility which the mechanics 
of the large towns entertained towards him. It 
would seem that the principal strength of the 
Reformers lay in the great number of artisans who 
joined them. Dantzic especially, being one of the 
largest employers of labour, contained many sup- 
porters of the new doctrines. This, coupled with 
the fact that certain citizens had always been ready 
to resist the authority of the Order, soon led to 
fresh disputes. The burgomaster, Gert von der 
Bek, who was a creature of Kuchmeister, had, 
through his political connexion with the chamber- 
lain of the Comthur of Dantzic, managed to get 
himself constantly nominated as President of the 


Municipal Council, and was thus enabled to carry- 
out the secret instructions of the Grand Master. 
His arbitrary measures at last produced a revolt 
amongst the lower orders, and he would without 
doubt have lost his life had he taken part in the 
procession of Corpus Christi, in the year 1416 ; but, 
fortunately for him, he effected his escape from the 
town. The enraged mob plundered the town-hall, 
the house of the burgomaster, and the Mint ; they 
also seized the keys of the city gates. The council 
took refuge in the castle, but the garrison appears 
to have been unable to subdue the revolt, and the 
Grand Master himself had to come to Dantzic to 
appease the discontent. 

The reluctance of Kuchmeister to put down the 
revolt with his mercenaries appears to be due to 
the fear that the Dantzigers were in communication 
with the Poles, and Lithuanians, whose agents, it was 
well known, had taken up residence in various parts 
of the country. Indeed, Vitold's captain of artillery 
had been arrested at Marienburg under very suspi- 
cious circumstances, on a charge, namely, of having 
attempted to gain over several of the guards, with 
the object of destroying the powder-magazines. 

Kuchmeister's efforts to bring about order were 
fruitless, and he returned to the Diet, which was 
then sitting at Mewe, to which place the represen- 
tatives of Dantzic followed liim. Here it was 
arranged that they should unite in quelling the 
tumult, but that only the instigators should be 


pTinished. Order having been now restored, 
eighteen persons were executed, forty were exiled, 
and those who had suffered from the revolt were 

To prevent the recurrence of similar disorders, all 
artisans and mechanics were ordered to bring to the 
town-hall any arms, offensive or defensive, which 
they might have in their possession, and it was 
enacted that every mechanic on attaining the age of 
manhood should take an oath of obedience to the 
orders of the town council. It was declared illegal 
for even four artisans to assemble together, and any 
person speaking disrespectfully of his superiors was 
liable to be arrested. 

During the two years' truce, both Vitold and 
Jagello had done their utmost to secure the favour 
of the Council of Constance. 

Paulus Wladimir, Rector of the Academy at 
Cracow, advocated the cause of the Poles, and the 
Cardinal Francesco of Florence together with two 
members of each of the four nations represented at 
the Council were appointed arbitrators in the 
matter. On the 5th of July, Wladimir gave in his 
charge against the Order. It is a noteworthy fact that 
on this very day John Huss and Jean Petit received 
their sentence of condemnation. A day or two 
afterwards Wladimir^s indictment, consisting of 
fifty charges, was entered in the minutes of the 
Council. In tliis document he sought to prove that 
neither the Pope nor the Emperor could authorize 


the Order to forcibly annex the property of the 
heathens in order to convert them. But, unfortu- 
nately for the learned doctor, in another part of the 
document he states that the Pope, haying the right 
of disposing of all countries, could command the 
heathens to embrace Christianity, and on refusal 
could punish them and call in the assistance of 
the temporal power ; and that the Order, by coun- 
tenancing the followers of Huss, had placed itself 
in the same category as the heathens. 

As a further proof of his ardour for the Catholic 
religion, Jagello, on the 28th of November, 1415, 
despatched a number of newly converted Samogi- 
tians to the Council, with the request that an 
increased number of missionaries should be sent to 
their country. This was agreed to on the 9th of 
February, 1416. 

Unfortunately for the Order, the Archbishop 
Johann of Riga, who, as a member of the body, 
they expected would have defended their cause, 
severely criticized their aggressive policy with 
respect to the temporal rights of the bishops. 
These attacks he reiterated with increased violence 
on retiring from the Order and becoming Bishop of 

It would seem that the members of the Council 
did not consider it advisable to request the opinion 
of their judicial advisers, either on Wladimir's in- 
dictment or on the defence of the Order by Justinus 
de Juvenacio, Ardecinas de Novaria, Henricus de 


Piro, and Caspar Schoenplug. So no final decision 
was arrived at, and Kuchmeister, fearing that Vitold 
and Jagello would receive the support of the Pope 
and the Emperor, concluded an offensive and de- 
fensive alliance with the ELhan of Tartary. Jagello, 
hearing of this, in an mterview with the Grand 
Master at Wielun declared he would not renew the 
truce unless the Grand Master broke off his con- 
nexion with the Tartars, and, to give greater force 
to his pretensions, he massed a considerable army 
on the frontiers of Prussia. The Grand Master was 
thus compelled to request the mediation of Sigis- 
mund and the King of France, and by their inter- 
Tcntion a truce L renewed for another two 
years between Poland and Prussia. This enabled 
Kuchmeister to direct his attention to the financial 
condition of the country, and to redeem his promise 
concerning the coinage, for in the year 1417 all the 
old issue was withdrawn and new money substituted. 
The export of coin to foreign countries was also 

Thejaffairs of the Order began now to brighten. 
There had been a plentiful harvest, and com was 
cheaper than it had been for many years. A long 
and severe winter had contributed to check choleraic 
disease, and to improve the sanitary condition of 
the towns. The Order had also enlisted the sup- 
port of various influential German nobles, who were 
adopted into it as half-brothers. Among these were 
the Margrave Frederick of Brandenburg, Count 


Henry of the Rhine, Duke Louis of Bricg, and the 
High Count of Hungary. 

As the termination of the truce approached, both 
the Order and the King of Poland did their utmost 
to obtain the support of the Coimcil of Constance, 
and Jagello had recourse to his former tactics. As 
a fresh proof of his attachment to the Catholic 
Church, he despatched to the Council several Greek 
bishops, who were instructed to declare that their 
sole reason for undertaking the journey was to per- 
sonally acknowledge the supremacy of the Pope, 
Unfortunately for the King of Poland, upon these 
worthy prelates being examined separately, they 
declared that the above was not correct, and that 
they had been forced by Jagello to undertake the 
journey, and had no desire whatever to belong to 
the Catholic Church. At last, the Council de- 
spatched two legates, Jacob, Bishop of Spoleto, and 
Ferdinand, Bishop of Lucca, to Poland to arrange 
a peace; but the concessions demanded from the 
Order made this impossible. The legates there- 
upon went to Thorn, where, after having carefully 
investigated the complaints of the Order against 
the Poles and Lithuanians, they gave their decision 
in favour of the knights, and exhorted the inhabi- 
tants of Ptnssia to assist them to the utmost, should 
hostilities recommence. 

In the year 1418 a most important event took 
place, namely, the marriage of Vitold, with a 
view to the succession of his line to the Polish 


crown on the death of Jagello, who was child- 

In 1419 the Order offered to cede to Poland 
several districts, and to pay the sum of 30,000 
gulden, in the event of a satisfactory peace being 
concluded. This proposal was rejected by the 
Poles, who, from the internal dissensions in Prussia, 
anticipated an early subjugation of the country. 

In dealing with the Pope and the Emperor, the 
great difficulty which Jagello had to surmount was 
the disproval of the damaging evidence given before 
the Papal legates at Thorn. As soon as Pope 
Martin V. declared that the result of the investiga- 
tion at Thorn would not be taken into account in 
any fresh deliberations, the King of Poland declared 
his readiness to accept the mediation of Sigismund. 
Wenceslaus having died about this time, the 
Emperor was sorely pressed by the Hussites in 
Bohemia, and his Sclavonic provinces were in con- 
stant rebellion.* 

The Emperor of Germany gladly accepted the 
office of mediator, as it had been a very important 
source of profit to him, and had enabled liim to pre- . 

* After the death of John Huss, the Bohemians revolted and 
placed themselves under the Hossite leader Zisca, a man of extra- 
ordinary powers, who took possession of Prague and defeated 
Sigismund in several battles* On the death of Zisca, the warfare 
between the Bohemian Hussites and the imperial troops continued 
until the convocation of the Council of Basle in 1431, where, after 
long conferences, certain concessions were granted to the Hussitesi 
and a general amnesty declared for all past offences* 


serve the balance of power between the countries in 
litigation. He therefore declared that he would 
give his decision at Michaelmas, 1419, but, by the 
request of both parties, it was postponed to the 
commencement of 1420, The decision is dated 
from Breslau, and the terms were as follows : — 

The treaty of Thorn was to remain intact ; the 
frontiers of Prussia were to remain as described in 
former treaties. This held good also as regards 
Masovia and Samogitia, which were declared to 
belong to Jagello and Vitold during their lifetime. 
Neither of the contracting parties was to erect any 
castle or building in the territory of the other. The 
Order had to level the castle and mill of Liibitsch, 
and to pay the King of Poland the sum of 25,000 
ducats in two instalments for the rebuilding of 
Slotoria. The King of Poland, on the other hand, 
was to restore Jesnick to the Order ; all prisoners 
on both sides were to be at once released ; and, 
should either party violate the treaty, the offender 
was to pay a fine of 10,000 marks. Finally, Sigis* 
mund retained the right of deciding in any future 
dispute. The envoys of the Grand Master imme- 
diately accepted the decision ; but it is stated that 
the Polish envoys were speechless with astonish- 
ment. They retired from the Emperor^s presence 
without making any verbal statement, and left the 
town in great haste, to communicate the untoward 
issue to Jagello and Vitold, who were at the time in 
Lithuania. The chagrin and indignation of the 


two princes were so great, that they remained up 
the whole night, it is said, in deliberation. Jagello 
despatched envoys to the Emperor, to remonstrate 
with him in the strongest terms on the way in which 
he had favoured the Order, and also to convey his 
absolute refusal to acquiesce in the decision. What 
must have chiefly embittered Jagello against Sigis- 
mund was the fact that the concessions which the 
Order had, on a former occasion, voluntarily offered 
to make were more favourable than the terms of 
the present decision. Although Jagello and Vitold 
had at this period greatly increased their strength, 
and their respective countries were in the most pros- 
perous condition, yet they well knew tliat, in case 
of war, the knights could count on considerable 
assistance from Germany and other parts of Europe. 
Jagello was therefore determined to wait for some 
plausible pretext for breaking the truce. This 
object was soon realized, for, the Order being unable 
to pay the third instalment of the indemnity in gold, 
on account of the scarcity of that metal, offered in 
lieu thereof the sum of 2,500 gulden in silver, 
which Jagello declined to accept, as being at vari- 
ance with the articles of the treaty. The two 
princes immediately began to increase their arma- 
ments, so as to be able to commence hostilities in 
the ensuing summer. Jagello also, in order to gain 
a powerful ally, gave his daughter Hedwig in mar- 
riage to Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg; at 
the same time, he consented to the truce for another 


I year, anticipating fresh internal troubles in Prussia. 

The sole effect of the moderation which the Grand 
Master had displayed towards the Hanseatic Con- 
federation was that the latter, in the year 1420, de« 
manded the total abolition of the pfundzoll (tonnage 
and poundage). Their application does not appear to 
have been answered, for we find in the following 
year the towns despatching envoys to the Grand 
Master on the subject, and their demeanour was so 
threatening that he agreed to abolish the tax ; for 
they not only demanded its repeal, but also that the 
money already received from this tax should be 
refunded. This latter demand the deputies did not 
press, on the total abolition being sanctioned. 

The repeal of this lucrative impost caused a great 
diminution in the revenue, which could not at that 
time be made up by any fresh taxes. As the truce 
was now drawing to its end. Pope Martin V, de- 
spatched a legate named Antonius Zeno to Prussia, 
to try to bring about its prolongation, failing which 
he was commissioned to make a thorough investiga- 
tion into the points at issue and report accordingly. 

The great difficulties which now beset the Grand 
Master, coupled with the want of union amongst the 
knights, led to his resignation; and, at his own 
request, in 1422, he was appointed Comthur of 
Dantzic, which post he held until his death, which 
took place two years afterwards. Kuchmeister was 
no doubt a man of considerable capacity, and had 
displayed no little talent as a military leader. From 


the moment, however, that he took the leadership of 
Plauen's opponents, he lost a considerable amount 
of respect amongst all classes in Prussia; and it 
may be briefly stated that the causes which led to 
his faU were those which brought him into power. 
During his rule the internal and external trade of 
Prussia had greatly decreased, and its flag was no 
longer respected on the seas. The protectionist 
policy of Kuchmeister had driven from its great 
commercial emporiums most of the foreign mer- 

The weakness of the Order now gave the people 
a voice in the government of the country; but, 
unfortimately for themselves, they had forced the 
Grand Master to grant them concessions which were 
incompatible with their own welfare. 

Turbulent factions existed in all the largo towns, 
and the citizens already displayed a spirit of 
insubordination, which culminated in a general 
revolt of the large towns and the formation of a 
confederation in opposition to the authority of the 
Grand Master. 



▲.D. 1422-1441. 

Election of Yon Rusdorf — ^Release and Death of Yon Planen — 
Jagello inyades Prassia — Capture of Culm — Peace with 
Poland — Opposition of the Deutschmaster — Concessions to 
English Merchants — ^Vitold seeks to be crowned King of 
Lithuania — ^The Coronation prevented by Jagello — Yitold's 
Death (1430)— Formation of the '' Landesrath "— High Court 
of Justice at Elbing— Poll-Tax Imposed (1433)— Truce of 
Lensitz— Death of Jagello (1434)— Peace of Brzesc (1436)— 
Alliance with the Hansa — Disputes with the Deutschmaster — 
Defection of the Dantzigers — Formation of the " Bund " or 
" League *' by the Chief Towns of Prussia — Early Career of 
Hans Ton Baysen — Meeting of the Grand Master with the two 
Masters at Dantzic (1440)— Death of Yon Busdorf (1441). 

The resignation of Kuchmeister increased the con- 
fusion and dissensions among the knights. For some 
time it was found impossible to elect a Grand 
Master, on account of the brotherhood being split 
up into so many different factions, each of which 
desired its own particular leader to be elected. At 
last it was agreed that all the claimants to the office 
should withdraw, and by this device Paul Bellinger 
YOL. u. h 


von Rusdorf , of the province of Camiola, was elected 
Grand Master on the 10th of March, 1422. Some 
historians say that he was chosen nnanimously 
immediately on the resignation of Kuchmeister. 

He had had a varied and extensive experience in 
the discharge of official duties connected with the 
Order, in the troublous times of the last two Grand 
Masters, and was Trapierer at the time of his 

To the credit of the new Grand Master, it must 
be stated that his first efforts were to assuage the 
jealousies amongst the knights by friendly mediation, 
and he acted similarly in the case of the towns. 
He released Von Plauen from close confinement in 
Lochstadt, and allowed him a certain amoimt of 
freedom ; and on the death of the latter, six months 
afterwards, he ordered his interment in the vault of 
the Grand Masters at Marienburg with the usual 

Sigismund at this time, alarmed at the rapidly 
increasing power of Poland and Lithuania, assured 
the new Grand Master of his friendly disposition, 
and the Papal legate then in Prussia also ex- 
pressed himself ready to do his best to cement 
the good feeling between the Pope and the Order. 
Unfortunately the Margrave of Brandenburg, at 
the instigation of Jagello, now came forward as a 
claimant to the Neumark, a proof that this province 
was to be the Margrave's reward, should he and 
Jagello be successful against Prussia. On the arrival 


of the Papal legate in Poland, Jagello lost no oppor- 
tunity of displaying his respect to the Emperor and 
the Pope, as a mask for his intrigues with the 
Hussites in Bohemia. He secretly despatched 
Sigismund Koribut, the brother of Vitold, to 
Bohemia to assume the command of the Hussites, 
and induce the Bohemians to elect him as king of 
their country. The Pope, aware of Jagello's 
machinations, wrote to the Grand Master on the 
28th of April, 1422, urging him to send immediate 
assistance to Sigismund, and promising his pro- 
tection should Jagello and the Margrave of 
Brandenburg attack Prussia. 

The Grand Master, however, had not sufficient 
troops at his command at this time to despatch to 
Bohemia. He therefore ordered special prayers to 
be read and sermons to be preached in the churches, 
and that collections should be made to assist Sigis- 
mund in his contests with the Hussites. In return, 
Sigismund ordered his Hungarian and Silesian 
troops to ravage the frontiers of Poland. He also 
compelled the Margrave of Brandenburg to allow the 
free passage through his territory of the auxiliaries 
who were on the way to Prussia, and had been raised 
at the Emperor's request by the diflTerent German 
princes. Sigismund also called upon the Hanseatic 
Confederation and the imperial towns to send sup- 
plies in money to the Order. 

On the 29th of July the Polish army, numbering 
100,000 men, crossed the Prussian frontier and 

h 2 


adyanced on Thorn, which was insufficiently de- 
fended. The Grand Master, knowing the numerical 
superiority of the enemy, determined to remain on 
the defensive, and, if possible, to prevent the Poles 
advancing on the town with their entire army. On 
the enemy's approach, the Marshal of the Order be- 
came convinced that he was not sufficiently strong 
to oppose its advance, and retired to defend the 
passage of the Drewenz, a manoeuvre in Vhich he 
was only partly successful. Before e:Secting the 
passage of the Drewenz, Jagello had attempted to 
capture L5bau, but without effect. 

The Grand Master now despatched reinforce- 
ments to those garrisons which were in want of 
troops, and contented himself for the time with 
sending a force of 8,000 men to invade and devas- 
tate Poland ; making at the same time dispositions 
for cutting off the retreat of the Poles should they 
decide upon returning. Jagello, finding that he 
could not bring on an engagement with the Marshal, 
now divided his army for the investment of the 
different strongholds. He burnt Biesenburg and 
captured Gt)lub, but was repulsed with considerable 
loss in attempting to storm Schonsee. The Poles 
also appear to have been generally successful in 
various small encounters, and ravaged all the dis- 
tricts through which they passed. Jagello at- 
empted to follow up his success by the capture of 
Thorn, but only succeeded in destroying its suburbs 
by fire. After this he advanced on Culm, which, 



being improperly garrisoned, after a short resist- 
ance fell into his hands. Although Eusdorf had 
at this time receiyed reinforcemenjfcs under Dietrich, 
Archbishop of Cologne, the Count Palatine Louis, 
and Henry, Duke of Bavaria, still the exhausted 
condition of the treasury, the dissatisfaction existing 
amongst many influential members of the Order, 
and the utter want of means to pay the mercen- 
aries, appear to have induced him to treat for 
peace, and a treaty was concluded, in many respects 
most humiliating, of which the following were the 
chief articles: — L That all the ecclesiastical 
domains in Prussia should remain as heretofore. 
2. That the district of Nessau and the villages of 
Orlou, Munzinou, and Neuwiese should be ceded to 
Poland, the destruction of the castle of Nessau 
being, however, permitted before handing over the 
district. 3. That a frontier line should be drawn 
from the centre of the Vistula, at its junction with 
the Drewenz, to the old frontiers of Pomerania and 
Bromberg, and that all the islands within these 
limits should belong to Poland. The same held 
good with regard to duties. The proceeds of the 
revenue arising from the ferry over the Vistula at 
Thorn were to be equally divided between the Poles 
and the Order. A commission was to assemble for 
the purpose of deciding the frontiers of Poland and 
Pomerania, also of Cuhn, the Neumark, and Miche- 
lau; and Masovia was to retain its former boun- 
daries. Samogitia and Sadauen were to belong to 


the King of Poland and to the Grand Duchy of 
Lithuania. At the same time the frontiers of 
lieflandy Russia, • Lithuania, and Samogitia were 
defined. The intercourse between the two countries 
was to remain on the same footing as before the 
war, and all fugitive criminals were to be surren- 
dered to the proper authorities. 

It was further stipulated that all documents con- 
cerning treaties, privileges, or territory ceded to 
Poland by the Order, together with the original 
papers concerning the peace at Thorn, and the 
imperial decisions given at Ofen and Breslau, as 
well as the papers received from Jagello relating to 
Samogitia, Sudauen, and Liefland, should be handed 
over to the King of Poland. All privileges and 
rights which the knights possessed at variance with 
the conditions of this treaty were henceforth to be 
annulled. In consideration of these great conces- 
sions, the possession of Pomerania, Culm, and 
Michelau was reguaranteed to the Order. No 
demands for indemnity were to be made on account 
of the expenses incurred by the contracting parties. 
For the prevention of further hostilities it was 
publicly proclaimed that, should either government 
declare war, the subjects of the one which took the 
initiative had the right to decline to take part in 
it. During the negotiations it would seem that the 
Grand Master was aware of the fact that, through 
the influence of the Emperor and the Pope, a con- 
siderable number of troops were advancing from 


Germany to his assistance, and that he could count 
on further aid if necessary. He, however, con- 
sidered it advisable to send messengers to arrest 
the advance of the reinforcements. 

In these transactions the Grand Master appears 
to have shown considerable want of determination 
and foresight. He knew that a large number of 
the citizens of the unruly towns had not forgotten 
the extravagant privileges which the K^ng of 
Poland had formerly guaranteed them. He must 
have been aware that, by declaring himself the 
opponent of the Hussites, and champion of the 
orthodox faith, the Emperor and the general mass 
of Catholics would support him — above all, against 
Vitold and Jagello, who, from their Hussite pro- 
clivities and alliance with the Tartars, were looked 
upon as worse than heathens. The Deutschmaster, 
Eberhard von Sohnsheim, was the first to denounce 
this unfortimate peace. Fearing that certain Ger- 
man domains which belonged to the Order would 
be either pledged or sold by ihe Grand Master, 
to cover the wants of the treasury, he entered into 
an arrangement with the Duke of Bavaria for the 
latter to occupy them. Many Prussians declared 
that this treaty was not vaUd unless it received the 
sanction of the Emperor Sigismund, on account of 
the imderstanding come to with that sovereign that 
he should act as mediator. The Poles therefore 
remained under arms, and the Grand Master was 
obliged to do the same* 


Eventually, in the year 1423, on Jagello pro- 
mising to renounce his alliance with the Hussites, 
Sigismund sanctioned the treaty, and the Order 
forthwith carried out their engagements. Jagello, 
who had during the time of the negotiations become 
reconciled with the Pope, and had received from 
him absolution for all former offences, now aban- 
doned the Hussites to the fury of their opponents. 
This line of policy was, of course, far from meeting 
with the approval of Vitold, who had hoped to get 
his brother elected King of Bohemia ; and he conse- 
quently now seems to have become a strong sup- 
porter of the Order. On the other hand, the Pope 
openly entertained the complaints which the unruly 
subjects of the Grand Master made against the 

It is related that in 1426 a certain nobleman 
from Pomesania, whose property had been con- 
fiscated by the Order, brought his case under the 
notice of the Holy See, and the Abbot of Stolpe 
was commanded to investigate the matter. If it 
turned out that the Grand Master was in the wrong, 
he was to be ordered to reverse his decision, on 
pain of excommunication. 

Another di£Glculty now sprang up. The Arch- 
bishop of Riga, Hennig Scharf enberg, who had been 
appointed to the see against the wish of the Grand 
Master, summoned a provincial synod, for the pur- 
pose of making ecclesiastical changes, and more 
especially to give the bishops greater independence. 


The Prussian prelates who were smnmoned refused 
to be present, and were supported by the Grand 
Master, who, under yarious pretexts, succeeded in 
inducing the archbishop not to insist on their 

Turning to the internal administration of the 
Grand Master, we find him granting to all the 
conunercial ports exclusive management of their 
shipping affairs and commercial transactions. Any 
vessels which were compelled to seek refuge in 
Prussian ports, through stress of weather or other 
causes, were to be supplied for three days with 
bread and fuel. During this period the vessels or 
boats had to comply with all the rules of the Order. 
Again, Prussian subjects were strictly forbidden to 
appeal to any foreign potentate — a measure directed 
against the interference of the Pope, the Emperor, 
and the Hanseatic Confederacy in the affairs of the 
Order. The constant concessions which the Grand 
Master was granting to the towns resulted in their 
demanding that the English traders should no 
longer have the right of exportation from Prussia, 
a request having for its object a direct violation of 
the former international treaty concluded with 

The Hanseatic towns, which at this time were 
engaged in open hostilities with the Danes, would 
seem to have entered into an arrangement with the 
merchants of Dantzic, whose vessels were constantly 
captured by Danish cruisers, to make a joint attack 


on the Danish fleet, which then occupied the Sound 
to prevent the passage of the Hanseatic vessels. It 
was arranged that a number of ships belonging to 
Lubeck and Hamburg should attempt to pass the 
Sound, in conjunction with a convoy from Dantzic, 
and that the said convoy should be protected by 
several armed vessels. The Lubeckers were the 
first to arrive at the spot appointed for the junction 
of the two fleets. Finding the Prussian vessels did 
not appear, they attempted the passage of the 
Sound, but were driven back by the Danes with loss. 
The Prussian fleet now arrived, and, seeing that 
they were no match for their antagonists, returned 
to Dantzic. The King of Denmark, however, 
agreed that his cruisers should not in future molest 
the flag of Prussia, and that he would give every 
encouragement for the promotion of a friendly inter- 
course between the two countries. 

In the years 1427-28 Prussia suffered greatly 
from destructive inundations, through the Vistula 
and Nogat having overflowed their banks; the 
harvest was thus totally destroyed, and a great 
scarcity of provisions ensued. This was followed 
by a plague, and it has been calculated that nearly 
100,000 people died, either from starvation or from 

We have seen that Vitold was greatly dLspleased 
with Jagello for having renounced the cause of his 
brother in Bohemia. The Order had availed them- 
selves of this jealousy to renew their offers of 


acknowledging him King of Lithuania, with the 
promise that they would induce Sigismund to 
obtain the consent of the King of Poland. Jagello, 
with his usual hypocrisy, informed Vitold that he 
had no objection to his assuming the crown, if the 
Polish and Lithuanian nobles gave their consent; 
and he shortly after, in an interview with Sigis- 
mimd, reiterated the statement. At the meeting of 
the Polish and Lithuanian representatives, over 
which Vitold presided, the Poles would not hear of 
the project. Jagello now despatched envoys to 
Kaschau, in Hungary, where Sigismund then was, 
to inform him that, as the nobles could come to 
no decision, he did not consider it advisable for the 
coronation to take place. Sigismund on his part 
expressed his determination not to break faith with 
Vitold, whereupon Jagello, to gain over the Order, 
oflFered to renounce for ever any claims he might 
have on the Neimiark or Driesen, overtures which 
were at once accepted, though he postponed ratify- 
ing the treaty for four weeks. 

Vitold, finding that he could not obtain the sanc- 
tion of his coronation by Jagello, despatched to 
him an ultimatum, demanding whether Jagello 
intended keeping his plighted word, to which the 
King replied that he cTould not give any definite 
answer until the question had been decided by the 
Polish Diet. 

The envoys thereupon asked the King wlicther 
he considered Vitold a vassal of the Crown of Poland, 


to which he replied in the affiimatiye. Jagello^ 
with a view of hampering Sigismund, now com- 
menced intriguing with the Turks to induce them 
to break the three years' truce concluded with the 

His emissaries also secretly instigated the Hussites 
to invade the Neumark and Prussia in the ensuing 
year. Sigismund, fearing that this would force the 
Order to break with him, on the 17th of September 
solemnly surrendered to it the unconditional pro- 
prietorship of the Neumark, withdrawing at the 
same time the* power of repurchase. 

In return for this, the Grand Master sent a con- 
tingent of knights to the Danube, for the purpose of 
superintending the erection of several forts to pro- 
tect the country from the Turks. This contingent 
left Prussia in May, 1429, imder the command of a 
knight named Klaus von Redwitz, a confidential 
adviser of the Emperor, for the purpose of estab- 
lishing a regular military frontier colony, and to 
take the post of representative of the Order in 

During these various negotiations the export 
trade of Prussia was in a most languishing condi- 
tion, due principally to the war which was then 
raging between Denmark and the Hanseatic towns, 
in spite of the mediation of the Grand Master. 
Added to this, the numbers and audacity of the 
pirates had greatly increased. 

After Jagello's answer to Vitold's ultimatum con- 


ceming his coronation, the latter had arranged 
to receive the crown from the Emperor's hand. 
The King of Poland, finding that Vitold was deter- 
mined to have himself crowned, posted emissaries 
on the frontiers to prevent the passage of the 
envoys who were conveying the crown from Sigis- 
mmid, and the Archbishop of Madgeburg, who was 
to perform the ceremony, was also prevented from 
crossing the frontier. In the month of September 
the Grand Master and his chief officers arrived at 
Wilna to assist at the coronation, and were enter- 
tained with great splendour. On a sudden, Vitold 
was informed that JageUo was on his way to Wilna 
to be present at the ceremony. On the Polish 
King's arrival, a conference was held between him- 
self, Vitold, and the Grand Master, together with 
their principal advisers. 

Vitold here demanded that he should be made 
arbitrator between the King of Poland and the 
King of the Bomans, and that he should also act in 
a similar capacity between the former and the 
Order ; likewise that JageUo should give his assent 
to the coronation. 

Jagello consented to the first proposition, pro- 
vided Sigismimd gave in his adhesion. Regarding 
the other two demands, he repeated his former 
declaration, that he could give no answer without 
first consulting the Polish Diet. 

The crown not arriving, the Grand Master, 
Jagello, and the rest of the guests left Wilna. The 


rage of Vitold at this failure to achieve his object 
was unbounded. Ho wrote to Sigismund, describ- 
ing, in the bitterest terms, the postponement of his 
coronation through the intrigues of Jagello, and 
requesting the Emperor to send the crown to 
Lithuania secretly. Sigismund, indignant at the 
insulting conduct of the Polish King, ordered the 
assembling of a considerable force to convey the 
crown to Wilna. 

Vitold then, knowing that this wotJd immediately 
lead to a rupture between Poland and Lithuania, 
requested the Emperor not to take further action 
until he had again tried to arrange the matter by 
friendly means. 

Vitold had accompanied Jagello for this purpose 
as far as Troky ; but here he fell sick, and, after an 
illness of fourteen days, expired, at the age of 
eighty, on the 27th of October, 1430. Before his 
death he became reconciled to Jagello, and resigned 
Lithuania to the governorship of his widow 
Juliana. Thus died, unfortunately for the Order 
without issue, one of the ablest men and most 
unscrupulous intriguers of his time. That he was 
a great statesman and warrior, his most bitter 
enemies, the Poles, do not deny. As regards deter- 
mination of character he was far superior to his 
cousin Jagello, and fully equal to him in duplicity. 
The Emperor Sigismund regarded him as a means 
by which the balance of power between the Order 
and Poland might be maintained, and it was on this 


account that he had undertaken to acknowledge him 
as king. The prevailing trait of Vitold's charac- 
ter was ambition, and throughout all his rule he 
never lost sight of the one great object of his life 
— ^to become King of Poland, Strange as it may- 
seem, it was with this aim in view that he so often 
assisted his cousin Jagello in his wars with the 
Order. When at last, on the birth of an heir to 
the Polish crown, Vitold lost all hope of succeeding, 
he allied himself with the Order and the Emperor 

In the year 1430 the citizens of Prussia obtained 
a fresh increase of authority in the affairs of govern- 
ment, by the creation of a chamber called the 
" Landesrath," composed of the Grand Master and 
six officers of the Order, six prelates, six burgesses, 
and six members from the counlxy districts. This 
chamber was to assemble once a year, and no law 
could be enacted or amended, no fresh taxes could 
be levied, without its sanction. As regards taxation, 
however, the Grand Master retained for himself 
and the Order all those privileges which had been 
sanctioned by the Emperor and the Pope. But 
these reforms were in advance of the age, and 
hence failed to accomplish their object. 

Oi^ Vitold's death there were four aspirants to 
the Grand Duchy of Lithuania : — Prince Sigismimd, 
Vitold's brother ; Alexander von Kiew ; Sigismund 
Koribut; and Swidrigail, cousin to Vitold, and 
Jagello's brother. 


Swidrigail lost no time in seizing the reins of 
government without consulting JageUo, who himself 
claimed the duchy as a bequest from Vitold. The 
Grand Duke was fully supported by the Grand 
Master, the result of which was that war was 
abruptly declared between Jagello and the Order. 
No sooner did the Grand Master propose that a 
considerable force should be sent to assist Swidri- 
gail than the Prussians raised all kinds of objections. 
Nevertheless the Grand Master, as soon as he had 
collected a sufficient force, advanced at the head of 
two armies into Poland; but Jagello, who had 
profited by the delay to induce Swidrigail to con- 
clude a two years' peace, was now able to direct his 
entire force against the knights, who were com- 
pelled to retire, and near Tauchel they were 
attacked by the Poles and suffered some loss. 
Jagello, profiting by this withdrawal of the invading 
army from his territory, excited a revolution against 
Swidrigail, who was suddenly attacked and defeated 
by a body of his great nobles under the leadership 
of Sigismund, Vitold's brother, at Oschmjana, in 
August, 1432, he himself escaping with great diffi- 
culty to a strong castle on the frontier of Liefland. 
Sigismund was then proclaimed Grand Duke of 
Lithuania, a willing instrument of Jagello. 

In 1431 the Hussites, having concluded an alliance 
with Jagello, under the command of their leader 
Czapko, invaded the Neumark, which they ravaged 
and devastated. This movement was followed by 



the advance of a large Polish army into Pomerellen. 
In attempting to besiege Tauchel the Poles suflfered 
a severe check, being diiven, by a well-directed 
artillery fire, from the suburbs, and finally from 
their fortified camp. The Poles now advanced 
towards the fortress of Konitz, and, having effected 
a junction with the Bohemians, commenced the 
siege of that important place. Mining operations 
having failed, in an attempt to scale the walls they 
were repulsed witli severe loss, and, their supply 
of provisions being cut off, they were driven to a 
disastrous retreat. 

After this defeat the Poles and Bohemians plun- 
dered the cloister of Pelplin, and tlien advanced on 
Dirschau, whose wealth liad at this time greatly 
increased. Here, having plundered and burned the 
suburbs, they retired as usual ; unfortunately, how- 
ever, for tlie inhabitants, the wind blew the flames 
towards the town and castle, which in a very short 
time caught fire ; the Poles and Bohemians returned, 
when a terrible scene ensued ; the greater part of 
the population were either burned to death, killed, 
or drowned in attempting to cross the Vistula. 
Upwards of 10,000 human beings are said to have 
lost their lives. The Bohemians burned alive all 
those Hussites who had joined the Order. 

The Bohemian army now besieged Dantzic, which 
was weakly garrisoned. About 800 seamen, to 
avenge the terrible fate of some comrades who had 
been burned alive, took up arms, and, in conjunction 

VOL. II. i 


with 2,000 citizens, oflFered their services to the 
Comthur. The commandant, fearing that the nume- 
rical superiority of the Bohemians would eventually 
secure to tliem the possession of the town, began 
negotiations, and, had it not been for the gallant 
bravery of eight citizens, Dantzic would probably 
have surrendered. These sturdy burghers suddenly, 
in the dead of flight, salUed from the gates and 
seized an entrenchment, which they successfully 
held during the following day, killing upwards of 
200 of their enemies. In their attempt to return to 
the town the next night they were surrounded, 
and fell, fighting bravely. This created such 
an impression on the Poles, coupled with the know- 
ledge that they would have to encounter the fierce 
resistance of the sailors of Dantzic, that they con- 
tented themselves with proceeding to the sea-shore, 
where they filled several bottles with salt water, 
and retraced their steps to Bohemia, capturing as 
they retired the castle of Jesnitz, and putting the 
garrison to the sword, with the exception of some 
knights, whom they detained for ransom. 

The Grand Master Von Rusdorf, finding that 
Swidrigail, notwithstanding his recent check, still 
possessed a considerable party in Lithuania, which 
would in all probability greatly increase as soon as 
the inliabitants felt the pressure of the Polish yoke, 
called together the Great Diet at Marienburg to ask 
their consent to a second campaign and for the 
necessary funds. The representatives both of town 


and country at first strongly opposed Von Rusdorf , 
but at a second conclave a reluctant consent was 
wrung from the Diet, whicli stipulated, however, 
that the expense should be borne by the Order and 
their Lithuanian allies. 

On the 25th of January, 1432, the Diet decided 
that the Order should raise 2,000 pikemen at its 
own cost, while the country would raise and sup- 
port 1,000 for three months. The bishoprics and 
domains belonging to the Order had also to con- 
tribute their quota for the defence of the country. 
To lessen the repugnance of the Diet to the com- 
mencement of hostilities, the Grand Master proposed 
the formation of a privy council, composed of 
representatives of the Diet, for the purpose of 
transacting such business during the war as could 
not be delayed. The nobility, having in view the 
lion^s share of the plunder, accordingly selected 
those of their party who they knew would carry 
out their object. The deputies from the towns, 
however, consented to the formation of this coimcil 
only on certain conditions. They were willing to 
leave to its decision questions of war or peace 
and the conclusion of treaties, but they required 
that no act of the council should be valid without 
the unanimous vote of the members. The council 
were to communicate the result of the vote to the 
Diet, without the consent of which body no tax, 
duty, or impost could be levied. 

Besides the establishment of the privy council. 

i 2 


the Diet further enacted that no one, even if accused 
of treachery or high treason, could be executed 
without a regular trial. Any person who believed 
that his privileges had been in any way interfered 
with by a superior, might api)ear before a court to 
be held annually at Elbing, composed of the Grand 
Master, his principal officers, and prelates, who were 
bomid to give judgment in accordance with the 
laws of the country. 

In 1433 the Grand Master requested the Diet to 
sanction a liquor tax for two years, offering to make 
great concessions to the towns. They nevertheless 
refused to pass the law, but granted a poll tax. Every 
man of position had to pay a mark, and persons of 
inferior rank a smaller sum, no one being exempted 
except priests, monks, pastors, minors, and women. 
This tax appears to have been a failure. 

All these concessions naturally greatly weakened 
the power of the Order, yet the old feeling of unity 
amongst its members and dependents was revived 
by the rise of the citizen class. The gradually 
increasing weakness of the personal authority of 
the Grand Master in Prussia was soon taken advan- 
tage of by foreigners. The first loss the Order 
experienced was the seizure of all their estates in 
Eoumania by a certain Dispotto. The King of 
Aragon also applied to the Pope to be allowed to 
lay violent hands on the property of the brother- 
hood in liis dominions; and had it not been for 
the intestine struggles raging in Lithuania, and the 


incursions of the Tartars and Wallacliians, the 
Order would probably have been stripped of all 
their foreign possessions, and Prussia reduced to a 
fief of Poland. 

The Poles, wlio desired peace on account of their 
own troubles, now made overtures to the Order, 
and some of the deputies at the Council of Basle 
offered to mediate; but these advances were not 
accepted, as the prospects of the Order commenced 
to brighten. Louis, Duke of Silesia, was at that 
time devastating the adjoining Polish territory; 
several German nobles had promised to reinforce 
the knights, and many Polish magnates in Masovia 
had offered to swear allegiance to the Grand Master. 
Furthermore, Sigismund felt great difficulty in 
holding his own in Lithuania against Swidi'igail 
and his followers ; whilst the Tartars, imder Phetko 
von Ostrog, were ravaging Podolia. 

At length, however, after considerable difficulty, a 
twelve years' truce was concluded at Lensitz be- 
tween the Poles and the Order. Jagello, who was 
very advanced in years, now despatched Bishop 
Stigneus to Basle to crave the Pope's forgiveness 
for all shortcomings ; but the prelate, before leaving, 
in the presence of the entire Court, reproved the 
King severely for the sad condition to which he had 
reduced the countr}^ The old King at first wept, 
then showed signs of irritation at the boldness of 
the bishop, but finding little sjrmpathy from those 
present, he left the audience-chamber with loud 


cries and lamentations. During the short period 
which elapsed between this scene and his death, 
which took place on the 13th of May, 1434, at 
Grodeck, Jagello did his utmost to repair the mis- 
chief he had caused Poland by his ambitious and 
unscrupulous policy. He was succeeded by his son 
Wladislaus II. 

The Emperor Sigismund now declared the twelve 
years' truce null and void, as he had not been con- 
sulted, and called upon the knights to invade Poland. 
The Grand Master was however unable, from the 
strong opposition^^he met with, to raise the necessary 
funds, and reluctantly confirmed the peace with 
the Poles at Brzesc, on the 31st of December, 1436. 
By the terms of this treaty it was agreed that the 
past should be forgotten, that those priests who had 
been expelled from their cures should be allowed to 
return, and their sequestrated stipends should be 
repaid to them. The alliance of the knights with 
Swidrigail was to be broken off. The Order under- 
took not to support any Lithuanian or Polish noble 
to the detriment of his sovereign liege and master, 
and to acknowledge no other prince as Grand Duke 
of Lithuania than the one selected by the King of 
Poland, who solemnly undertook not to countenance 
the Pope, the Emperor of Germany, or any other 
potentate in any proceeding contrary to the inte- 
rests of the Order. It was settled that the frontiers 
of Pomerellen should bo the same as those defined 
by Casimir and the Grand Master Heinrich Dusmer. 


The fortress Jesnitz was to remain in the hands of the 
Order, but Nessau was ceded for ever to the Poles. 
To settle the oft-disputed question of the frontiers of 
the Neumark, the two contracting i)arties were each 
to select three commissioners to define them. Should 
these not agree, the King of Poland and the Grand 
Master were to draw lots, and whoever was success- 
ful should nominate six of his opponent's subjects, 
whose decision as to the boundary line was to be 
final. The lot falling to the King of Poland, he 
selected Francis, Bishop of Ermland, and five 
others, but he at the same time insisted on their 
determining that the rivers Birzwennick and Notdlss 
should constitute the boundaries. Samogitia and 
Sudauen were thus guaranteed to Poland for ever. 
It was further agreed that all political fugitives and 
criminals should be at once delivered up to their 
own sovereign. No one was to be allowed to inter- 
fere with the trade or the sojourn of merchants in 
the countries of the contracting parties. It was 
also mutually agreed that no alien hostile force 
should be permitted to pass through the territories 
of either party. The ferries at Slotoria, Soletz, and 
Fordau to be free to both nations. All mortgages 
which the Order had on the districts ceded to the 
Poles were to become null and void ; all privileges 
and former treaties which were at variance with 
this treaty were to be declared no longer in force. 
All prisoners to be released, with the exception of 
those captured in Lithuania after the conclusion of 


peace; deserters to return to their homes or re- 
nounce all right to their property. Tlie Grand 
Master was required to grant an amnesty to those 
of his subjects who had gone over to the Poles, but 
such seceders from the authority of the Order were 
commanded to leave the Polish territory and not 
allowed to return. The most important condition 
of this treaty appears to have been that foreign 
produce could not be seized by either of the con- 
tracting parties, and that those who conveyed it 
were held responsible for any unlawful act. The 
King of Poland was to select two Comthurs, and the 
Order two Waiwoden or governors of districts, 
to assemble yearly, alternately at Nessau and Thorn, 
for the purpose of investigating and settling all dis- 
putes. The Order imdertook to pay the King of 
Poland the sum of 9,500 Hungarian gulden, and 
should the Deutschmaster decline to affix liis signa- 
ture to this treaty, the Order should consider them- 
selves free from any obligations towards him mitil 
he had done so. On the election of a new king or 
Grand Master this treaty was to be renewed, and 
at the expiration of every ten years the subjects of 
the contracting parties were to confirm it, promising 
not to assist the side who first broke the peace. 

During the negotiations witli Poland the Order 
appears to have formed a kind of alliance with the 
Hanseatic Confederation to support its claims on 
England on account of the depredations of British 
cruisers. This may appear strange, considering 


the internal weakness of the Order ; but some of 
the ports of Prussia were at that time enriching 
themselyes by fitting out privateers against the 
Dutch, who had captured several of their merchant* 
men returning from Spain. Another sign of the 
increase of the maritime power of Prussia at this 
period is, that the Swedes petitioned the Grand 
Master to assist them in recovering the rights which 
their King had violated. The Swedish deputies 
requested that Prussian ports should be closed against 
the pirates' vessels, and offered in return to allow 
Prussian vessels to carry on trade in any Swedish 
port free of duty. The Grand Master despatched 
a representative to Eric, King of Sweden, to bring 
about a compromise between him and liis subjects. 
The bonds of friendship between the King and the 
Order were further strengthened by a visit of Eric 
to Dantzic and Marienburg, where he was enter- 
tained by the Grand Master. As the affairs of the 
King were then in a very unsatisfactory condition. 
Von Rusdorf allowed him to take a military force 
with him to Gothland in two vessels, under the 
command of the Comthur of Dantzic. 

The hospitable reception which the Danish King 
had met with so pleased the Emperor that he 
restored to the Order all the domains which the 
Hussites had confiscated. 

In a letter which the Grand Master received 
about this time from the Imperial Chancellor, 
Kaspar Slick, a talented diplomatist, tlie latter 


strongly advised him to side with the Emperor 
against Poland, as he was fully convinced that, did 
ho not do so, the majority of the Kurfiirsts in Ger- 
many would support the Deutschmaster, and thereby 
have a plausible pretext for getting possession of 
the domains of the Order within their territory. 
Kaspar pointed out to the Grand Master that, being 
an imperial prince, he was bound to obey the com- 
mands of the Emperor, or incur the penalty of out- 
lawry. The Chancellor's letter was conveyed to 
the Grand Master by the Knight Martin von 

One of Sigismund's objections to the alliance 
between the Order and Poland was that the 
Hussites had elected Prince Casimir as their king. 
In 1*437, Sigismund, the last of the Luxemburg 
dynasty, died, and was succeeded by Albrecht, who, 
on his accession to power, finding that the Order 
stiU remained faithful to their alliance with Poland, 
despatched John of Brandenburg with a letter, 
signed by six Kurfursts, in which it was pointed 
out that Yon Rusdorf , as an imperial prince, could 
not sign a treaty without the permission of the 
Emperor, especially as one of the contracting parties 
was the special protector of heretics; threatening 
at the same time to confiscate the property of the 
Order in Germany should the knights persist in 
their alliance with the Poles. The Grand Master 
replied that the blame rested entirely with the 
Emperor, who had refused him aid against Poland. 


This answer appears to have received the unanimous 
support of the members of the Order, the prelates, 
and the States. Fortunately for Prussia, Albrecht 
died in the year 1439. 

But a cause of disquietude still remained. The 
Deutschmaster Eberhard also refused to ratify the 
treaty with Poland on similar grounds, namely, 
that he had not been consulted on the subject. In 
this he was supported by the Master of liefland. 
One of the principal causes of this quarrel was that 
the Grand Master had not only pledged, but also 
sold, several domains of the Order in Germany, and 
had sent the plate of their churches to Prussia to be 
melted down. The Deutschmaster also charged 
Von Rusdorf with allowing a lax state of morality 
amongst the knights, and stated that great discon- 
tent existed amongst all classes tlirough maladminis- 

The Grand Master now despatched letters dis- 
missing Eberhard von Sonsheim, who thereupon 
laid them before his Chapter, asking them to decide 
whether Von Rusdorf was or was not acting beyond 
his powers. The Chapter declared in favour of the 
Deutschmaster, who now addressed a letter to the 
members of the Order, stating the grounds of com- 
plaint which he had against the rule of the Grand 
Master. The latter did not answer the letter, upon 
which the Deutschmaster cited him to appear before 
him at Mergentheim, founding his authority on cer- 
tain enactments which had been introduced into the 


laws of the Chapter by Von Orselii. The Grand 
Master declined to attend, and in turn called upon 
his opponent either to meet him in Prussia or in the 
Neumark, where he undertook to do his utmost to 
clear up any misunderstanding, and that their 
mutual rights should be defined by delegates of the 
Order and the States. This the Deutschmaster 
refused, and Rusdorf , following the advice of his 
counsellors, despatched the Gomthur of Graudenz 
and Andreas Kuperti, priest at Dantzic, to Ger- 
many, for the purpose of commanding all the 
ofl&cials of the Order to refuse further obedience to 
Von Sonsheim, 

A considerable laxity of morals undoubtedly did 
exist amongst the brothers. Many of tliem had 
disgraced the Teutonic Order by the shameless life 
they had pursued in foreign countries, a state of 
things mainly owing to the Grand Master having 
been compelled, during the Polish wars, to accept 
any person who was ready to fight. 

The position of trade and agriculture in the 
country was now very precarious ; the education of 
children, too, was greatly neglected. The Grand 
Master began to see the necessity of the enforce- 
ment of a more rigid discipline amongst the knights, 
and of a strict inquiry into the antecedents of new 
members. He now also exerted himself in improv- 
ing the condition of the farmer and peasant, and 
ordered several fresh schools to be established in the 
principal towns and districts. 


The unruly disposition of the citizen class of the 
towns was, as bef ore, one of the difficulties which 
the Grand Master had to contend with, Dantzic as 
usual being the leading spirit. The Prussian trade 
with England not being in a very satisfactory state, 
Von Rusdorf had despatched Henry Vorrath, the 
Burgomaster of* Dantzic, a man greatly disliked by 
his fellow-citizens, to England to conclude a fresh 
commercial treaty. On his return with the treaty 
they refused to ratify it, declaring that he had 
been bribed by the King of England and his Par- 
liament, and even went so far as to threaten his 

Von Rusdorf mean time had despatched envoys 
to Pope Eugenius, soliciting his intervention with 
the Deutschmaster at the Council at Basle. The 
Pope had already, in a Bull to Von Sonsheim in 
1437, reproved him for his pretensions, and declared 
that the Grand Master was accountable for his 
actions only to the Holy See, and that he was not 
to be blamed for the peace which he had concluded 
with Poland. Finally, the Pope, in answer to the 
Deutschmaster's fresh petition, ordered him at once 
to acknowledge the supremacy of the Grand Master 
and settle all disputes then pending by friendly 
means. Von Rusdorf's representatives at Basle 
were also successful in gaining over nearly all the 
cardinals and leading members. The Deutsch- 
master, however, declined to obey the Pope's orders, 
declaring that the Bulls were forgeries, and had 


never been written with the consent of the Pope. 
To break up the connexion with the discontented 
in Liefland, the Pope ordered the Bishop of Erm- 
land to do his utmost to bring about a reconciliation ; 
should he be unsuccessful, he was to investigate the 
causes of the quarrel, and, if the Deutschmaster was 
still contumacious, he was to employ the authority 
of the Church against him, and, if need be, to use 
armed force. The bishop decided in favour of the 
Grand Master, and Eugenius ordered that the ver* 
diet should be acknowledged within the space of 
twenty-four days. If it were not obeyed, the 
Masters of Liefland and Germany were to pay a 
fine of 1,000 marks to the Papal treasury. 

The agents of the Deutschmaster had some time 
before publicly proclaimed, in the church of Riga, 
that the Grand Master was deposed, and that his 
title was oidy brother Paul. The statutes (by 
Von Orseln, before referred to) gave the Deutsch- 
master the power of summoning the Grand Master 
in Germany. On receiving a copy of this docu- 
ment, the Grand Master convoked all his advisers, 
who declared they had never heard of the existence 
of such an enactment, and despatched delegates to 
a Grand Chapter at Frankfort, who declared that 
the two Masters had always been subordinate to 
the Grand Master, and on this accoimt he was so 
styled. As evidence thereof, they cited the statutes^ 
enacted by Hermann von Salza, which had never 
been revoked. 


In this Chapter the Defttschmaster blamed Von 
Rusdorf , first, for having concluded the treaty with 
the Poles ; secondly, for the conduct of the Order 
towards Swidrigail ; thirdly, for the transfer of lands 
and Prussian subjects to Poland; fourthly, for the 
release of subjects from their oath of allegiance, 
should either of the contracting parties break the 
peace. The Deutschmaster, in order to strengthen 
his claim, obtained the sanction of the Emperor to 
Werner von Orseln's enactment, and thereupon 
summoned the Grand Master a second time to 
appear in the following year at Mergentheim. The 
Chapter in Germany remained faithful to the 
Master, and declared that he had acted in tile 
spirit of the enactments of Von Orseln, but that 
the charges brought against the Grand Master were 

At this time another serious cause of peril to the 
unity of the Order was a dispute which had been 
pending between Von Rusdorf and the Chapter of 
Liefland, which, if not satisfactorily settled in sup- 
port of his authority over this province, woidd 
without doubt lend a great increase of strength to 
his German adversaries. It would seem that 
Franke von KerschdorE had been elected Master of 
Liefland by the Grand Master, without the consent 
of the resident Chapter, and that on his death his 
brother Walter had taken away all his portable 
property to Marienburg. This caused great dis- 
content among the knights in Liefland, and they 


elected Henry von Backenrode as their now 
Master. At first Von Rusdorf refused to ratify 
their choice, but ultimately consented for fear of 

In the year 1438 the recently appointed 

Master, Von Buckenrode, died, and, according to 

the ancient statutes of the Order, the names of two 

candidates were submitted to the Grand Master. On 

this occasion the Rhenish knights selected Heinrich 

von Nothleben and the Westphalians nominated 

Heidenreich Finke. The latter, being the larger 

party, declared, before the Grand Master had decided, 

that they would not acknowledge the Rhenish 

candidate. After a great deal of wrangling a 

compromise was effected, and it was agreed that 

the unsuccessful candidate should be made Marshal ; 

but when it was announced that Heinrich von 

Nothleben was elected, the Westphalians declined 

to obey him, and siunmoned a Chapter for the 

purpose of coming to some determination. In the 

meanwliile the Rhenish party addressed letters to 

Von Rusdorf, requesting the assembling of the 

Grand Chapter. The Grand Master consented that 

Finke should be declared Stadtholder until the 

affair should be settled. The latter's adherents 

meanwhile despatched agents to the Deutschmaster 

and the Council at Basle, for the piu'pose of having 

him acknowledged there ; he was also supported by 

a large number of kniglits in Prussia. At last 

things came to such a pass that the convents* of 


Brandenburg) Konigsberg, md Balga^ taking advan- 
tage of the Grand Master^s intended journey to 
Prussian Holland, overtook him at Balga (where he 
was about to settle a dispute), and demanded the 
dismissal of the Grand Marshal. Von Rusdorf con- 
sented that an inquiry should be instituted ; but this 
did not satisfy the representatives, and they at once 
seized the person of the Marshal, forced him to give 
up the seal of office, and took possession of the keys 
of the gates. 

As the Grand Master had only the Grand Comthur 
with him, and a^ the Comthurs of Brandenburg and 
Balga were on the side of the representatives of the 
convents, he was forced to agree to their terms, as 
they might have made him prisoner and recalled 
the Deutschmaster to Prussia. As soon, however, 
as Von Rusdorf was out of danger, he declined to 
carry out his promises ; thereupon the Grand CJom- 
thur went secretly to Mewe, where he assembled 
the Comthurs of Mewe, Swetz, Thorn, and 
Tauchel, and entered Marienburg accompanied by 
these officials, where they demanded that the Grand 
Master should recognize Conrad von Erlichshausen, 
hitherto Comthur of Thorn, as Marshal. The 
Grand Master consented, but he afterwards broke 
his word, dismissed the Grand Comthur, and 
nominated Bruno von Hirzberg, Vogt of Dirschau, 
as his successor, ordering the new Marshal and the 
Comthurs of Brandenburg, Balga, and Ragnit to 
treat with the representatives of the convents. 

VOL. u. k 


There can be little doubt that the Grand Master 
and his opponents woidd have been able to settle 
the strife within the walls of the chapter-house, had 
they not intrigued with the representatives of town 
and country to support them. The Grand Master 
had excited great discontent among his subjects by 
aUowing certain merchants to send com out of the 
country^ as all export trade was forbidden. The 
towns ^d districte demanded that free exportetion 
should be granted to all, and that the tolls, which 
weighed very heavily on trade, should be abolished. 
The Grand Master declined to entertain the first 
request, but offered to do away with the tolls, if the 
towns would undertake to keep the ferries and 
bridges in order. The towns, naturally declined to 
accept the offer, upon which the Grand Master 
increased the tolls. The towns now fully perceiv- 
ing the weakness of the Order, demanded all their 
former privileges — that tonnage and poundage 
shoxdd be abolished, that the knights should not 
be allowed to trade, and that in future at the High 
Court of Justice the prelates and the representa- 
tives of the towns and districts should take part in 
the proceedings. The citizens abo objected to 
many privileges which had been granted to the 
mechanics and to foreigners carrying on trade in 
the country. The Grand Master attempted to 
evade their demands, either by equivocal answers 
or by promises that, as soon as his revenue was on 
a better footing, he would introduce the desired 


reforms. Von Eusdorf maintained that he had 
certain privileges which the Estates could not inter- 
fere with, which were granted to him as an 
imperial prince, and that the Charter of Culm was 
only intended for the districts which were situated 
between the rivers Ossa and Drewenz. 

By degrees the nobles and their followers were 
now forming a coalition with the great towns, for 
the purpose of introducing reforms and gaining 
more power in the government of the country at 
the expense of the Order. 

An individual now appears on the scene who was 
destined to take a leading part in the affairs of 
Prussia, and whose antecedents may be here briefly 
related. This was Hans von Baysen, who belonged 
to the family of Zailingen, which had settled in 
Prussia in the district of Baysen, whence he derived 
his name. He began his career by entering the 
service of Von Plauen, who had great confidence 
in him. After the fall of his master, Baysen re- 
paired to the Court of Portugal. Here his extra- 
ordinary talents and manners soon gained for him a 
high position, and the Crown Prince Edward made 
him his standard-bearer. He greatly distinguished 
himself in the storming of the Moorish town of 
Ceuta, and also in the battle of Abaul, where he 
commanded a portion of the Portuguese army. He 
also afterwards successfully defended Ceuta against 
the imited force of the Moors of Spain and Africa. 
While at this place he was informed that his y outh- 

k 2 


fill bride in Prussia had been forcibly married to 
another ; for Baysen having gone abroad without 
leave, the Order, as a punishment for his desertion, 
compelled the young girl, who had a very large 
dowry, to wed one of its supporters. Baysen re- 
turned to Prussia, carrying with him letters from 
King James of Portugal to the then Grand Master 
Kuchmeister, requesting him to indemnify Baysen 
in some suitable manner for the wrong. In a short 
time Kuchmeister availed himself of his services, 
made him privy councillor, and bestowed upon him 
a large domain in the vicinity of Osterode. 

We now return to 'the difficulties of Von Rus- 
dorf. The nobles, especially those who had been 
followers of Von Plauen, now took measures to gain 
over Baysen, who soon took the leadership of the 
opposition party. Marienburg became the scene of 
constant strife, and the Grand Master had even to 
fly for his life to Dantzic. Here he requested the 
inhabitants to support his authority over his insub- 
ordinate subjects. The citizens expressed their 
readiness to afford him every help, reminding the 
Grand Master, however, of his conduct towards 
them, and it was finally agreed that the States 
should meet at Elbing. At this meeting the deputies 
of the towns and nobles demanded the suppression 
of certain obnoxious measures and the indemnifi- 
cation of those who had suffered by them. They 
protested against the despotic conduct of the Order 
towards civilians and those who were not connected 


with it, and against the debauched and dissipated 
lives which the knights were then leading. The 
meeting was held on St. Jude's day at Marienburg. 
Judging it expedient not to act without the sanction 
of the Grand Master, the discontented party de- 
spatched deputies to him, requesting permission for 
their assembling. Von Rusdorf had been informed 
that there existed a faction who were ready to force 
him to abdicate and elect the Marshal, Conrad von 
Erlichshausen, as Grand Master, and that, should 
the dispute in the Order continue, the Poles would in 
all probability reconmience hostilities ; the deputies, 
however, promised to stand by him if he would 
allow the meeting to take place. The unfortunate 
old man, who had lost all determination of character, 
yielded; but on the day of assembly sent the Grand 
Comthur to procrastinate. The deputies, in reply, 
stated that the compact had been drawn up, and 
had already been signed. It appears that one of the 
obnoxious enactments above alluded to was that, if 
the owners of a fief died without male issue, the pro* 
perty reverted to the Order. The States had de- 
manded that this and certain other laws should be 
abolished. Twenty representatives of Culm, ten of 
Osterode, the standard-bearer and the magistrate, 
and two influential knights from every other Prussian 
district confirmed by seal the convention of the towns 
with the nobles. The great seal of the towns and 
the signatures of the burgomaster and one councillor 
were abo affixed to this important document. The 


nobles of the provinces of Natangen and Samland, 
however, do not appear to have attached their sig- 
natures to the compact. The Grand Master finally 
agreed to be bound by it, as also thirty-nine gover- 
nors, and the Comthurs and oflBcials of the Order. 

The Bund now found itself strong enough to 
carry out a number of changes. Four ecclesiastics, 
four knights, seven representatives of the large 
towns, and eleven nobles were appointed arbiters. 
By this arrangement the Order obtained eight 
votes, and the towns eighteen — a majority which 
enabled the Bund always to outvote it. The first 
person who appeared as a plaintifE was Hans von 
Baysen, who complained that a lake which was 
situated on his estates had been appropriated by 
the Bishop of Ermland, and that the Grand Master 
had not done justice to him, as he had offered to 
give compensation instead of compelling the bishop 
to restore the property. The judges decided in 
favour of Baysen. So many were the com- 
plaints that it was decided that only those acts of 
injustice shoxdd be inquired into which had been 
committed during the rule of the present Grand 
Master against individuals still living; but these 
were found to be so nimierous that it was said that 
another Diet woxdd be necessary to settle all the 
claiins. In the midst of these debates, the repre- 
sentatives of the knights and their friends left the 
coimcil-room, with threats and menaces against the 
town and country representatives. 



The convents, expecting the anger of the Grand 
Master, now joined the towns, and Von Rusdorf, 
fearing that this step would be followed by similar 
action on the part of the Landmaster of liefland 
and the Deutchmaster, called together an assembly 
of the representatives of the States and the former 
directors of the three convents, guaranteeing to the 
latter a safe conduct. The towns demanded the 
immediate abolition of poundage and all other tolls. 
Baysen brought forward an amendment that the 
subjects of the Order should be freed from the tax, 
and that it should be only levied on resident 
foreigners. At last the Grand Master was obliged 
to promise the abolition of the tolls, and it was 
agreed that, should any fresh dispute take place, 
four of his most able councillors should be chosen 
to bring about an amicable arrangement. The 
States now turned their attention to the quarrel 
of the Grand Master with the Deutschmaster and 
Landmaster of Liefland. •They proposed that a 
meeting should take place at Dantzic, to which 
Von Rusdorf consented, and accordingly the three 
dignitaries met there in October, 1440. All the 
efforts of the States, however, to effect a recon- 
ciliation were fruitless, the Grand Master being 
hampered by the dread of offending the majority of 
the Order. 

Von Rusdorf was now seized with an illness, 
from which he only partially recovered, and his 
health was so shattered by age and cares that he 


resigned his post as Grand Master, with the intention 
of ending his days in the convent at Konigsberg ; 
but death overtook him on January 9, 1441, at 
Marienburg, before he could carry out his purpose. 
Von Rusdorf was a man of weak and vacillating 
character, and was therefore only the instrument of 
those who from time to time surrounded him. In 
all his actions his want of decision and determination 
displayed itself. There can be Kttle doubt that he 
was actuated by the best motives, but he possessed 
neither the courage nor the resolution necessary to 
guide the hehn of state at this critical period. 



A.D. 1441-1454. 

Conference of tbe Bund — Conrad von ErlichBhausen elected (1441 
— Financial Difficulties of the Order — Disputes with Branden- 
burg — The Grand Master attempts to break up the League — 
Helations with Holland and Sweden — Negotiations with the 
Deutsdunaster-T— Death of Conrad von Erlichshausen (1449) — 
Election of Ludwigvon Erlichshausen (1450) — Negotiations 
with the Pope — Convocation of the High Court of Justice — 
Success of the Orand Master's Policy — The Dissolution of the 
League — ^Yon Baysen's Intrigues — ^Action of the Members of 
the Bund — Mediation of the Emperor (1452) — Imperial Edict 
— ^The Bund raises Troops — Envoys of the League proceed to 
Vienna — ^Intercepted and made Prisoners — ^Evasive Policy of 
the Bund — Revolutionary Proclamation at Thorn (1454) — 
Envoys sent by the Bund to Casimir offering their Allegiance 
— The King of Poland accepts tiie Offer. 

On the death of Von Rusdorf, Nicolaus Postar, 
Comthur of Dantzic, became Stadtholder. One of 
the most important events of his short rule was, 
that Cukn and Thorn, who had privately applied 
to the Emperor Frederick to sanction the formation 
of a confederation, actually obtained the imperial 
consent, although the Emperor, at a later period, 


declared he did not know how they procured it. 
The publication of this document soon gained the 
adhesion of the discontented in Liefland, and also 
in West and East Prussia. 

Before the election of a new Grand Master, a 
Landtag was held to discuss the internal and foreign 
affairs of Prussia. 

Propositions were made unsuccessfully to the 
Dutch for a friendly settlement of claims for the 
destruction or capture of Prussian vessels by that 
nation, an indemnification of 7,000 Flemish poimds, 
and 2,000 to the merchants of Liefland, being pro- 
posed. This sum was, however, declared by the 
Dutch to be excessive. 

During the sitting of the Landtag the new Grand 
Master was elected, April 12, 1441, in the person of 
Conrad von Erlichshausen, who had been brought 
forward as candidate for the dignity at the election 
of Von Eusdorf . 

We now return to the self -constituted Landtag. 
The towns had despatched envoys to Copenhagen 
for the purpose of obtaining a recognition of their 
trading privileges, which had been violated, and 
also an indemnification for merchantmen captured 
by the Swedes during Eric's reign. His successor. 
King Christopher, agreed to recognize their former 
privileges, but declined to restore the ships or pay 
the indemnification. The firmness and discretion 
of Conrad von Erlichshausen, together with the 
moderation of Hans von Baysen, combined to bring 


about a better understanding between the Grand 
Master and the Bund/ and the former was thus 
enabled to postpone from time to time the meeting 
of the Supreme Court of Justice. The new Grand 
Master's first efforts were to gain over the support 
of the towns. During his progress through Prussia 
to receive the allegiance of his subjects, the towns 
demanded the recognition of their privileges, to 
which he agreed on condition of their first taking 
the oath of allegiance to him. After the deputies 
had sworn fealty at the Landtag, the Grand Master 
solemnly engaged to protect the constitution, and 
all complaints were postponed for the decision of 
the next Landtag. 

Conrad also increased his popularity by intro- 
ducing reforms in the laws of inheritance of the 
feudal knights and then: retainers. About this period 
the peasants and minor nobles of the Bishop of 
Ermland declined to pay any longer certain taxes 
to their superiors. The priests requested the assist- 
ance of the bishop, and asked him to bring the 
matter before the Pope, who decided in their favour. 
The archdeftcon now appealed to the Grand Master 
to enforce the decision by sending a representative 
to the peasants. This the Grand Master did not 
do, but called the attention of the Landtag to the 
disorders in the bishopric; but the deputies, not 
wishing to give the Order a chance of exercising 
armed authority, postponed any inquiry until the 
next meeting. By the advice of Conrad, the bishop 


seized the ringleaders and had them confined in 
gaols. This determined attitude on his part brought 
about a peaceful solution of the question, and pre- 
vented an extension of the movement amongst the 
peasantry of other sees. 

The financial condition of the treasury was now 
at such a low ebb that the Grand Master could not 
keep the fortresses in a proper state of repair or 
maintain his Court. He therefore declared to the 
Landtag his intention of reintroducing poundage, 
which the Emperor Frederick II. had sanctioned ; 
but, for the purpose of preventing the opposition of 
aU the towns, he proposed to have it levied at 
Dantzic, Elbing, and Konigsberg only, Culm and 
Thorn being excepted. In this he was imsuccessful. 
He now issued a manifesto to his subjects, stating 
his intention to lay the whole matter before the 
Emperor, and he accordingly despatched an envoy 
to the Imperial Court. This had the desired effect. 
The tax was renewed, and levied in the same way as 
under the previous Grand Master. One-third of it 
was to go to the towns for the purpose of covering 
the expenses of the embassies which they frequently 
despatched to foreign countries. 

About this time the right of proprietorship of 
the Neinnark was claimed by Brandenburg. In 
1415 Frederick VI., Burgrave of Nuremberg, had 
purchased the Mark Brandenburg from Sigismund, 
and attempted to substantiate his right to the Neu- 
mark, which he maintained to be included in the 


purchase. Rusdorf appKed to the Emperor, who 
forwarded him a copy of the deed of purchase to 
prove that the Burgrave's claim was unfounded. 
In 1426 the Emperor, in a letter to the Grand Master, 
solemnly declared that the Neumark did not belong 
to the Mark Brandenburg, and their separation was 
in no way at variance with the Golden Bull ; and in 
1429 this letter was again confirmed by the Emperor, 
and also the right of re-purchase of the Neumark 
was renounced. Frederick I. of Brandenburg 
appears then to have been satisfied with this 
decision, but in 1442 Frederick II., now Kurfiirst 
of Brandenburg, renewed his claims on the Neu- 
mark. The Order, fearing that they might become 
entangled in an imperial lawsuit, had the question 
argued before the Council of Basle, where the 
celebrated Bachenstein, Benheim, and other jurists 
decided in their favour. The Kurfiirst, fearing 
that he woidd be opposed by the Emperor and 
Pope, should he attempt to obtain possession of the 
Neimiark by armed force, agreed to a compromise, 
and a meeting took place at Frankfort in June, 
1443. After a long discussion negotiations were 
broken oflF, but in October following the Kurfiirst, 
having heard that the Order were making pre- 
parations for war, agreed to a second meeting at 
Frankfort, where he personally appeared to meet 
the representatives of the Grand Master and the 
towns. The Kurfiirst and his brothers John, Albert, 
and Frederick renounced for ever all claims on the 


Neumark, and the Order in return engaged to pay 
the Kurfurst the sum of 30,000 Rhenish gulden in 
two instalments, and not to levy any fresh taxes at 
Kiistrin on the Oder, and neither of the contract- 
ing parties was to allow the passage of troops for 
hostile purposes through their territories, the knights 
bearing the expense of the ratification of the deed 
of renunciation on the part of the Kurfiirsts, the 
Margraves, and the Emperor. This was carried 
out, and the Order paid during the years 1444-45 
the stipulated sum of 30,000 gulden. Several dis- 
putes, however, took place during the following 
years ; but Hans, Margrave of Nuremberg, appears 
to have mediated with such success between the 
two parties that the Grand Master attempted to 
effect a marriage between the Margrave and the 
Dowager Queen of Denmark, an arrangement, 
however, which was put an end to by the new 
Bang Christian marrying her himself. 

The election of Wladislaus to the throne of 
Hungary increased the power of the Grand Master. 
In the year 1445 the news reached Poland that 
Wladislaus had lost his life in the unfortunate 
battle of Varna against the Turks. His younger 
brother, who had been declared king, declined the 
crown until the news of the death of the King was 
fully confirmed, which took place in the ensuing 
year, and on his coronation in 1448 he renewed his 
oath to maintain the *^ perpetual peace," the Grand 
Master having on his part previously declared that 


he never attempted to obtain the sanction of the 
Council at Basle to the renunciation of his oath, 
and that both he and the Order desired its mainte- 
nance. The Bishop of Ermland's clergy, as we 
have before seen, were not regarded in a very 
friendly manner by the States or the Bund, against 
the objects of which last a kind of religious crusade 
was inaugurated by that dignitary. These objects, 
he maintained, were revolutionary and insubordinate 
against the Grand Master, the Emperor, and the 
Pope, and oflfered to prove the truth of his accusa- 
tion by aUowing it to be tested by a legal tribunal. 
This the confederation declined, and complained in 
the strongest terms to the Grand Master of the 
imwarrantable charge of rebellion which had been 
brought against its members. 

The Grand Master undertook to mediate, and 
induced the bishop and his clergy to withdraw their 
charges. In these transactions it became evident 
to Erlichshausen that, from the action of the Bund, 
his executive power would be eventually a thing of 
the past. He therefore seized the first convenient 
opportunity of breaking up the Bund. To eflfect 
his purpose, he declared to them that, as there existed 
no just cause of complaint against the Order or 
superiors of the country, their alliance was no longer 
necessary ; that he was ready to guarantee to them 
in the most solemn manner all their privileges and 
rights; and that his compact should receive the 
signature of all his subordinates, besides that of the 


Deutschmaster and the Master of Liefland. The 
small towns made their acquiesccnco dependent on 
the decision of the larger ones, but these last would 
not hear of the Grand Master's proposition. He 
now tried to effect his object in the following 
manner. He insisted upon all his subordinates 
being most cautious in the exercise of their authority, 
so as to prevent the possibility of the Bund being 
appealed to, expecting in course of time that the 
majority of the people, finding they could obtain 
immediate redress for their wrongs, would see 
the inutility of that body. Through constant 
inspection of the different establishments of the 
Order, the moral tone of the knights became 
greatly improved. The increase of the revenue 
which had taken place after the introduction of the 
pound tax enabled the Grand Master to place the 
fortresses in a proper state of defence, as we are 
told that every first-class castle was fully provisioned 
for two years, and the smaller ones for one year. 
To be certain that this was the case, the com- 
mandant had to send to him a detailed report of 
provisions in store, of the strength of the garrison, 
and the condition of the defences after having care- 
fully inspected them, when oflScers were despatched 
to visit the strongholds to see if their reports were 
correct. The Grand Master was equally successful 
in his foreign relations. He compelled the Dutch 
to carry out the terms of the treaty which they had 
concluded with his predecessor. His ambassadors 


demanded from the Danes and Swedes that they 
should put an end to the constant outfitting of 
piratical cruisers in Gothland. This they did, and 
the new King of Denmark invaded Gothland and 
destroyed its capital, Wisby, which had hitherto 
been the dep6t of the Eussian and Lithuanian 
produce. The Hanseatic Confederation at this time 
made Dantzic the chief seat of trade. The exiled 
King Eric, who had been driven from his dominions 
and had taken refuge in Gothland, now sought the 
protection of the Grand Master, and offered to sell 
the island to the Order. This Von Erlichshausen 
declined, as he feared that it would entangle him 
in a war with Sweden. 

The Grand Master, who lost no opportunity to 
increase his treasury, seized all the money which 
had been collected in Prussia and Liefland for the 
incorporation of the Greek and Russian Church with 
the Latin. This money had been ordered by the 
Council of Basle to be handed to Conrad von Wins- 
berg, Hereditary Chamberlain of the Empire, and 
treasurer of the contributions sent to Basle. The 
Grand Master's plea was, that the Order itself was 
one of the principal instruments for the developing 
of the Roman Catholic Church, and therefore he 
had a just right to make use of this money. After 
a long contention, the treasurer repaired to Prussia, 
with the intention of distraining the subjects of the 
Order for the amount of money seized. Erlichs- 
hausen, so as to be beforehand with his opponent, 

VOL. n. I 


managed to obtain from Pope Nicholas V. a Bull by 
which the Order was allowed to retain two-thirds, 
the other third to be handed to the Papal treasury, 
to assist the Hungarians against the Turks. The 
Pope also nulHfied all the measures which had been, 
or might be, taken by Von Winsberg against the 

There had always existed secret tribunals or 
inquisitions in different parts of Europe, and these 
courts now increased so rapidly in Prussia that, at 
the request of the States, the Grand Master success* 
fully appealed to the Pope for power to break them, 
and thus Prussia was fi-eed from one of the greatest 
curses of human invention. 

As the dispute between the Deutschmaster and 
the Grand Master had not yet been satisfactorily 
settled, Erlichshausen opened negotiations for 
abolishing the statutes of Von Orseln, and also 
certain innovations in the choice of the Deutsch- 
master. The election of a new Deutschmaster, in 
1447, brought this about. According to the ancient 
usage of the Order, the Chapter had to elect two 
candidates, whose names were submitted to the 
Grand Master, and the one he selected was acknow- 
ledged Deutschmaster. This had not been done in 
the election of Eglosstein and Sonsheim, and in the 
year 1447, on the death of the latter, the Chapter 
chose Eberhard von Stettin. The Grand Master 
ordered his representative not to acknowledge him 
until the Chapter had undertaken to return two 


candidates in the next election, and that the new 
Master should make a personal inspection of all the 
ecclesiastical and military establishments under his 
rule, and forward to the Grand Master a thorough 
report of their condition. The new Master, Eber- 
hard, survived his accession to power a year only, 
and the Chapter thereupon elected Jost von Fenin - 
gen, contrary to the ancient usage, as his successor. 
At first the Grand Master refused to confirm this 
choice ; but the Chapter having stated that the 
reason of their not having selected two candidates 
was the fear of the repetitipn of a similar disunion 
to that which had taken place in Liefland, this 
explanation was accepted by Erlichshausen, 
whose health was then in a very precarious 

Up to the year 1449 the Grand Master had been 
able to maintain his authority over the knights; but 
the moment they became aware of his ill health, a 
large nimiber of them, who could not view with 
indifference the probable increase of the power of 
the towns, met at Mewe, where they unanimously 
vowed a hearty support to the future Grand Master 
in destroying the power of the Bund, even should it 
be to the disadvantage of the Order. When the 
brotherhood consulted, according to custom, their 
dying chief, as to the most proper person to succeed 
him, he named Wilhelm von Eppingen, with the 
remark that he knew his advice would be useless, as 
the Chapter would either elect Henry von Plauen, 

I 2 


or his own nephew, Ludwig von Erlichshausen. 
Before his death, which occurred November 7, 
1449, the Grand Master expressed his fears that 
the unruly portion of the knights would bring great 
trouble, not only upon the Order, but also on their 

The superior talents and penetration of this dig- 
nitary were conspicuous. When he took over the 
reins of government, the Order was demoralized 
and disunited, the people on the eve of • rebellion, 
and surrounded with foes ready to assist in the 
division of Prussia. All these difficulties he success- 
fully surmounted, and, had his successor been like 
him, civil strife and disunion would not have again 
become rampant in the Order and in the country. 
He was the last Grand Master interred at Marien- 

On the 1st of December, 1449, the Grand 
Comthur, Henry von Richtenberg, was elected 
Stadtholder, who summoned to Marienburg the 
Masters of Liefland and Germany, and the chief 
Comthurs in foreign countries, to proceed to the 
election of a new Grand Master. Their choice fell 
upon Ludwig von Erlichshausen, early in the year 

We are told that the new Grand Master's uncle, 
Henry von Plauen, had a strong party who wished 
to secure his election, but Von Plauen generously 
withdrew his candidature. It had been arranged 
that the Grand Master should receive the oath of 


allegiance of the entire brotherhood, and that he 
should make no changes in the Order without the 
consent of his privy council. The first subject dis- 
cussed was the necessity of destroying the authority 
of the Bund. The Deutschmaster declared that, if 
Ludwig would at once take action against the con- 
federation, he would obtain for the Order the 
assistance of the Emperor and the Pope. The 
Bund, having heard of the hostile intentions of the 
Grand Master, attempted to justify their conduct on 
the occasion of taking the oath of allegiance. 
Ludwig declined, however, to discuss the subject 
then, promising to give it due consideration at the 
meeting of the Landtag. Thereupon the Estates 
took the usual oaths of allegiance, and the Grand 
Master in his turn swore to protect their rights and 

To obtain the support of the Pope, Von Erlichs- 
hausen had recourse to the Bishop of Ermland's 
arguments against the principles of the Bund. 
The Order's proctor at Rome portrayed in lively 
colours to the Pontiff the dangers which would 
arise, should the spiritual power be ruled in all its 
ramifications by laymen actuated by republican 
principles, and the procurator also stated that, without 
his support, the Order was totally unable to pro- 
tect its authority or the rights of the Church. The 
Pope despatched to Prussia Bishop Louis von Silves 
as his legate, who, he believed, would bo a fitting 
instrument to reduce the lay power to a proper state 


of subjection, as this ecclesiastic, from his Portuguese 
origin, was much experienced in maintaining the 
spiritual power over the temporal authority. The 
legate on his arrival in Prussia, in conjunction with 
the priestly party, commenced a religious crusade 
against the members and supporters of the Bund, 
who called upon the Grand Master to protect them 
from the denunciations of their opponents. The chief 
representatives of the Teutonic Order, however, 
were bitterly hostile to the league, and believed 
that the time had arrived for crushing it ; and the 
Grand Master, at an assembly of the Estates at 
Elbing on the 10th of December, 1450, to hear the 
proposals of the Papal legate, made no secret of 
these sentiments. The deputies declined to give 
any answer to the legate's message, though he 
strongly pressed for one. The Grand Master and 
the prelates expressed their regret at the conduct of 
the Bund, and some of the deputies of the towns, 
such as Neustadt, Thorn, Marienwerder, and Konitz, 
appeared willing to withdraw from it. During these 
proceedings it was apparent that the object of tho 
legate was to make the Order, temporally and spi- 
ritually, a tool of the Papacy — a position which it 
had been for centuries most jealously guarding 
against. It therefore naturally began to be some- 
what lukewarm towards the priestly party. The 
Bund now appealed by deputies to the Grand 
Master, forgetting that they themselves were for- 
merly the principal cause of the humiliation of 


their country by withholding assistance from Von 
Plauen. The Grand Master gave the members an 
evagive answer, coupled with the advice that, if 
they wisKed to preserve the peace of the country, 
they had better retire from the Bund. He followed 
this up by publishing a manifesto containing the 
following propositions for obviating the necessity 
for the continuance of the league. Any person who 
had a complaint against any subordinate official 
should apply to the Comthur, who, with the assist- 
ance of the magistrate and legal ' adviser, should 
investigate the matter and forward their report to 
the Grand Master. In case of complaint against the 
Comthur, the Grand Master, on receiving the report 
of one of his councillors, should decide with the 
assistance of the magistrate and lawyer. If the 
complainant was a citizen, the investigation of the 
dispute was left to the Comthur, burgomaster, and 
town clerk. In the domains of the clergy the 
president of the ecclesiastical court was to assume 
the duties of the Comthur. If the complainant was 
dissatisfied with the judgment of the Grand Master 
or prelates, he could appeal to a judge appointed by 
the Order, prelates, and States at the ensuing Land- 
tag. The Grand Master and prelates should yearly 
investigate all causes of contention and give judg- 
ment. Any member of the Order who should quit 
the country to avoid punishment should not be 
tolerated in any of its establishments in foreign 
countries. In like manner the Grand Master, iu 


behalf of himself and knights, claimed the right of 
demanding reparation for any injustice done to the 

If we take into consideration the manifold privi- 
leges and reforms which had been granted, coupled 
with the proposals of the Grand Master, the people 
of Prussia could not at that time have denied that 
the continuance of the Bund must either bring 
about a dead lock in the direction of afiairs or a 
civil war, simply because the existence of an inde- 
pendent power of greater authority than the execu- 
tive itself was incompatible with the maintenance 
of friendly relations amongst all classes. The real 
fact was, that the members of the Bund wished to 
be the ruling party in the State, and they felt that, 
in whatever way justice might be administered, yet 
the knights and the nobles and prelates would 
always look down upon the citizen class as their 
inferiors. Hans von Baysen now appears to have 
promised his active support to the Grand Master, 
though in his letters to him he declared that all the 
representatives of the Bund were as much opposed 
as ever to the dissolution. This was, however, false, 
for there existed considerable opposition amongst 
the smaller towns, who found that the cities were 
absorbing all their trade. There can be little doubt, 
indeed, from letters of Von Baysen , that he had already 
commenced negotiations for foreign assistance in 
case of the Order attempting to dissolve the Bund 
by force* During this period Ludwig von Erlichs- 


hausen had not neglected to further the commercial 
relations of Prussia with foreign powers. 

In 1450 he despatched ambassadors to England 
to demand an indemnification for the capture of 
Prussian ships by English pirates. He also sent 
envoys to Utrecht, in 1451, on account of similar 
acts of violence. For the purpose of preventing 
any person who had been nonsuited appealing to 
the imperial court of justice, the Grand Master 
despatched a special embassy to Frederick, request- 
ing him to issue an order forbidding such appeals, 
which the Emperor did. This was a great victory 
for the Grand Master, for the discontented could 
not now expect any sympathy from the Imperial 
Court. That the Bund were determined at all 
hazards to maintain their coalition is proved from 
a letter which a certain Gabriel von Bay sen, pro- 
bably a relation of Hans von Baysen, wrote in the 
year 1450 to the Bohemian Czirwenka, asking 
whether he could assist the Bund with 800 horse- 

In the year 1462 the Grand Master made another 
effort to come to terms with his opponents. He 
proposed that any question at issue between them 
should be referred for decision to the Emperor or 
Sovereign Pontiff, or to some KurfUrst, and, if the 
Bund did not desire to refer the matter to strangers, 
he was quite ready to abide by the judgment of the 
Prussian and Livonian prelates. The Grand Master 
did not object to the idea that the Order and the 


Bund should each select two nobles, who should 
endeavour to mediate, and, in the event of their 
being unsuccessful, mutually agree to accept the 
decision of a common arbitrator. This the Bund 
declined, but agreed to accept the mediation of the 
Emperor, whose ministers they believed might be 
bought over. On the 21st of October the Bund 
despatched Augustus von Scheybe, Remsel von 
Ludwigsdorf, Tidemann von Wege, and Andreas 
Brunaw, Burgomaster of Konigsberg, to the Im- 
perial Comi;, the Grand Master also sending repre- 
sentatives. The Empei'or, after hearing the case of 
the delegates of the Bund, appointed the 25th of 
June, 1453, as the day on which the dispute should 
bo decided, the envoy of the Order in vain 
attempting to persuade him to at once dissolve the 

During these transactions Prussia was the scene 
of great agitation, A civil war seemed imminent. To 
be prepared for eventualities, the Grand Master sent 
emissaries to the Courts of all German princes, and 
concluded an offensive and defensive alliance with 
the Margrave of Brandenburg. He also had the 
garrisons reinforced, and instructed the knights to 
hold themselves in immediate readiness to quell any 
rising, and the Bund appears to have acted in a 
similar manner. The Grand Master, foreseeing that 
bloodshed must ensue, attempted, vdtli the assistance 
of the Bishop of Riesenburg, to appease the disquie- 
tude which existed among all classes. Pending the 


settlement of the dispute, the Emperor, by the 
advice of his ministers, guaranteed to the members 
of the Bund all its privileges, and despatched a 
letter to the Bishop of Camin to protect the Prussians 
against the courts of inquisition. 

This step was taken from the belief that the Ol'der 
and the prelates would use these courts as instru- 
ments of revenge against those under the ban. 

The Emperor also forbade anv act of liostilitv 
towards the Bund, or any change in the laws of the 
country. The Bund were also empowered to 
assemble for tlie purpose of selecting those who 
were to represent their interests at the court of 
inquir}\ Finally, the Emperor called upon the 
Grand Master to appear personally, the ulterior 
object of the^ Emperor's ministers being, of course, 
the ascendancy of tliat monai^ch in Prussia. His 
having played a double part is proved by tlie widely 
different statements which he made to the repre- 
sentatives of the league and the Grand Master. Even 
before the inquiry took place, the party of the Bund 
made no secret of having obtained the promise of a 
decision in their favour by the Emperor, who had 
received 54,000 gulden for the recognition of their 
privileges. The Bund, fully believing tliat they 
should require armed force to limit the authority of 
the Order, commenced collecting money to defrav 
the expenses of tlie inquiiy. By these means they 
were able in a very short time to amass a large sum, 
with tho intention of ultimately using it as a reserve 


fund for any warlike contingency, whilst the Grand 
Master, unable to raise any contribution or impose 
fresh taxes, was compelled to depend solely on 
the present resources of the Order. To prevent 
their proceedings being known, the Bund ap- 
pointed twenty members, to whom the entire 
direction of their affairs was intrusted, and these 
members were bound by oath not to divulge their 
names or the nature of the business transacted. It 
is highly probable that the members were elected 
by ballot; but all this secrecy did not save the 
Bund from the machinations of spies, whose object 
it was to sow the seeds of disunion among the diffe- 
rent towns. In this these agents were partially suc- 
cessful, for this peculiar kind of inquisition did not 
find much favour with the extreme republican party, 
who therefore on their part selected a committee to 
investigate the transactions of the secret council. 

In accordance with the desire of the Emperor the 
council now despatched envoys to Vienna. 

Two of the representatives, Remsel von Ludwigs- 
dorf and Tidemann von Wege, reached their desti- 
nation ; the other four, John von Thur, Gabriel von 
Baysen, John Maskou, and Wilhelm Jordan, were 
attacked by armed men, and only Von Baysen 
managed to escape. It is presumed that the capture 
was instigated by the Bishop of Ermland, who 
wished to find out their secret instructions. Casi- 
mir III., who was now King of Poland, had offered 
his mediation, which was declined by the Order, as 


it was supposed he was in negotiation with the 
leaders of the Bund. 

The seizure of the representatives produced con- 
siderable sensation, and Gabriel van Baysen accused 
the Order of having connived at it. The delay- 
caused by the arrest enabled the partisans of peace 
at the Court of the Emperor to make a vigorous 
attempt to effect a friendly settlement, but in vain. 

The Bund now appealed to George Podiobrad, King 
of Bohemia, who procured the release of the captives. 

At this period a rumour prevailed in Prussia that 
the Bund intended to assemble a large number of 
armed partisans, and, in fact, to organize an army. 
Hans von Baysen had himself proceeded to Breslau, 
where he had several interviews with the emissaries 
of Casimir. The Grand Master, being informed of 
the projected armed meeting, prepared to prevent 
it by force. The Bund, not being in a position to 
offer resistance, gave up the project, and declared 
that the report was put in circulation by their oppo- 
nents. Both sides now postponed any act of hos- 
tility for the present until the decision of the 
Emperor. The principal representatives of the 
Order were Von Plauen, the Bishop of Ermland, 
Francis Ruhschmalz, George Blumenau, a celebrated 
doctor of law, and several princes and knights in 
Germany joined the embassy. The Bund had 
selected Master Martin Meier and the Order ap- 
pointed Peter Knott as their respective advocates. 

The Order demanded the total dissolution of the 


Bund, and, as a punishment of the confederates, 
the forfeiture of all rights and privileges, and an 
indemnity of 600,000 gulden. Tlie Bund petitioned 
for a postponement of six months, so as to be enabled 
to produce fresh evidence as to the necessity of its 
existence, and the representatives declared that all 
they desired was the impartial judgment of the 
Emperor, who named the 28th of November, 1453, as 
the day on which he would pronounce his decision. 
The representatives of the Bund soon ascertained, 
through their agents, that the Grand Master was 
now using the same unprincipled means as they 
themselves had employed before to obtain that deci- 
sion in their favour. Whether tliis be true or not, 
it is highly probable that many of the princes and 
prelates who took part in the proceeding feared 
that, should the Bund be successful, their own sub- 
jects might follow its example, and naturally 
favoured the cause of the Order. With a view to 
being masters of the position, the representatives 
of the Bund declared that, if the verdict was 
delivered in their absence, they would not accept 
it. From this it is evident that some of the confi- 
dential ministers of the Emperor were in their pay, 
and had promised to give them timely notice as to 
whether he intended to decide in their favour or 
not, although on a former occasion they had actu- 
ally declared that the Grand Master or his represen- 
tatives should acknowledge the conclusion arrived 
at, whether they were present or not. 


The Bund, in order to gain time by further nego- 
tiations, now declared that the Emperor was not 
a legitimate and unbiassed arbitrator in all the 
charges brought against them by the knights, and 
that all he could decide upon was whether the 
Estates ever had the right to form a league. The 
Emperor thereupon confined his opinion to this 
point, and stated that the Bund had been illegally 
formed, and as there had never existed sufficient 
grounds for such a confederation, he, on that 
account, declared its existence null and void. 

The imperial decision, if closely inquired into, 
proves that either the Emperor was behaving 
falsely, or that his ministers had acted without 
his instructions. We know that the Bund had 
received a charter, guaranteeing to them all their 
privileges — an instrument of which the Emperor, 
on being asked whether it had received his sanction, 
denied all knowledge, but which he yet allowed to 
continue in force. The existence of these privileges 
manifestly increased the power of the subject to 
the prejudice of the authority of the Order. On 
one side the Bund was discontented with the 
Emperor for having ordered its dissolution, and the 
knights on their part were equally dissatisfied with 
the decision. The Bund, believing that they could 
always depend on the underhand support of the Em- 
peror, drew up a manifesto in which they solemnly 
renounced their allegiance to the Grand Master. 
Von Baysen appears to have been the principal 


leader in exciting the Bund to the above step, and 
the renunciation was formally signed by all tlio 
members at Thorn on February 6, 1454. The 
Bund, knowing the importance of securing some 
important strongholds before publishing the act 
of repudiation of allegiance, determined to seize 
the citadel of Thorn at all hazards^ and employed 
the following stratagem. A number of young 
citizens were disguised in women's attire, and 
managed to get into the interior of the fortress, 
where they suddenly attacked the unarmed garrison, 
the greater part of whom were put to the sword, 
the Marshal of the Order being one of the victims. 
This treacherous act took place on the day on which 
Von Baysen and his colleagues signed the pro- 
clamation, and was the signal of civil war. In less 
than four weeks the Bund had seized upwards of 
fifty castles, and Marienburg, Konitz, and Stuhm 
alone remained in the hands of the Order. 

The city of Dantzic now came to terms 
with the Comthur of the town, who, in con- 
sideration of a large sum of money and a free 
passage for the garrison with their effects, delivered 
over the citadel to the burghers, who then destroyed 
it. Kbnigsberg was also surrendered in a similar 
manner, and several other castles, including Elbing, 
fell after a short resistance. The Grand Master 
lost all courage, and even condescended to send 
envoys to Thorn, offering to acknowledge the 
league and also to convoke the Supreme Court of 


Justice, where all their grievances would be redressed, 
provided they would cease hostilities. He also 
despatched knights to various princes soliciting 
their assistance against the Bund. Unfortunately 
for the Order, Reus von Plauen, the only man who 
was able to advise the Grand Master, was absent 
on a mission in Germany. 

In order to give an appearance of legality to 
their conduct, the Bund obtained from the Emperor, 
by indirect means, a confirmation of the privileges 
of Culm and Thorn. In a very short time it 
became evident to the members of the league that, 
if they wished to be thoroughly successful, they 
must at once decide on some kind of government, 
and the peculiar constitution of the great towns, 
and the individual independence which each 
enjoyed, had fostered the desire for a federal 
republic. The nobles who belonged to the Bund 
determined to avail themselves of this feeling, and, 
for the purpose of securing the reins of government 
in their own hands, they induced the most important 
towns to hand over to them their strongholds. But 
the citizens soon saw that in a very short time they 
would be in a far worse condition than formerly. 
They therefore commenced destroying the castles, 
so as to be independent of the nobles. There also 
existed a monarchical party, who believed that, 
should a republic be established, the rulers of the 
neighbouring countries would make common cause 
against them, and divide Prussia amongst them- 

voii. II. m 


selves. The towns of Konigsberg, Braunsberg, 
and Elbing, on account of their trade with Den- 
mark, proposed the king of that country as their 
future sovereign. Dantzic and other towns were 
in favour of Casimir, King of Poland, also from 
commercial considerations. Another party supported 
Ladislaus, King of Hungary and Bohemia. 

The majority of the league, being in favour of 
a union with Poland, despatched Von Baysen 
to Cracow to offer their allegiance to Casimir, 
who had espoused Elizabeth, the daughter of 
the Emperor, whose assistance they also ex- 
pected to obtain. At first Casimir treated the 
deputation with marked favour; but the Grand 
Master, having heard of these proceedings, de- 
spatched a mission to the Polish Court, where, by 
bribing the ministers, the latter were induced to 
advise the King to side with the Order. The 
deputies of the Bund, in order to recover lost 
ground, gave out that they were about to proceed 
to the King of Hungary to offer him their 
allegiance. Casimir, who did not wish to have 
such a powerful neighbour on his frontier, opened 
fresh . negotiations with the envoys of the Bund, 
who, having amassed a large sum of money through 
the confiscation of the property of the Order, ob- 
tained permission from Casimir to raise a force of 
3,000 trained soldiers for the service of the con- 
federation. The Emperor, who, although not 
unwilling that the imperial power should be 


superior to that of the Order, was naturally opposed 
to the aggrandizement of Poland, did his best to 
dissuade Casimir from siding with the Bund. The 
Polish ministers and nobles saw in the acquisition 
of Prussia an increase of patronage and power, and 
there can be but little doubt that the ample re- 
sources which the league had placed at the disposal 
of Von Baysen, greatly contributed to the non- 
success of the envoy of the Grand Master. 

Towards the end of February (1454), the King of 
Poland formally declared war against the Teutonic 
Order, on the ground of the introduction of the 
poundage, of the refusal of the Deutschmaster 
to ratify the treaty of " perpetual peace," of the 
imposition of new customs duties, at variance with 
the treaties with Poland, and finally of their 
having, by their hostility towards the Bund, at- 
tempted to violate the principles of the treaty. 
Before accepting the allegiance of the deputies of 
the Bund, Casimir ordered a committee to examine 
into the charges which that body made against the 
Order, and this farce was gone through to give the 
appearance of legality to the transaction. 

In March the King issued a proclamation to the 
Prussians, in which he accepted their allegiance and 
guaranteed to them all their former privileges, 
allowing them to settle their own afiairs, and no 
public appointment was to be held by any other 
person than a native of Prussia. In the election 
of a King of Poland, the prelates and Estates were 

m 2 . 


to exercise similar rights to those enjoyed by the 
Poles. Poundage and the other obnoxious taxes 
were to be for ever repealed. In times of peace the 
towns of Thorn and Dantzic were allowed the right 
of coining money bearing the royal effigy, but in 
case of war this privilege was extended to Elbing 
and Konigsberg. Finally, the King of Poland 
reserved to himself the right of appointing a 
Stadtholder in Prussia, with the sanction of the 

The Bund, in a written address to the King from 
Thorn, acknowledged their allegiance. In this 
document they again brought forward the old 
charge of the intention of the Grand Master to get 
himself absolved from his oath to maintain the * ' per- 
petual peace '' although ho had, in the Council at 
Basle, formally denied the accusation. 



A.D. 1454-1467. 

Hans Yon Baysen appointed Qubemator (1454) — ^The Members of 
the Bund take Oath of Allegiance to Caaimir — Casimir de- 
mands War Contributions from Dantzic and other Towns — 
Yon Erlichshausen solicits Aid from Qerman Princes — The 
Poles and Dantzigers besiege Marienburg — Siege of Eonitz — 
The Poles raise the Siege of Marienbuig — Casimir again 
invades Prussia — Konigsberg withdraws from the Bund and 
joins the Order — ^The Maigrave of Brandenburg offers to 
Mediate — Siege of Lessen — ^The Neumark pledged to the 
Margrave of Brandenbuig (1456) — The Knights evacuate 
Marienburg — ^The Grand Master retires to Konigsberg (1457) 
— Marienburg seized by Yon Zinnenberg — ^Arrival of Polish 
Reinforcements — Armistice — Death of Hans von Baysen 
(1461) — Stibor von Baysen made Oubemator — Struggle 
within Marienburg — Negotiations with the Dutch — Naval 
Engagements between the Danes and the Dantzigers — The 
Qrand Master treats with the Bund and the King of Poland — 
Peace of Thorn (1466)— Prussia becomes a Fief of Poland— 
Total Losses on both Sides during the War — Conference at 
Elbing — ^New Coinage — Death of Yon Erlichshausen (1467). 

The first person who experienced the generosity of 
the King of Poland was Hans von Baysen, now 
the leading man in Prussia. Casimir raised him 


to the rank of Gubemator of Prussia, and bestowed 
the command of the principal towns upon those 
members of the league who had supported him. 

In return for the honour conferred upon him, the 
sturdy Prussian " patriot '^ undertook to force the 
bishops to take the oath of allegiance, there being 
great doubts as to whether the prelates were ready- 
to commit an act of double perjury towards the 
Pope and the Order. But, to the astonishment of 
all, several of the bishops were perfectly willing to 
acknowledge the new state of affairs. The Bishop 
of Ermland, however, amongst others, declined to 
do so, and retired to Breslau, where he spent the 
rest of his days. 

The disloyal conduct of these dignitaries can 
only be accounted for on the presumption that they 
believed that by siding with Poland their temporal 
power would be increased, as it was then notorious 
that the priestly party in that country were venal 
in every sense of the word, and that the King used 
them as his instruments. 

The King of Poland made his solemn entry into 
Elbing in May, 1454, where the Bund and all the 
newly appointed officials took the oath of alle- 
giance, Dantzic undertaking to contribute annually 
2,000 Hungarian gulden to the royal treasury. Up 
to the present time the league had been able to 
defray its own expenses from the money it had 
raised, but now, it becoming apparent that it could 
hope for nothing from the Polish exchequer, whole- 


sale confiscation of everything belonging to the 
knights became the order of the day. Even this 
was found insufficient, and the Stadtholder de- 
spatched messengers to all the maritime powers 
requesting the surrender of any vessel and cargo 
belonging to the Order. He also called upon 
foreign sovereigns to deliver over to his agents 
all domains and valuables taken from the churches, 
even including the sacramental plate. 

The King of Poland, who had no intention of 
spending Polish money in Prussia, also called upon 
the principal towns, such as Dantzic, &c., to supply 
him with the necessary funds for the immediate 
pay of the mercenaries. The Dantzigers, now fore- 
seeing that unless they compelled the rest of the league 
to pay their quota of the war expenses, the whole 
burden would fall on their shoulders, demanded 
that all the towns should contribute equally towards 
raising the necessary sums of money. 

After much altercation, an arrangement was made 
by which the towns and country raised a war 
contribution of 46,600 marks. In return for this, 
the King of Poland renounced certain feudal claims 
which he had a right to exact from the towns, 
and also induced the nobility to follow his 

The Grand Master had taken refuge within the 
walls of Marienburg, from whence he despatched 
messengers to the friends of the Order in Germany 
and other countries, requesting their assistance^ 


The Poles, in order to prevent the reinforcements 
arriving, determined at once to besiege the city, 
and on the 27th of February, 1454, a considerable 
force of Dantzigers and Polish mercenaries, with 
the necessary artillery, commenced its investment. 
To prevent the town from being cut off from all 
communication, the knights made constant sorties, 
and at last broke the lines of the besiegers, captur- 
ing the guns and trains, with 300 prisoners. The 
Dantzigers, nothing daunted, having received rein- 
forcements, resumed the siege, but were again 
unsuccessful, their mercenaries, struck with the 
heroic bravery of the knights, deserting in large 

Already the German reinforcements had entered 
Prussia, and were advancing to the relief of Konitz, 
which was defended by the Comthur of Schlochau, 
and besieged by the Polish King in person, with an 
army of 12,000 cavalry and 40,000 infantry. 
These reinforcements consisted of 15,000 men, 
under the command of Rudolf von Sagan, Count 
von Henneberg, and Henry von Lauterstein. The 
advanced guard succeeded in joining the besieged 
on the 18th of September, 1454. The main body, 
availing themselves of the woody country, pushed 
on close to the Polish entrenchments, which they 
stormed, the garrison assisting simultaneously. 
The residt of this combined attack was the total 
discomfiture of the Poles, who fled in all directions, 
hotly pursued by the Germans until nightfall. The 


tent of the King, together with all his treasures, 
which mostly consisted of booty taken from the 
Order, fell into the hands of the victors. 

The Poles left 3,000 dead on the field of battle, 
and most of their principal officers as prisoners in 
the hands of the enemy. The King escaped with 
difficulty, and reached Thorn with only a few 
followers. Some idea may be given of the amount 
of provisions left behind by the fact that there 
was found sufficient to replenish the stores of the 
German army. The loss of the victors was 
comparatively trifling, but included Duke Rudolf 
von Sagan, who was severely wounded in the 

Casimir, before adyaiicmg on Konitz, had sent 
orders that the siege of Marienburg should be 
prosecuted with the utmost vigour. The Poles 
before this city, being reinforced by those who 
had assisted in the capture of Stuhm, commenced 
operations; but an epidemic broke out, causing 
great havoc, particularly amongst the Prussians, 
who were told by their priests that it was a divine 
punishment for their rebellious conduct towards the 
Order, a statement which was the more readily 
beUeved when they were informed that their former 
masters had, with a handful of men, miraculously 
defeated the entire Polish army. Disputes arose 
between the Poles and their allies, and, fearing 
that they would share the fate of their comrades 
at Konitz, the former deserted the works during the 


night, leaving all their artillery, ammunition, and 
provisions behind. Some of them sought refuge in 
Culm, others in Prussian Holland. This event WM 
followed by the unconditional submission of Stuhm, 
Saalfeld, Liebmiihl, and Osterode. 

Marienburg was the residence which the Grand 
Master allotted to the Polish prisoners, 300 in 
number. On their arrival they were at once 
thrown into the dungeons of the stronghold, where 
they were treated in the most harsh and cruel 
manner, and the bodies of those who died in prison 
were not permitted to receive Christian burial, but 
were thrown into the river. 

The Bishop of Samland now forsook the Polish 
cause, and came to Marienburg, where, after having 
handed over to the Grand Master a considerable 
amount of money and treasure, together with all 
the silver and plate of his churches, he was par- 
doned. Notwithstanding that the Order had many 
friends in Germany, they were unable, from want 
of funds, to raise the necessary number of mer- 
cenaries which were now required to bring the war 
to a successful conclusion. 

The Grand Master being, therefore, compelled to 
remain on the defensive, the large towns who still 
continued faithful to the Bund determined to take 
advantage of his embarrassment, and accordingly de- 
spatched an embassy to the King of Poland, who was 
then at Nessau, requesting him to return to Prussia 
with a sufficient force to at once crush the power of 

casimir's policy. 171 

the knights. The envoys were instructed to under- 
take that the Polish army should be paid and 
provisioned by the league. This was just what 
Gasimir desired, as his share of the bargain would 
in future consist in merely the raising of the neces- 
sary number of soldiers. 

As a reward to the Dantzigers for their loyalty to 
him, he empowered them to destroy New Dantzic, 
a flourishing commercial town, whose rapidly in- 
creasing prosperity had excited the jealousy of the 
old town. Gasimir, therefore, re-entered Prussia, 
at the head of 60,000 men, in November, 1454, and 
captured Bishopswerder and Riesenburg. He then 
proceeded to besiege Lessen, which was defended 
only by a few knights and 800 mercenaries ; but, 
after a ten weeks' investment, the inclemency of 
the weather, and the obstinate resistance of the 
garrison, compelled the King to raise the siege. 
Von Erlichshausen, finding it impossible to collect 
sufficient money to pay his mercenaries, concluded 
the following arrangement with them: — In the 
event of their not receiving their back pay 
within a certain period, all the Order's castles 
and prisoners were to be handed over as security, 
and they were at liberty to do what they pleased 
with them. Von Erlichshausen also empowered his 
representatives in Franconia and Nuremberg to sell 
or pledge all the towns, castles, and treasures be- 
longing to the Order. The Order appealed for aid 
to the King of Denmai'k, who expressed his willing^ 


ness to join them against the Poles, but Christian's 
terms were so exorbitant that the Grand Master 
could not accede to them. 

Christian, however, a^ a proof of hia sympathy, 
threatened Poland with a declaration of war, should 
it persist in protecting the league. Casimir, being 
in want of money, had returned home, leaving a 
contingent of 6,000 men behind him, a device to 
secure the purchase of his return by the Bund. 
The mercenaries of the Grand Master, having 
possession of the castles, now prosecuted the war 
with fresh vigour, wherever they appeared plunder 
and devastation accompanying their steps. 

The Bund on the other hand, not being able to pay 
its hired troops, was obliged to allow them to live on 
the inhabitants of those districts and towns which 
they had to defend. This measure excited great indig- 
nation, and the league was at last not only compelled 
to reintroduce tonnage and poundage, with other 
objectionable imposts, but also to raise a war con- 
tribution. The moderate party, who resided mostly 
in the vicinity of Konigsberg, in consequence 
threatened secession, and the inhabitants of that 
town expelled the burgomaster and declared in 
favour of the Order. Reus von Plauen, upon 
hearing of this, hastened with a small force to their 
assistance. The new town was destroyed, and the 
rest of the suburbs fell into his hands. The 
Grand Master, as a reward for the fidelity of the 
Konigsbergers, granted fresh privileges to them, 


and did the same to other towns which had shown 
similar loyalty. We .have before seen that the 
Bund had done its utmost to obtain possession of 
the shipping belonging to the Order. In retaliation 
the knights fitted out privateers, in which it is 
highly probable that they were assisted by the 
Dutch, for we find the league strictly forbade the 
entrance of Dutch vessels into their ports. During 
this period the paid troops of the Order were 
unabating in their raids, and in a very short time 
the principal towns in their vicinity acknowledged 
the authority of the Order, in the fear that they 
might be given in pledge to the mercenaries. The 
latter now commenced negotiations with the league 
and Poland for the sale of the pledged property, but 
were compelled to break them off by the menaces 
of the German princes, whose displeasure they did 
not care to incur. 

On September 10, 1455, Casimir, at the head 
of 150,000 men, had crossed the Vistula and called 
upon the Dantzigers to join him with all their 
available forces. The Margrave of Brandenburg 
now proceeded to the royal head-quarters at Neuen- 
burg, and made the following proposition: the 
King was to give up all the country he held in 
Prussia, receiving an indemnity, the sum to be fixed 
by the Emperor or Pope, who should also lay down 
the terms of the treaty. These overtures the King 
of Poland declined, as he had shortly before 
solemnly declared, in the presence of the Estates, 


that he would never forsake the league. Casimir 
now broke off all negotiations and commenced the 
siege of Lessen, the walls of which he tried to 
undermine, and covered his approaches with war- 
macliines and earthworks ; but the want of discipline 
amongst the Poles soon turned the whole country 
round into a wilderness, for, instead of storing up 
provisions, they wantonly destroyed all that they 
did not require for immediate use. Disease soon 
appeared, and the greater part of their horses 
perished of a virulent distemper. This, coupled 
with the constant and increasing loss of men in the 
prosecution of the siege, both by death and desertion, 
left no alternative to Casimir but to withdraw. 
The King, as usual, called upon the Dantzigers to 
procure sufficient funds to reorganize his forces, but 
this they declined to do imtil ho had granted them 
fresh privileges. Casimir accordingly handed over 
to the citizens the Comthurship of the town and 
the fishery monopoly of Putzig, December, 1455, 
receiving in return the necessary funds for the pay 
of the mercenaries. Some idea may be formed of 
the expense to which the Dantzigers had already 
been put when we find that, without reckoning their 
share of the expenses, they had raised the sum of 
254,700 gulden to carry on the war. The only 
success which the Bund obtained during the year 
was the capture of the suburbs of Eylau, where a 
considerable amount of treasure was taken ; as a 
0et off to this a large troop of Polish marauders, 


who, after committing great excesses, were then 
besieging Rhein, were surprised and dispersed by 
Beus von Plauen. 

The commencement of the operations of the year 
1456 was not favourable to the knights. The 
Commandant of Konigsberg, who had to maintain 
the soldiers belonging to Duke Rudolf of Sagan in 
the towns of Ragnit and Mem el, finding that his 
military chest was empty, was about to satisfy 
these mercenaries by allowing them to plunder the 
surrounding country, when George von Schlieben, 
at the head of a force, suddenly seized the castle of 
Allenstein, where all the treasure belonging to the 
fugitive Bishop of Ermland had been placed, 
together with the plate, books, and valuables of 
the cathedral of Frauenburg. This enabled him 
to settle all arrears of pay due to himself and his 
followers. This act of lawlessness was in direct 
violation of the agreement which the Grand Master 
had made with the bishop, and he therefore summoned 
the leader of the mercenaries to release the canons, 
whom • he had detained as prisoners. George von 
Schlieben declined to do so, stating that he could 
prove that the canons had not only assisted the 
King of Poland with a large sum of money, but 
that there also existed a secret understanding to 
deliver Allenstein into his hands. A series of 
fresh disasters now befell the Order. During the 
siege of Rhein by the league a sanguinary engage- 
ment took place, in which the knights lost a thousand 


men. Again, after having succeeded in captur- 
ing Rheden, the garrison of the castle, being 
reinforced, drove them out of the town, inflicting 
severe loss. The Dantzigers also, in order to 
destroy the trade of Konigsberg and prevent the 
town receiving assistance from Denmark and 
Holland, sank ships near Balga in the passage 
which connects the Frische Haff with the Baltic. 

The mercenaries of the league were at this time 
in about the same mutinous condition as those of 
the knights. At one time a largo number of them 
joined the soldiers of the Order at Mewe ; and, had 
not the Dantzigers despatched 6,000 men to Lauen- 
burg and Putzig, these places would have been 
captured. Von Erlichshausen, finding that his 
officers who superintended the domains of the Order 
in foreign countries would not obey his injunctions 
to sell or pledge the property intrusted to their 
care, requested Pope Calixtus to order them to raise 
the necessary funds to coerce the league. But as 
it was doubtful whether the officials would obey the 
Pope, the Grand Master determined to pledge the 
Neumark to the Margrave of Brandenburg, who had 
undertaken its protection. This wily prince had 
already obtained a considerable amount of money, 
together with several valuable districts adjoining 
his territory, from the Order, in return for his 
mediation with the King of Poland. The Margrave, 
who had a considerable sum of money in hand, was 
but too willing to get a firmer hold of the Neumark, 


and accordingly he advanced to the needy brother- 
hood the sum of 100,000 gulden, holding the 
Neumark as a pledge, and also granted to those 
knights who resided in that province certain 
districts for their support during their lives. All 
these sacrifices, however, were not suflScient to 
satisfy the rapacity of the German and Bohemian 
mercenaries, who accordingly recommenced their 
treacherous negotiations with the King of Poland, 
the Bohemians being the most violent in their 
demands for an immediate settlement of back 
pay. At their head was Czirwenka, who, believing 
that his followers were sufficiently numerous to hold 
Marienburg, declared his intention of at once pro- 
ceeding to Thorn to settle for the transfer of the 
castles, towns, and districts which were then in his 
possession. The unfortunate Grand Master, Von 
Erlichsbausen, being unable to pay the exorbitant 
sum demanded by the Bohemians, Czirwenka, with 
some of the most determined leaders, started for 
Thorn, notwithstanding that some of the German 
officers, such as Von Sagan, Von Blankenstein, and 
other commanders, opposed this violation of military 
discipline. From Thorn a deputation, headed by 
John von Eichholz, proceeded to the King of 
Poland to arrange the price for the delivering over 
of the Prussian territory and strongholds by the 
mercenaries. About the beginning of June Czir- 
wenka returned to Marienburg, whose garrison he 
had strongly reinforced, so that the Grand Master 

VOL. IT. n 


was completely under his control. Casimir offered 
to pay the sum demanded in two instalments, each 
payment to be simultaneous with the handing over 
one-half of the castles held by the mercenaries, 
Marienburg being included amongst the first. 

But a still greater danger arose to the Order in the 
shape of the demand of Yon Sagan, that Samland 
and the adjoining territory should be uncondition- 
ally given to him, on the specious pretext that this 
would enable him to keep his mercenaries in order, 
and to supply them with pay and provisions. 
Fortunately the Grand Master, although the total 
destruction of his Order was staring him in tho 
•face, had the courage to give an indignant refusal 
to this audacious proposition. 

The old King of Denmark, in conjunction with 
other princes, now offered to land a considerable 
force for the capture of Dantzic, but this offer was, 
for some unaccountable reason, declined. He, how- 
ever, fitted out cruisers to prey upon the trading 
vessels belonging to the league, especially those of 
Dantzic, and so successful were these privateers, 
that no ship carrying the confederate flag dared 
appear on the open sea. 

Had the Grand Master entered into a regular 
alliance with the Danes, Dantzic would have been 
captured, and the backbone of the revolt broken. 
The Margrave of Brandenburg also proposed pro- 
ceeding to Konitz, to prevent, if possible, the 
handing over of Prussian territory to the King of 


Poland^ as the mercenaries had declared that they 
preferred ceding it to the Order, if they could get 
their demands satisfied. The knights, however, 
now obtained assistance from an xmexpected quar- 
ter, namely, from the priests, who still remained 
faithful to them, and who had, since the publication 
of the Pope's interdict, laboured night and day 
amongst the populace in pointing out the deplor- 
able results of their disobedience to the Pope and 
the Order. 

The bishops began to waver as they foresaw that, 
if the priests were successful, their subjects would 
probably revolt and expel them from their sees. 
The knights also received indirect assistance from 
another source, that is to say, the poorer classes of 
mechanics, who resided in the larger towns, and 
who, from the stagnation of trade, the increasing 
burden of taxation, and the unbridled exactions of 
the mercenaries, had, from being the steadfast sup- 
porters of the league, become its most determined 
opponents. The result of all this was, that Hans 
von Baysen was no longer regarded with the 
unboimded respect which had formerly been en- 
tertained towards him, and suddenly, to the 
astonishment of the league, some of its principal 
supporters, amongst whom were Gabriel von Bay- 
sen and Thielemann von Wege, on the plea of 
ill health, declared that they were unable actively 
to continue their assistance. 

By degrees the fatal mistake they had made in 

n 2 


appealing to the aid of the foreigner became 
apparent to the Prussians, and in a very short time 
violent tumults broke out in the principal towns. 
In Thorn the people ejected the leaders of the 
league, and loudly declared they would no longer 
acknowledge the King of Poland, and were 
ready to open their gates to the Grand Master the 
moment he appeared at the head of an army. The 
league, however, succeeded in regaining their in- 
fluence, and a series of executions and banishments 
followed. In Culm similar scenes took place; but 
the people, overawed by the Polish garrison, 
desisted in their attempt to expel the officials of the 
league. The mercenaries of the league, not having 
received their pay, levied black-mail on vessels on 
the Vistula belonging to their employers, and also 
threatened to seize Dantzic, the citizens in vain 
despatching envoys to the King of Poland request- 
ing protection, according to his solemn engagement. 
At last a large portion of the Dantzigers formed 
the determination of offering their allegiance to the 
Margrave of Brandenburg on the first convenient 
opportunity. Their leader Roggen was so far 
successful as to have the principal officials of the 
mxmicipality changed; but his opponents, having 
discovered his ulterior object, seized and executed 
him, and expelled twenty of his companions. 

These signs of the dissolution of the league were 
taken advantage of by the Grand Master and his 
councillors, and it was resolved to come to terms 


with Dantzic and the mutinous mercenaries. 
Accordingly a proclamation was issued to the 
Dantzigers, offering them very favourable terms 
if they returned to their allegiance. This they 
refused. As regards the mercenaries, the German 
party offered to prevent the purchase of the 
knights' territory by the Poles. To carry this out, 
they insisted on being allowed to take part in the 
negotiations with Casimir, and artfully induced the 
Bohemians to fix such an exorbitant price for the 
territory of the Order that it would be impossible 
for the King of Poland and the league to comply 
with their demands. 

The Bohemians, however, discovering the real 
motives of the Germans, resumed negotiations 
with Casimir, and eventually consented to deliver 
over to the King of Poland all the territory and 
castles they held for the sum of 436,000 gulden, 
to be paid in three instalments in the cun:ent year — 
three-quarters in gold and silver coin, and the re- 
maining quarter in goods. The King of Poland, on 
his part, undertook to grant an amnesty to all those 
residing in the ceded territory, and guaranteed to 
them their former privileges. 

The league, with a view of assisting the Eling to 
pay this large sum, ordered a contribution of 82,300 
gulden to be raised. The nobles, on their part, 
advanced 10,000, and despatched an ambassador 
urging the King at once to return to Prussia with 
a large force, and take possession of Marienburg. 


In the mean time the Grand Master had received 
the reassuring intelligence from Grermany that the 
Archbishop of Mayence, the Count Palatine, the 
Duke of Saxony, and the Margrave of Brandenburg 
were ready to assist him with a large body of troops, 
and he was also requested to send representatives to 
tlie Reichstag at Nuremberg. 

On the loss of Marienburg, which was now de- 
livered up to the league, the Grand Master and his 
court retired to Dirschau, and from thence to 
Konigsberg. In these transactions the Bohemians 
appear to have outwitted the Germans, the former 
receiving all the money. Czirwenka, there can be 
but little doubt, had, long before the negotiations 
had commenced, been gained over by the Poles. 
The King of Poland made his triumphal entry 
into Marienburg on Whit-Tuesday, 1457, and on 
the following Thursday received the oath of alle- 
giance from all the officials. He granted the 
Dantzigers fresh privileges, and made over to them 
the territory of Dirschau. Elbing was also simi- 
larly treated, but was bound, as soon as public 
peace was restored, to pay an annual sum of 400 
Hungarian gulden to the King. Czirwenka was 
made commandant of Marienburg, and the castles of 
Swetz and Golub were given over to his protection. 
Hans von Bayscn and his now sovereign, not 
content witli having broken the power of the Order 
by a most treacherous act, now connnenccd circu- 
lating througli the country the most calumnious 


reports concerning the Grand Master. Amongst 
the papers which, it was stated, had been found 
in the archives, was a regular plan, drawn up! by 
Von Erlichshausen, as to the manner in which the 
inhabitants of the towns and country were to be 
treated after the dissolution of the league. Accord- 
ing to this forged document, the totvus were to be 
deprived of all their privileges, and the entire popu- 
lation reduced to serfdom. 

But this slanderous accusation did not have the 
desired eflfect, for, as we have before seen, prior to 
the treachery of the Bohemians, a large portion of 
the Prussians were in favour either of the Margrave 
of Brandenburg or the rule of the Grand Master. 
The first sign of dissatisfaction was Hxe refusal of 
the inhabitants of Mewe, after the departure of the 
mercenaries, to receive a Polish garrison within its 
walls. The Poles thereupon laid siege to the place, 
but, a mutiny having broken out in their camp, 
they were compelled to cease operations, and most 
of the Bohemians commenced returning to their 
own country. The castle of Stuhm still held out, 
defended by Bernard von Zinnenbcrg, with several 
of the principal German captains and 600 yetcraus. 

The Poles were equally unsuccessful in their 
attack on Dirschau, and in revenge plundered the 
cloister of Pelplin. By degrees the greater part of 
Prussia was overrun by marauding parties consisting 
of Poles and mercenaries, who perpetrated every 
species of cruelty and barbarism. 


The Dantzigers, who had now equipped several 
armed vessels, set sail from the port in search of a 
Danish fleet, consisting of sixteen vessels, which was 
on its way to Liefland, laden with provisions and 
volunteers for the Order. In an engagement the 
Danes were defeated, losing upwards of 300 men. 

One of the most steady and determined supporters 
of the Order was the Burgomaster of Marienburg, 
Bartholomaus Blume, whom Czirwenka allowed to 
remain in office on account of the authority which 
he exercised over his countrymen. It soon became 
apparent to Blume that it was the ultimate intention 
of the Bohemian commandant to appropriate Marien- 
burg and its districts, from the number of his country- 
men who were constantly arriving there, and that 
the King of Poland was fully aware of Czirwenka's 
project. The brave burgomaster accordingly betook 
himself secretly to Stuhm, to seek the aid of its 
commandant, Bernard von Zinnenberg, in expelling 
the Bohemians from Marienburg. Reus von Plauen, 
who had taken refuge in Stuhm, joyfully assisted 
the burgomaster in persuading Bernard and the 
German mercenaries to undertake this bold enter- 
prise. It was agreed that the commandant should 
appear before the gates of Marienburg during the 
night of the 27th of September, which he did at the 
head of 1,200 followers. Blume, who had success- 
fully arranged everything, opened the gates, and 
the force immediately endeavoured to take the castle 
by storm. The first attempt being unsuccessful, 


ZInnenberg attacked and overcame the garrison in 
the town, taking a great number of prisoners, among 
whom was the Polish commander. Encom^aged by 
success, Zinnenberg renewed his assault on the castle, 
but was again repulsed. Hereupon he resolved, for 
the time being, to retire with his force to Stuhm, 
from thence advancing in the direction of Neutcich 
in order to effect its capture, and in that event to 
renew his assault on the castle of Marienburg, the 
citizens of which town, under the command of 
Reus von Plauen, still successfully defied the efforts 
of the garrison to reduce them to submission. 
Although the latter had been strongly reinforced by 
the Dantzigers, Zinnenberg, who had been severely 
wounded inan engagement, but was now sufficiently 
recovered, entered into negotiations with the Burgo- 
master of Cuhn, who agreed to open the gates if he 
came there with sufficient force to protect the citi- 
zens from the Polish garrison. Bernard Zinnenberg 
accepted the offer, and by a rapid march got posses- 
sion of the place, where he was joined by reinforce- 
ments from the Neumark, together with several 
German captains. Ho now caused himself to be 
proclaimed Governor of Culm, and issued a most 
threatening proclamation to the inhabitants of the 
province^ calling upon, them at once to take the oath 
of allegiance to him. At this period the Dutch and 
the Hanseatic Confederation, who were jealous of 
Dantzic, Were doing their utmost to support the 
knights by supplying them with provisions and 


money. The Dantzigers, fearing that the fleets of 
Holland, Denmark, and the Hansa might make a 
combined attack on their town, sent an urgent 
message to Casimir, soliciting a sufficient force to 
defend Dantzic and other important places. In a 
short time 6,000 Poles arrived in Prussia, 3,000 
of whom reinforced the garrison of Marienburg. 
The inhabitants of the town were now reduced to 
most desperate straits. The enemy had surrounded 
the place entirely, and thus prevented them from 
obtaining provisions from tho country, and the 
garrison of the citadel kept up a murderous fire day 
and night. In vain they despatched letters to their 
friends, to beseech them to send provisions or 
soldiers, as starvation stared them in the face. The 
Grand Mcuster did his utmost to induce the inhabit- 
ants of the Low Country to send assistance, but the 
soldiers who still remained faithful despaired of 
the possibility of being able to join Blume and his 
companions. Already the most daring spirits of 
the town had formed the plan of cutting their way 
through the enemy. 

Perhaps never had the fortunes of the Order been 
at such a low obb as at the end of tho year 1457; 
but, fortunately the Poles, who had a large force 
around Marienburg^ were also in a sad plight, for, as 
usual, disease had broken out amongst them, and they 
had lost most of their horses from the inclemency of 
the weatheri At lastj raising the siege, they retired 
itom the scene of their discomfiture, numbers of the 


soldiers forsaking their colours to plunder the 
country. Neuenburg now surrendered to the Order, 
but Wehlau defied their attacks. Meanwhile, up to 
the present time, little or no assistance had been 
given to the Order by the Emperor or German 
princes, a circumstance mainly owing to the constant 
postponement of the Diet. Casimir, feeling convinced 
that, whenever the Diet did assemble, the Emperor 
and the majority of the princes would make common 
cause against him, determined to come to some 
arrangement with Von Erlichshausen, and accord- 
ingly despatched two Masovian nobles to treat for 
a cessation of hostilities. Reus von Plauen and the 
principal advisers of the Grand Master persuaded 
him to come to terms with the King of Poland, who 
was then at Thorn, and the result was that an 
armistice of twenty months was agreed to. During 
this period each of the belligerents was to elect eight 
representatives, under the presidency of Duke 
Albrecht of Austria, for the purpose of arriving at a 
definite settlement of the questions at issue. To 
appease the discontent which the appointment of 
Czirwenka as Governor of Marienburg had created 
amongst the Prussian nobles, a Hungarian, John 
Isgra, was appointed governor, with the under- 
standing that he was to surrender it on the final 
conclusion of peace. This nobleman had been de- 
spatched to the King of Poland to induce him to take 
part in an expedition against Matthias • Corvinus| 
son of tlie celebrated Huiiyada* (See Appendix Ai) 


The Grand Master and his councillors availed 
themselves of this truce to regain the goodwill of 
the Prussians, and requested the Bishop of Samland 
to carry out the conditions of the Pope's interdict 
less rigorously. It was but too natural that this 
truce should be regarded with the greatest jealousy 
by the league, who, knowing the impecuniosity of 
the King of Poland, feared he might be induced 
to hand over the whole of Prussia to the Order, 
should the Grand Master be able to raise the pre- 
scribed sum. In this surmise they were partly cor- 
rect, for some of the Polish councillors proposed 
that, if the Grand Master would hold Prussia as a 
fief of Poland, he should be formally installed, pay- 
ing down to the King 100,000 gulden as indemnity 
and an annual tribute of 20,000 gulden. So great 
was the King's need of money that he borrowed a 
large sum from a certain noble, Stibor von Ponitz, 
to whom he gave Marienburg as pledge, and, repay- 
ment not being made at the appointed time, Stibor 
threatened to sell the town to the knights. This 
proceeding was, however, frustrated by the Polish 
garrison in the citadel. Week after week passed 
without the representatives, who had taken up their 
quarters at Culm and Nessau, coming to any agree* 
ment, and on the expiration of the truce both par- 
ties prepared for a renewal of the struggle, though 
neither of them was sufficiently strong to conduct 
it with any degi'ee of energyi The Dantzigers, in 
an attack on Dirschau^ lost thirty vessels on the 


Vistula. The Order captured Lbbau, but experi- 
enced checks at Mohrungen and Passenhcim, 

In November, 1459, Hans von Baysen, the Guber- 
nator, broken down by old age and ixifirmity, 
breathed his last. 

From what we can learn of this ambitious man, 
it would appear that he actually intended, when a 
convenient opportunity arose, to have made himself 
dictator in Prussia. His intrigues with the 
Imperial and Papal Courts prove that, prior to his 
death, he was attempting to form a coalition against 
Casimir, in which, had he been successful, he would 
have become master of the position in Prussia. 
His brother, Stibor von Baysen, who succeeded him, 
now concluded a truce for two months, which was, 
however, violated by the Order, who seized a 
convoy of sixty Polish waggons, intended to re- 
victual their garrisons. Unfortunately for the 
knights, about this time the King of Denmark con- 
cluded a truce with the Dantzigers at Lubeck for 
four years, so that the latter could now prevent 
communication with the Order by sea. 

Simultaneously with the outbreak of hostilities, 
the bloody strife recommenced between the garrison 
of the citadel of Marienburg and the inhabitants 
of the town. A portion of the garrison at Mewe, 
assisted by a numerous force under the Grand 
Master, attempted to throw in reinforcements ; but 
the expedition was driven back, owing to the 
superior flotilla of the Dantzigers who now be* 


sieged the town, and the Grand Master was forced 
to retreat. The citizens of Marienburg, under the 
heroic burgomaster, still continued to resist the 
attacks of the garrison and those of the besiegers, and 
would, in all probability, have triumphed in the end, 
had it not been discovered that the enemy were 
undermining the walls and houses of the town, an 
operation which, if successful, would enable them 
to make a general onslaught from all sides, cutting 
off from the defenders all chance of escape. The 
Poles and the league, infuriated at the obstinate 
resistance ojBfered, had declared that, if the place 
would not surrender, it would be given up to pil* 
lago and no quart43r given. To save the demolition 
of the town and the massacre of the inhabitants, 
the citizens commenced negotiations with the Stadt- 
holder and the commandant of the castle, John von 
Kosczelecz, The result of these negotiations was 
that the inhabitants agreed to acknowledge the 
supremacy of the Polish King, who promised to 
restore their former privileges. An exception was 
made, however, with reference to those who had 
taken a prominent part in opening the gates to the 
Order. As soon as Marienburg was in the posses- 
sion of the league and the Poles, the military com- 
mandant of the town had the burgomaster and 
those who had not been parties to the treaty seized 
and thrown into prison. 

On the 8th of August, 1460, this sturdy and brave 
representative of the ancient burgomasters was led 


like a felon through the streets of Marieubnrg, and, 
amidst the execrations of the soldiers of the league 
and the Poles^ he manfully ascended the scaffold to 
meet his fate. Not contented with his decapitation, 
his bloodthirsty adversaries wreaked their vengeance 
by quartering Ixis body, and all his property and 
effects were confiscated. Fourteen officers and tliree 
knights, with their retainers, were thrown into dun- 
geons, where they met with a miserable end. 

Thus ended the career of one of the most patri- 
otic supporters of the Order. By his influence over 
his fellow-townsmen, he had, with a few soldiers, 
successfully resisted the united efforts of the Poles, 
the Dantzigers, and the garrison. Blume, like 
Reus von Plauen, had never lost oom'age in all the 
struggles he took part in, and up to the last was 
regarded by the league as the leading spirit in the 
councils of the Order. His influence was felt in 
every city, and his terrible death rekindled a feeling 
of loyalty in the breasts of many who had liitherto 
preserved a neutral attitude. 

The loss of Marienburg was, to a certain extent, 
counterbalanced by the capture of Wehlau, The 
mercenaries appear now to have displayed more 
spirit, for we find them having constant skirmishes 
with the garrison of Dantzic and their troops who 
were quartered in the neighbourhood. In- these 
encounters they were successful, and destroyed many 
flourishing villages. They attacked and captured 
Lauenburg and the castle of Biilow, Putzig also 


falling into the hands of the knights. Dantzio now 
stood a very fair chance of haying its supplies cut 
off from the land side. To prevent this, the Bang 
of Poland despatched a force to occupy an en- 
trenched camp at Oliva, which effectually resisted 
the repeated attempts of the troops of the Order to 
drive them from it. The German mercenaries now, 
after leaving a sufficient force to watch the Poles, 
marched to the assistance of the Grand Master and 
captm-ed Wormdit, which was plundered and de- 
stroyed. The Poles attacked Marienwerder, which 
they attempted to bum, but were strenuously 
resisted by the garrison, who had retired to the 
cathedral, and the enemy was ultimately expelled. 
Sonnenberg, who had for some time been in treaty 
with the inhabitants of Swetz, got possession of the 
inner castle, but, the Poles being suddenly rein^ 
forced, he had to renounce his attempt to capture 
the castle and remaining fortifications. 

Treachery was freely resorted to by both parties 
in obtaining possession of the different towns and 
castles, and the Grand Master was able to keep up 
a spirit of opposition in Dantzic. The peasantry, 
who continued loyal to the Order, assisted by the 
mercenaries, rendered the communication between 
Thorn and Dantzic excessively difficult. Mewe was 
the basis of operations of these small bands, who 
did more damage to the league than the forces 
under the immediate command of the Order. In 
fact, the leading merchants were afraid to leave the 


towns, for fear of being captured and obliged to pay 
a heavy ransom for their release. The Danes, not- 
withstanding the truce, seized any of the vessels of 
the league they met cruising in their waters, and the 
Dutch privateers were doing a very profitable trade 
by capturing all vessels conveying goods or provisions 
to those parts of Prussia held by the league and the 
Poles. In retaliation the Dantzigers equipped all 
their trading vessels as privateers, whose duty it 
was to capture any ships they met, irrespective of 
nationality. Reval and Riga, which carried on a 
considerable trade on the Baltic, not possessing a 
sufficient number of armed vessels, concluded an 
arrangement with the league, by which, on condition 
of the latter not interfering with their commerce, 
they undertook not to convey, or supply the Order 
with, any provisions or munitions of war. At a 
meeting of the Estates at Elbing, the King of Poland 
was again requested to send reinforcements to 
Prussia, and he shortly after laid siege to Konitz 
at the head of a large army; but its obstinate 
resistance and the utter want of provisions in the 
neighbourhood, which the Poles had wantonly 
destroyed in their progress, compelled the King 
to raise the siege. Friedland, in West Prussia, 
surrendered after eight days' resistance to the Poles. 
The Order's troops, under the command of Heinrich 
Reus von Plauen, Sonnenberg, and Frederick von 
Kunneck, captured Mohrungen, Schippenbeil, Fried- 
land, in East Prussia, and Rastenburg, either by 



connivance of the inhabitants or force of arms. 
Runeck, who commanded at Lauenburg and Putzig, 
was also carrying on active hostilities with the 
DantzigerSi skirmishes frequently occurring under 
the very walls of the town, in one of which Schedlitz 
and a p8trt of Neugarten were burnt. The success 
of Runeck induced the leaders of the Order's party 
in Dantzic to commence treating with him for the 
surrender of the town, but their plan was discovered 
the night before its execution, and many of the 
conspirators were beheaded. 

The Emlanders, who had suffered in the war from 
the exorbitant exaction of the Polish and Bohemian 
mercenaries, determined, if possible, to get posses- 
sion of their strongholds and to declare themselves 
neutral. Their former bishop had died in retire- 
ment at Breslau. The league and the King of 
Poland had bestowed the bishopric on Paul von 
Legendorf , but they gave him no power over the 
province. In fact he was obliged, before taking up 
his residence at his capital, to pay to the mercenaries 
8,000 gulden, and the Chapter had to do the same 
to recover Allenstein. The peasants and citizens of 
Gutstadt and Braimsberg now expelled the Polish 
mercenaries from those places, and, emboldened by 
this success, managed to effect an entrance into the 
town of Frauenburg ; but here they were surrounded 
by a strong body of Poles, who inflicted on them a loss 
of 600 men, 100 of that number, who had taken refuge 
in the church, being burnt alive. Neither the league 


nor the King of Poland attempted to put down these 
atrocities, but the sad condition of the country 
emboldened the Bishop of Ermland^ at the meeting 
at Elbing, to openly declare his desire that his 
subjects should take no further part in these intestine 
struggles; and Casimir, not wishing to drive the 
Ermlanders to the side of the Order, preferred 
to allow the matter to remain in abeyance. The 
town of Strasburg was at this time stormed by 
Runeck, who found there a large quantity of war 
material, which enabled him to commence the siege 
of the castle. The King of Poland despatched a 
considerable force to the relief, under Peter Dunin, 
who was however unsuccessful, although greatly 
superior to his opponents in numbers. The garrison, 
seeing no chance of obtaining reinforcements or 
supplies, capitulated, and were allowed to retire 
unmolested. We have before seen that hostilities 
were constantly taking place in the Baltic between 
the privateers of the league and those of other 
countries. Some Dutch vessels, in the act of con- 
veying provisions from Riga to the Order, were 
captured. The Dutch demanded redress, but the 
principal citizens of Bruges undertook to arrange 
matters with the league and the merchants of 
Amsterdam. To effect this, a proposal was made 
for the renewal of negotiations of peace between 
the Order and the King of Poland after Easter, but 
the Grand Master stated his inability to do anything 
in the matter until he had asked the advice of a 



general Chapter. Pope Pius II. also offered his 
mediation, and authorized George Podiebrad, Eong 
of Bohemia, to bring about a peace between Poland 
and the knights ; but the Order refused, as the Pope, 
in a letter to his legate, the Archbishop of Crete, 
spoke of Prussia as being a fief of the Roman 
Pontiff, and on that account he was to do his utmost 
to protect the Papal interests. The precarious truce 
which had been concluded between Denmark and 
Poland was again renewed, as it was the only means 
by which a regular alliance between the former and 
the Order could be prevented. Since the siege of 
Konitz the Poles had avoided any decisive engage- 
ment, and the Order on their side exercised a similar 
caution. This led to a guerrilla warfare all over the 
country, and no one who possessed property in the 
open plain was secure from the violence and rapacity 
of the mercenaries of either side. Most of the 
castles in Pomerellen were in the possession of the 
knights, and it was known that the bishop and his 
subjects constantly gave active assistance to the 

The league and the Poles, determined to put an 
end to this state of things, advanced into Pomerellen 
for the purpose of capturing the strongholds. The 
knights, who had collected all the forces they could 
obtain from the garrisons, determined to risk a 
general engagement, being numerically superior to 
their opponents, whom they at first surrounded and 
forced to retreat behind their waggons. Here, after 


a fierce hand-to-hand encoxmter, the Order were 
totally defeated^ losing some of their bravest fol- 
lowers, amongst them Runeck or Rubeneck. The 
DantzigerSy in recognition of the bravery of their 
great opponent, sought out his remains, and had 
them interred in the cloister of Czamowitz. The 
death of this determined party leader was a most 
serious loss to the Order, as by his tactics the lines 
of communication between Poland and the towns 
occupied by the league were never safe, and the 
Poles could now continue the war without fear of 
having their communications cut oflf. The first 
effect of this disaster was the capture of BiQow 
and Golub by the Poles, whilst] the Bishop of Erm- 
land, in attempting to surprise Wormdit, was 
defeated with the loss of his whole cavalry. 

The year 1463 opened with a continuation of 
hostilities. Both sides pursued their old tactics of 
petty engagements, with little or no result. The 
King of Poland was indeed constantly sending 
armies to Prussia; but his soldiers had always to be 
paid and provisioned by the citizens, and, when 
they were defeated or had converted themselves 
into bands of marauders, it was the citizens who 
had to bear the brunt of the battle until fresh 
reinforcements had arrived from Poland. In such 
a condition of affairs the Papal legate, Hieronymus, 
did not meet with much opposition in his endea- 
vours to bring about a peace. He first attempted 
to effect a meeting between the Qxand Master and 


the Bang of Poland. In this he failed ; but it was 
agreed that a general meeting of delegates from the 
Order and the league should take place in the 
month of May, at Brzesz. Unfortunately the legate 
declared he could have no communication with the 
representatives of the leaguOi on account of their 
being under the interdict of the Pope, from which 
they must be first released before negotiations could 
be entered into. 

The league thereupon, declaring that they did 
not acknowledge the interdict as legal, on account 
of its having been surreptitiously obtained from the 
Pope, as a signal of defiance forced the clergy to 
perform a Te Deum in all the churches. 

The Order informed the nuncio that they 
could not commence to treat with the King of 
Poland until he restored to them all the domains 
which he had either purchased or forcibly taken 
from their mercenaries. The legate, finding nothing 
could then be done, went to Breslau, for the purpose 
of having an interview with Casimir, during his 
sojourn in his northern provinces. 

From a Papal letter, addressed on May 6 to the 
Grand Master, we learn that Gabriel von Baysen, 
one of the most determined opponents of the Pope, 
was the principal cause of the representatives of the 
league not coming to an understanding with the 
legate, who stated that he had offered to tempo- 
rarily suspend the interdict during the negotiations. 
But Von Baysen advised his colleagues not to accept 


a concession of this nature, for by so doing they 
would acknowledge the legality of the Bull. The 
Bishop of Ermland, who had at this time become a 
strenuous supporter of the Order, did his utmost to 
assist the legate. Although the King of Denmark 
had renewed the truce with Casimir, yet he did not 
scruple to allow his cruisers to capture Dantzic 
merchantmen in Danish waters, and render the 
passage of the Sound very hazardous. The Dant- 
zigers retaliated by seizing Danish ships,* and now 
decided formally to declare war against Denmark, 
in the hope that the adherents of the fugitive 
Charles would revolt. 

On this reaching the Danish King, he resolved to 
come to terms with the Dantzigers, so as to avoid a 
civil war. Negotiations were thereupon recom- 
menced. The internal condition of Dantzic had 
not been at all satisfactory ever since the former 
attempt to surrender the town to the Order. The 
lower classes of mechanics, fearing that, if a war 
look place between Denmark and Dantzic, their 
ruin would be complete, determined, under the 
guidance of Gregory Koch, to open the gates to the 
Order. The knights despatched a large number of 
their retainers in disguise to Dantzic to assist the 
malcontents, and the rising was fully arranged. 

* The origin of the hostility of the Danish King arose from the 
Dantzigers having allowed Charles, his rival for the crown of Sweden, 
to take refage in their town, and it is highly probable that they had 
assisted him with men and money. 


One of the conspirators, however, having betrayed 
the entire plot to the burgomaster just before its 
execution, the ringleaders, with many of their com- 
panions, were immediately arrested and beheaded, 
whilst all the retainers of the Order who were 
apprehended were either executed, drowned, or 
fettered to the sides of the ships. 

The traffic on the Vistula had become excessively 
difficult, on account of the constant attacks made on 
the vessels by small bands of armed men who 
patrolled the banks of the river, and whose basis of 
operations was Mewe. To obtain command of the 
navigation of the stream, the Dantzigers collected 
all their available forces and laid siege to Mewe, 
the garrison of which oflFered a most stubborn 
resistance. The Grand Master, knowing the ex- 
treme importance of Mewe, ordered a flotilla to 
advance from Konigsberg to that town to assist the 
garrison, while he himself despatched a considerable 
force by land. The Konigsberg flotilla, however, 
being totally defeated by the vessels of Dantzic and 
Elbing, the army of the Order was forced to 

At the commencement of the year 1464 the 
garrison of. Mewe, after suffering extreme priva- 
tions, was starved into a capitulation, and was 
allowed to retire with the honours of war; the 
privileges of the citizens were also re-confirmed, 
only to be . violated by the Polish commandant 
Poskarski, who levied exorbitant contributions, and 


conducted himself in the most violent manner. At 
last he went so far as to order the secret assassina- 
tion of several of the richest citizens. On this 
coming to the knowledge of the league, they 
demanded his punishment. The King of Poland, 
however, deemed it sufficient merely to supersede 
him. Several members of the Hanseatic Confedera- 
tion, whose trade had been greatly interrupted by 
the intestine struggles in Prussia, now offered their 
support to the Papal legate if he would again come 
forward, but neither party could form any reso- 
lution as to the terms of the treaty; whilst the 
Bishop of Ermland, fearing that the King of Poland 
would ultimately prevail, determined to secure his 
bishopric by coming to terms. 

After the surrender of Mewe, the Dantzigers and 
Elbingers commenced operations against their op- 
ponents at sea, and in an encounter captured eleven 
Danish vessels near Memel. This led to the siege 
of Putzig, which, after six months' resistance, 
capitulated, the garrison being allowed to retire 
unmolested. Neuenburg was then besieged. Its 
defenders at one time, by a successful sally, nearly 
drove the Poles from the position they occupied 
before the town. But the Poles, though at one 
time so disheartened by the obstinacy of the de- 
fence that tliey were about to raise the siege, 
having received reinforcements from Dantzic, and 
knowing the wretched condition of their opponents, 
continued operations with unabated vigour. The 


besieged, finding that there was no prospect of 
relief, capitulated, and were allowed to march out 
with the honours of war, but the knights and 
their allies had to leave all their property behind 

The treasury of the Order was now utterly 
exhausted, and the mercenaries refused to under- 
take any active operations or leave the towns 
where they were living on the inhabitants. The 
Grand Master applied for help to the Master of 
*Liefland, who replied that he had not sufficient 
force to garrison Memel, which was in daily ex- 
pectation of being attacked by the Dantzigers. 

As it became evident that most of the towns 
which still remained faithful to the Order intended 
to acknowledge allegiance to the King of Poland, 
the Grand Master despatched messengers to the 
Gubemator, Stibor von Baysen, to treat for peace. 
Accordingly the representatives of the confedera- 
tion and the Order met at the villages Kobbelgrube 
and Stathof, on the Frische Nehring. The Guber- 
nator, who represented the King of Poland, de- 
clared in his opening speech that it was useless for 
the Order to expect to regain the allegiance of any 
of its former subjects. 

The conference as usual dissolved without any 
result, although it was evident that there existed a 
strong party in the confederation opposed to the 
continuance of hostilities. After the break up of the 
meeting, the guerrilla war was renewed on both sidesi 


In the month of August a fresh meeting took 
place at the before-mentioned villages. The con- 
federation demanded that the Order should acknow- 
ledge Casimir as feudal lord of Prussia, and should 
accept at his hands a certain amount of territory 
for the knights to reside in, and that the Grand 
Master in future should not allow any foreigner to 
enter the Order. The knights, on their part, de- 
manded that the King of Poland should restore all 
the territory he had seized. 

As neither party was wiUing to make concessions, 
the assembly again broke up. A third conference, 
in which the Bishop of Ermland acted as mediator, 
was attended with the same result. 

On the 21st of September the confederates and 
the Poles laid siege to the important stronghold of 

In the beginning of December the knights at- 
tempted its relief, and a large number of them man- 
aged to force their way into the town, raising the 
garrison to upwards of 1,000 men. The remain- 
ing forces of the Order now employed themselves 
in cutting off the supplies from Dirschau for the 
Polish army. 

On the 16th of December the entire garrison 
attempted to carry by sortie the Polish entrench- 
ments. At nightfall, however, the knights were 
forced to retreat, after having lost several pieces of 
artillery and a large number of soldiers. 

A revolt now broke out in Konigsberg and Sam^ 


land against the Order, which had to be put down 
with a great sacrifice of life. 

It was at this time discovered that the Poles were 
again in negotiation with the mercenaries for the 
delivering over to them of several towns belonging 
to the Order. 

In every portion of the knights' territory great 
discontent was manifested, and there were good 
grounds for believing that a regular rising would 
take place, should they encounter any fresh dis- 
aster. Von Erlichshausen therefore determined to 
treat for peace through the medium of Bernard von 
Zinnenberg, who was greatly respected by Casimir. 

The miserable inhabitants of Prussia had hardly 
recovered from the inundations and plague of the 
preceding years when a violent epidemic swept all 
over the country, lasting until the beginning of the 
next year. Many places had ceased to exist, and 
large portions of Prussia had returned to their 
original uncultivated condition. 

A convoy of forty vessels, conveying nearly 
1,000 men from Liefland, was shipwrecked, and the 
crews and soldiers either met their death by starva* 
tion or were slaughtered by the Samogitians. 

In March the confederates demanded of the King 
of Poland that he should without delay return to 
Prussia, with such a force as would render all resist- 
ance on the part of the knights impossible ; and it 
was pointed out to him that, if he did not do this 
at once, the entire coimtry would be utterly ruined. 


The garrison of Stargard, which had bravely held 
out until this time, managed to effect their escape, 
favoured by the darkness of the night, and were 
able to reach Konitz. 

This town was now surrounded by the forces of 
Casimir, who had arrived in Prussia, After an 
heroic resistance, the commandant of the garrison, 
Caspar von Nostitz, and Count von Gleichen capitu- 
lated. The garrison were allowed to retire with 
their artiUery, ammunition, and provisions, but had 
to leave Prussia within fourteen days after sur- 

The Russian and Polish mercenaries, after the 
fall of Konitz, commenced plimdering those few 
districts where the inhabitants had sufficient to 
maintain themselves. 

Town after town surrendered to the Poles, and 
the Grand Master and his councillors welcomed with 
joy the news that the Papal legate, Bishop Rudolf 
von Lavant, had been empowered by Pope Paul II. 
to strain every nerve to preserve unhappy Prussia 
from the bloodshed and misery which had already 
lasted thirteen years. 

A peace conference was appointed to take place 
at Nessau between the King of Poland and the 
representatives of the Grand Master. As the 
knights would not accede to Casimir's demands, the 
King broke off the conference, but the legate on 
his knees entreated him to renew negotiations. 
The King acceded to this, and accordingly the 


Grand Master proceeded to Thorn, where he met 
King Casimir, who treated him with the greatest 

We are told that such was the miserable state of 
the Order's exchequer, that the Grand Master ap- 
peared without his gorgeous official robes, being 
imable to provide himself with new ones. On the 
19th of October, 1466, was concluded the celebrated 
treaty of Thorn. 

The following were the principal conditions : — 

1. A perpetual peace should be observed by 
both parties and their adherents ; the past to be 

2. The King of Poland should retain for ever 
the province of Culm, with all its towns and castles, 
together with the districts of Michelau and Pome- 
rellen. The Order sliould retain the sovereignty 
over a part of the Frische Nehring and a part of the 
Frische HafE, on condition of their not erecting any 
fresh castle or fortification or increasing the taxa^ 

3. Marienburg, town and castle, Lake Drausen, 
the district of ScharfPau, town and castle of Stuhm, 
Elbing, Tolkemit, Christburg, and other minor 
towns were also ceded to Poland. The knights 
were allowed to retain imder their rule the rest of 
Prussia, Samland, Prussian Holland, with all the 
towns and castles ; the Kling of Poland renouncing 
on behalf of himself and successors all claims to the 
territory ruled over by the Teutonic Order. 


King Casimir made the Grand Master a Polish 
prince and privy councillor. He also agreed to 
confer the distinction of royal councillors on * those 
knights who were recommended to him by the 
Grand Master. The King further stipulated that 
each successive Grand Master should, within six 
months after his election, appear before the sove* 
reign of Poland, and take the oath of allegiance to 
him. He was then to take his seat on the left hand 
of the King of Poland as his principal adviser. 

The Grand Master was to acknowledge no one but 
the King of Poland as his superior, except the Pope, 
One of the most extraordinary arrangements of this 
treaty was that the oaths held good, even should 
the Emperor or the Pope offer to absolve the con» 
tracting parties from their engagement. 

The Grand Master having on bended knees 
offered his allegiance to the King, they both knelt 
down before the legate, and swore on the cross to 
carry out the conditions of the treaty, a ceremony 
which was repeated by all the great ecclesiastics and 
of&cials of both countries. 

In order to assist the Grand Master in his finan- 
cial difficulties, the King advanced a considerable 
simi of money, and stated that he would not require 
military services from the Order for some years to 
come, unless to prevent an invasion of the Tartars 
or Turks. 

Von Erlichshausen now returned to Konigsberg 
to mourn over the losses which he had contributed 


to bring about by his want of determination of 
character. Out of 21,000 villages there now re- 
mained only 3,000, Upwards of 1,000 churches 
had been plundered and partly destroyed. The 
Poles lost 70,000 men in mercenaries alone. 

At the commencement of the war the knights had 
placed in the field a well-equipped army of 70,000 
men. This magnificent force was now reduced to 

No account is given of the number of the reinforce* 
ments from Liefland and Grermany, and other parts 
of Europe, The Dantzic army had counted 15,000, 
and was now reduced to 161. It is estimated that 
the confederates and knights lost upwards of 300,000 
men. The cost to the knights was 5,700,000 
gulden, to the King of Poland 9,600,000; Elbing, 
Dantzic, and Thorn had contributed 500,000. 

If we contemplate the unsatisfactory condition of 
the citizens and middle classes in Germany, and 
compare them with those liberties which were 
enjoyed by the towns and country in Prussia, we 
are at. a loss to comprehend why the league ever 
asked the assistance of the King of Poland. We 
must arrive at the presumption that the unruly 
spirit which was constantly manifesting itself in 
Germany had infected the citizens of towns like 
Dantzic, whose wealth and prosperity fostered the 
idea that they had a right to claim the entire 
direction of their own affairs, and who, finding 
they were too weak to accomplish this object, did 


not hesitate to call m the King of Poland to assist 
them in overcoming the authority of the knights. 

Poland was in those days a comparatively poor 
nation, abetinding with a multitude of ambitiouB 
and imprincipled nobles and priests, who regarded 
the possession of Prussia as a treasury from which 
they could draw supplies to support their dissolute 

Casimir had concluded the peace simply because 
he was not in a condition to continue the war, and 
was fully prepared on the first convenient oppor^ 
tunity to reabsorb that territory which he had 
handed over to the knights. 

In order to settle many points which had not 
been arranged at the treaty of Thorn, a conference 
was held at Elbing on February 15, 1467. 

The Gubemator opened the meeting by drawing 
the attention of its members to the unsatisfactory 
condition of the coinage. The poverty of the 
Order's treasury had compelled the Grand Master 
to constantly debase the coin, and so great was the 
alloy that it was rejected in the foreign markets. 

It was agreed that the old money should be 
gradually called in and fresh coinage issued, bear* 
ing on one side the effigy of the King and on 
the other the arms of the Order ; that the money 
coined at the towns of Dantzic, Thorn, and Elbing 
should be accepted in all parts of Prussia, and that 
no change should take place in the currency without 
the consent of both parties. 

VOL. n. p 


In order to improve the conditioii of the small 
towns and villages, it was decided that all arrears 
of taxes should be remitted, and no further contri- 
butions should be levied for the next five years. 
All lands and houses which had lapsed to the State 
through the death of their pioprietors were to be 
distributed to immigrants, who were not to pay any 
taxes for four years. 

The remaining questions were settled in an 
amicable manner. Von Erlichshausen, who had for 
seventeen long weary years attempted, to the best 
of his power, to restore the fortunes of the Order, 
had already showed signs of his approaching end. 

The satisfactory conclusion of the conference at 
Elbing was his last act, for, after an illness of fifteen 
days, he died April 4, 1467, and was buried in the 
cathedral of Konigsberg. 

Ludwig von Erlichshausen's opponents maintain 
that he was utterly wanting in ability and force of 
character, and possessed little or no foresight ; but 
we believe that, had Hans von Baysen really played 
the rdle of a true patriot, the career of Von Erlichs- 
hausen would have been entitled to a more lenient 
criticism at the hands of his biographers. 



A.P. 1467-1510. 

Reus Ton Plauen appointed Stadtholder (1467)— The Stadtholder 
▼isits CaBimir at Wilna — ^Von Plauen elected Qrand Master 
(1468)— Takes the Oath of Allegiance at Petrikau- Death of 
Yon Plauen (1470) — ^Von Bichtenberg elected Qrand Master 
— Exorbitant Demands of the Mercenaries — Bishop Dietrich 
von Cuba raises Money by the Sale of Indulgences and other 
Means — ^Von Cuba Arrested and Imprisoned — His Death-*^ 
Death of Von Bichtenberg (1477) — ^Martin Truchses von 
Wetzhausen elected — Befuses to take the Oath of Allegiance— • 
Casimir invades Prussia — ^Beconciliation — ^The Grand Master 
swears Fealty (1479) — Disputes with the Bishops — Death of 
Truchses (1489) — Johann von Tiefen elected — Death of 
Casimir (1492) — Succeeded by John Albert— Wars in Hun- 
gary and Bohemia — Death of Yon Tiefen (1497) — Duke 
Frederick von Meissen elected Qrand Master — ^Befuses to 
swear Fealty to the King of Poland — ^Beichstag at Cologne 
(1504)-— The Emperor Maximilian offers to Mediate between 
the Qrand Master and the King of Poland — Conference at 
Posen — Sudden Death of Duke Frederick von Meissen (1510). 

On the death of Erlichshausen, Heinrich Reus von 
Plauen, who had for many years been considered 
one of the most able officers of the Order, was made 
Stadtholder. But, although he possessed consider- 

p 2 


able talents, he unfortunately laboured under the 
disadvantage of being unable to read or write, 
and he is said to have employed his butler as 

The great object of Von Plauen was to postpone 
the election of the Grand Master, which he was 
enabled to do through the aid of the Deutschmaster 
and the Landmaster. He hoped ultimately to be 
able, by the assistance of the Emperor and the 
Pope, to induce Casimir to cede Marienburg to the 
Order, and to relax the conditions of vassalage on 
pa3rment of an annual tribute. To conciliate the 
King, the Stadtholder requested an interview, which 
was granted, when the peace was again solemnly 
ratified, and Von Plauen pointed out to Casimir the 
necessity of joint action for the relief of all those 
who had suffered during the war. This Casimir 
agreed to, and a conference was held at Elbing in 
the month of August. Here Von Plauen complained 
that exorbitant dues were levied at Thorn on all 
articles of merchandise, stating that, if they were 
not abolished, the trade of the country would lan- 
guish, as K()nigsberg and Dantzic would have to 
raise their dues in self-defence, and fresh dissensions 
would be created. The representatives of Thorn 
refused to entertain Plauen's complaint, and the 
matter was left to the future decision of the King. 
Both parties, however, did their utmost to amelio- 
rate the condition of the inhabitants of Prussia by 
introducing various reforms. 


In July, 1467, Paul von Logendorf, Bishop of 
Ermland, died, and the Chapter at Culm immedi- 
ately elected to the vacant see Nicolaus von Ttingen. 
The King of Poland opposed this choice, and nomi- 
nated one of his favourites, Vincent Kielbassa. This 
created great indignation at Rome, and the ambas- 
sadors of Poland, who had proceeded thither to 
induce the Pope to acknowledge the *' perpetual 
peace" and withdraw the interdict against the 
league, were compelled to return home with the 
unsatisfactory answer that Bishop Rudolf von La- 
vant was charged to inquire into all the questions 
connected with Casimir's petition. Further, if the 
King desired the friendship of the Pope, he must 
declare war against George Podiebrad, Eling of 
Bohemia, and expel him from his dominions. In 
Poland the Order was accused of secretly indting 
the Pope against Casimir. Eielbassa, who had been 
at the Papal Court, supported this charge by de- 
claring that the previous Grand Master had privately 
persuaded the Pope not to give his sanction to the 
peace of Thorn. As it was of the utmost import- 
ance to disarm the suspicions of the Polish Eang, 
the Stadtholder proceeded in person to the Court of 
Casimir at Wilna, where he was received with 
hospitality, and was happily successful in the object 
of his visit. 

Von Plauen now directed all his energies to the 
paying oS outstanding debts, particularly those due 
to the mercenaries. For this purpose a large part 


of the domains of the Order was sold, and many of 
the leaders and common soldiers of the mercenaries 
were satisfied by the deserted villages and districts 
being handed over to them as fiefs. 

Towards the end of the year Casimir arrived at 
Marienburg; where he invited the Stadtholder to 
meet him. Here they deliberated on the necessity 
of proceeding to the election of a Grand Master. 
Von Plauen, to gain time, urged that it was 
advisable that all the castles and domains still 
occupied by the Poles and the league should be 
handed over to the Order prior to the election. 
This the King immediately compUed with, and 
moreover gave passes of safe conduct to enable the 
Deutschmaster and the Landmaster to come to 
Prussia, to take part in the Grand Chapter. As 
regards the dues levied at Thorn, the King ordered 
them to be suspended until he had given his final 
decision. The Stadtholder was then requested to 
deliver his opinion upon a delicate point, namely, 
whether he considered it prudent to declare war 
against Bohemia, in accordance with the desire of 
the Pope. Von Plauen strongly opposed such a 

On the 15th of October, 1469, at a Grand 
Chapter at Konigsberg, the Stadtholder was unani- 
mously elected Grand Master. The Deutschmaster 
did not appear, but was represented by his principal 
officer, the Procurator Dietrich von Cuba. No 
sooner Was the King of Poland informed of Plauen's 


election' than he called upon him to appear at the 
ensuing Reichstag, to take the oath of allegiance. 
But at this time it was reported that Casimir was 
about to undertake a war against Matthias Corvinus, 
King of Hungary, assisted by the Hussite King, 
George Podiebrad ; and Von Plauen knew that, if 
hostilities broke out, Casimir would, immediately 
aftw his taking the oath of allegiance, call upon the 
Order to join him in his war. As such an act would 
be regarded by the Pope as a renunciation of alle- 
giance by the knights to himself. Von Plauen 
resolved to oppose the war. 

At this crisis the aged Bishop of Samland, Nico-* 
laus, his principal adviser, died, and the Grand 
Master sought to procure the election of his great 
friend Dietrich von Cuba to the vacant see. As 
this could not be effected without the consent of the 
Pope, his favour had to be propitiated. The Grand 
Master therefore determined either to postpone his 
journey to Poland or to send delegates to take the 
oath. But Casimir was not to be outwitted, and Von 
Plauen was compelled in the month of November 
to proceed to Petrikau, accompanied by his prin- 
cipal councillors. Here, after taking the oath of 
allegiance, the Bohemian affairs were discussed. 
The Hussites had offered to raise the scm of Casimir 
to the throne of Bohemia, on condition that the 
King of Poland concluded an offensive and defen- 
sive alliance with them against all their enemies. 
Von Plauen opposed the conclusion of such a treaty 


without the approbation of the Pope ; f or, if hostil- 
ities broke out, all the Catholic powers would become 
united and make common cause against the pro- 
tectors and friends of the heretics. He also stated 
that the impecuniosity of the Order was so great, 
that it was impossible for them to furnish a contin- 
gent to take part in the war. Besides, if they did 
so, all their domains in foreign coimtries would be 
liable to confiscation. The arguments of the Grand 
Master had the effect of causing the treaty with 
Bohemia to be postponed. 

The Chancellor of Poland now accused the Grand 
Master of haying privately instigated the Pope not 
to ratify the perpetual peace. This Von Plauen 
indignantly denied, and defied his accusers to sub- 
stantiate the charge. 

At the last sitting of the great council of 
ministers, the King demanded of the Grand Master 
that he should not receive or allow to be published 
any letters patent of the Pope against the Bishops of 
Culm and Ermland, and also that no bishop should 
be acknowledged without first having received his 
royal consent. This Von Plauen was obliged to 
agree to. The meeting broke up, and the Grand 
Master and his advisers returned to Prussia loaded 
with presents from Casimir, but it was evident to all 
that the King regarded the knights as unmistakably 

Von Plauen, who had reached an advanced age, 
was, on account of the fatigues of the return 


journey, compelled to make a halt at Mohrungen, 
and here, whilst at dinner, lie was seized with an 
apoplectic fit, from which he never recovered. He 
died January 2, 1470, and was buried at Konigs- 
berg beside his predecessor, Ludwig von ErHchs- 
hausen. Through the energy and discretion of Von 
Plauen, the condition not only of the territory of 
the knights, but also of that held by Poland, had 
been greatly improved, and through his prudent 
policy the animosity which rankled among the 
members of the league began to show signs- of 
gradual extinction. Contemporaneous with the 
death of Von Plauen was that of the patriotic Von 
Zinnenberg, who breathed his last in great poverty 
at Culm. 

Heinrich von Richtenberg, who had formerly 
been Companion of the Grand Master, and at the 
conclusion of the peace with Poland was made 
Grand Comthur, was elected Stadtholder. Shortly 
after the death of Von Plauen, the Chapter of 
Samland elected as bishop Michael Schonwald, the 
prebendary of the cathedral, and sent delegates to 
Rome to obtain the Papal sanction. But Dietrich von 
Cuba, supported by the Deutschmaster and his 
friends at the Holy See, succeeded in getting him- 
self appointed instead, and induced his rival to 
content himself with one of the most valuable posts 
in the bishopric. The Stadtholder at first pretended 
to have no knowledge of Dietrich's intrigues; but 
when he found that the Chapter of Samland offered 


no opposition^ he acknowledged him as ihe 

At a Qrand Chapter held in the autumn of 1470, 
the Stadtholder, Heinrich yon Richtenberg, was 
chosen Grand Master, and William of Eppingen 
was made Grand Comthur. The Masters of the 
Order were present; the Deutschmaster sent two 
representatives, and from this circumstance it may 
be inferred that the head of the Order in Germany 
no longer regarded the Grand Master in Prussia as 
his superior. Scarcely had Von Richtenberg been 
elected when messengers arrived, calling upon him 
to appear before Casimir to take the oath of alle- 
giance, and to give his opinion as to the line of 
action to be adopted on the invasion of the Turks, 
the Pope having previously addressed a letter to 
the Grand Master, requesting the knights to join in 
a common crusade against that nation. Von Rich- 
tenberg took the oath of allegiance November 17, 
and Casimir then received the Papal legate, Alex- 
ander von Forli, and informed him that nothing 
could be undertaken towards carrying out the Pope's 
wishes until the Pontiff had sanctioned the perpetual 
peace, a sanction which the legate promised to do 
his utmost to obtain. 

As the knights were still indebted for war ex- 
penses, the Grand Master, on his return to Prussia, 
assembled a Chapter at Konigsberg, where several 
most stringent economical reforms in the Order were 


A Landtag was assembled in the beginning of 
1471, when the deputies, finding that the knights 
had reduced their own pay and allowances, con- 
sented to a general income tax for the period of a 
year. The Bishop Dietrich von Cuba also assisted 
in inducing some of the mercenaries to agree to the 
terms of the Order. 

The dispute with reference to the See of Ermland 
continued up to the death of Pope Paul, in 1471, 
and Sixtus IV., who succeeded him, desired to 
come to terms with the Kin g of Poland. Casimir's 
nominee in Ermland haying died, he appointed 
Andreas Oporowski, Canon of Plotzk, as Bishop of 
Ermland, and Sixtus IV. seized this opportunity to 
gratify the King by acknowledging the new bishop, 
although he was thereby annulling the election of 
Nicolaus yon Tiingen, which had been sanctioned 
by the former Pope. Von Tiingen now determined 
to attempt to take forcible possession of his 
bishopric, counting on the assistance of the Hun- 
garians (who were then at war with Poland) and 
of the Margraye of Brandenburg, together with the 
discontented mercenaries, who, their pay being as 
usual hopelessly in arrear, were now in open reyolt 
against the Order.* With the assistance of 

* CaaimiTi at the request of the knights, had ordered the Duke of 
Sagan not to press the Grand Master for the moneys due. But the 
Duke, finding that payment was constantly postponed, demanded an 
immediate settlement from the King, but received little satisfaction 
in that quarter. Von Sagan, with a huge number of Silesians, 


mercenaries he seized Braunsberg and several other 
neighbouring towns. 

The Grand Master, feeling himself too weak to 
put down the revolt, requested Bishop Dietrich 
to mediate. Accordingly, with the permission of 
the King of Poland, a Landtag was held at Elbing ; 
but the demands of the mercenaries were so exorbi- 
tant, that the knights declined to entertain them, at 
which the leaders of these hirelings were greatly 
incensed, and not only bade defiance to the Order, 
but also to the King of Poland. At the sitting, the 
Waiwode of Lancziz accused the Grand Master of 
being in direct communication with Bishop Nicolaus 
von Tiingen, and that he had wilfully allowed that 
prelate to enter Prussia, being anxiotTs for the 
expulsion of the new Polish Bishop of Culm. If 
this were true, we must regard the conduct of the 
Grand Master as an intrigue by which to conciliate 
the goodwill of the league and the Polish 
Prussians, who were greatly adverse to Poles 
occupying any considerable post in their country. 
At last it was arranged that the question of Bishop 
von Tiingen's right to the See of Ermland should be 
decided by the Pope. The King of Poland, how- 
ever, stipulated that, pending this decision, certain 
castles belonging to the see should be handed over 

thereupon seued Soldan and its diatricts, and, in an attempt to 
disperse the mercenaries, the knights and their retainers were shame- 
folly defeated. 


^to his custody. His Prussian subjects refused to do 
this or to expel the bishop, and the determined 
attitude of the citizens of Thorn induced Casimir 
to forego his plan of forcibly occupying the 

The Grrand Master, to increase his influence at 
Rome, had filled up the vacant post of procurator 
by the Bishop of Samland, Dietrich von Cuba, for 
the space of one year. The bishop proposed to 
afford pecuniary assistance to the Ghrand Master by 
obtaining from the Pope several letters of in- 
dulgence; the money thus acquired to be divided 
between the Pope, the bishop, and the Grrand 
Master. On Von Cuba's return from Rome, it was 
soon found that, if the collection of the money 
remained in his hands, little or none would ever 
be touched by the knights, as the bishop arrogated 
to himself the right of first satisfying the claims of 
his own see. To counteract this design, the Grand 
Master ordered the bishop only to grant indul- 
gences to his own subjects, and that the Bulls should 
not be promulgated for another year. Von Cuba 
agreed to this latter condition, and offered to sur- 
render one-half of the receijpts arising from the sale, 
provided the Grand Master would at once lend him 
100,000 gulden. Von Richtenberg evaded these 
proposals, but requested the bishop to allow the 
collecting of the war tax in his see, to enable him 
to pay the mercenaries their arrears. Von Cuba 
declined ; whereupon the Grand Master invited the 


bishop to meet him at Thorn, accompanied by his 
principal officials. On the other hand, the prelate 
demanded that Von Richtenberg and all the 
knights should meet him at the church of St. 
Nicholas, and thence accompany him, with all the 
honours of a sovereign prince, to hiL apartmente, 
while the Bulls should be carried in advance of the 
cavalcade. This the Grand Master would not do, 
but sent some of his principal officers to receive the 
ambitious prelate. Von Cuba on the ensuing day 
scornfully refused to proceed to the presence of the 
Grand Master, unless he were conducted thither as 
Papal legate and procurator. The knights, how- 
ever, continuing resolute, the bishop at last agreed 
to postpone the publication of the Bulls for a short 
time, that the war tax should be levied in his see 
after the space of twelve months, and to give a part 
of the money obtained by him from the sale of 
indulgences, but he would never renounce his abso- 
lute right of collecting the money. 

Shortly after this, the Master in Franconia in- 
formed the Grand Master that Von Cuba had 
stripped the churches in Samland of all their 
principal treasures to enable him to purchase the 
Bull and the rank of legate, and that during 
his presence in Rome he had actually received 
from his bishopric the sum of 3,200 ducats, while 
he still owed a large sum of money to the Holy See. 
Again, from letters which fell into the hands of the 
Grand Master, from the Kurfurst Frederick of 


Bavaria to the Bishop of Samland, it came to light 
that this ecclesiastic had requested the assistance of 
Frederick of Bavaria at Eome, and that he himself 
intended secretly to leave Prussia to proceed to the 
Ciourt of that prince, after having sold his indul« 
gences as profitably as possible. 

On February 16, 1474, Von Cuba issued a letter 
dated from K5nigsberg to all the bishops and 
prelates of the country, calling upon them to publish 
from their pastoral chairs the Papal Bull, which 
some of them did, and a very considerable sum of 
money was collected. It now became evident that 
the legate, Von Cuba, intended conveying this 
money out of Prussia to buy protection from the 
Papal Court. As an efEectual counter stroke, the 
Grand Master had Von Cuba arrested and conveyed 
to the castle of Tapiau, and called together repre* 
sentatives of the principal towns and of the country 
of Samland to give their opinion as to the recent 
conduct of the bishop. The assembly declared that 
the condition of all classes in the see was far more 
prosperous than the rest of Prussia when Dietrich 
von Cuba was appointed, and that the churches and 
ecclesiastical establishments were then amply supplied 
and adorned with plate and other costly articles ; but 
that the bishop had stripped them of nearly every- 
thing, and that they were now hopelessly in debt. 
These statements were fully confirmed by the Chapter 
of Samland. The Grand Master now forwarded to 
the Archbishop of Riga a written complaint, con- 


taining the charges brought against Von Cuba ; but 
the archbishop, although fully convinced of the 
correctness of the indictments, informed the Grand 
Master that, as Metropolitan and Archbishop of 
Prussia, he should be obliged to place him and aU 
those who had assisted in bringing about the arrest 
of the bishop under the ban if they did not at once 
release their prisoner. The knights had now no other 
alternative but to order their procurator at Rome to 
bring forward their accusations against the bishop. 

After six months' confinement Von Cuba attempted 
to escape. He was thereupon conducted to a cell, 
where he was manacled to the wall, and it is said 
that he died shortly after from the severity of the 
punishment. That his death was not violent was 
proved by his body being taken to Konigsberg and 
publicly exhibited before being interred. Seven 
persons who had witnessed his death proceeded to 
Rome to be interrogated by Pope Sixtus, who was 
at first greatly enraged at the way in which Von 
Cuba had been treated, but he was pacified on 
receiving a large donation from the Order. 

Von Richtenberg granted to the Samlanders 
several valuable privileges in connexion with the 
right of inheritance. Also, to prevent Casimir 
interfering with the affairs of the bishopric, he 
made several concessions to Poland for the pre- 
vention of smuggling and other illicit trades on the 
frontier, which were detrimental to the revenue of 
that country. 


A regular court was appointed to be held annually, 
to hear and decide on all frontier disputes. Secretly, 
however, the Grand Master was intriguing at this 
time with Matthias Corvinus, King of Hungary, 
the Duke of Masovia, and the discontented leaders 
of the league, to expel the Poles from Prussia, but 
death prevented Von Richtenberg from carrying 
out his patriotic object. He died February 31, 
1477. His opponents declare that his end was 
a miserable one, and that he was haunted to the 
last with visions of the murdered bishop. 

Von Richtenberg was a man of superior talents, 
and appears on the whole to have ruled the country 
in a just and humane manner. At his death the 
people were prosperous, and the predominance of 
Poland was on the wane. 

Martin Truchses von Wetzhausen, Comthur of 
Osterode, was raised to the dignity of Grand 
Master on the 4th of August, 1477. Truchses, 
having received promises of support from the Eong 
of Hungary and his friends in Germany, refused to 
take the oath of allegiance to tlie King of Poland, 
who thereupon invaded Ermland, but was checked 
in liis advance by the Grand Master. On Casimir 
becoming reconciled with Matthias Corvinus, Von 
Wetzhausen deemed it prudent to meet the King of 
Poland at Petrikau ; but he still declined to swear 
allegiance, whereupon Casimir broke off all negotia- 
tions. The councillors and envoys entreated the 
resolute Grand Master to come to a reconciliation, 

VOL. II. q 

226 mSTOBT OF prussu, 

and he at length, not caring that Casimir should 
resort to extreme measures, followed him to Neu« 
stadt, where he took the oath, October 9, 1479. 

Casimir then paid the Order 8,000 gulden on his 
troops re-occupying Culm, and two further sums of 
1,480 gulden and 3,000 gulden, fixed by the com* 
missioners who had been appointed to estimate the 
damage done by the Polish troops in Ermland. 
But this money was not nearly sufficient to cover 
the debt which the knights had incurred in raising 
mercenaries for the war of independence. They 
actually owed at this time to Von Sagan alone the 
sum of 39,800 gulden. To pay off a part of these 
onerous burdens, therefore, fresh taxes were im- 
posed, and the right of the Order to take possession 
of all stranded property was enforced. 

Up to the year 1483 the Grand Master was con- 
stantly engaged in petty disputes with the prelates 
concerning the appropriation of the money derived 
from granting indulgences. 

In 1487 the Grand Master called together a great 
Landtag, where he made several concessions which 
greatly increased his popularity. This determined 
defender of the rights of the Order breathed his last 
on the 5th of January, 1489. 

Johann von Tiefen, who had been Comthur of 
the town of Brandenburg in 1481, was now elected 
Grand Master (1489), and, after taking the oath of 
allegiance, he commenced devoting all his energies 
to the improvement and welfare of the people. In 


1492 Casimir died. As it was through his policy 
that Prussia became a fief of Poland, it may not be 
out of place to make a few remarks on his reign and 
character. In most of his actions the ideas of Ja- 
gello come to the surface. The Poles naturally dis- 
liked him for having contrived to bring about the 
separation of Lithuania from Poland during his 
brother's absence. The crafty monarch had, how- 
ever^ done this to enable him, should he succeed his 
brother, to make the union of the two kingdoms 
conditional on the nobles relieving him from 
swearing to the Pacta Conventa ; but he was, after 
all, forced by the threat of the election of another 
candidate to follow the example of his predecessors 
and take the oath. 

Ivan Basilevitch, the antitype of Peter the Great, 
after having taken possession of Novgorod, had 
subjugated Sieweritz and a part of White Russia ; 
Casimir, not being very certain of the friendship of 
the Russians, considered it advisable to allow the 
Muscovite conqueror to retain his acquisitions as the 
price of peace. This induced the Tartars to invade 
Lithuania, but they were defeated in two engage- 
ments by John Albert, Gasimir's son. 

On the death of Wladislaus, Hungary and Bo- 
hemia became the scene of a revolutionary struggle. 
Casimir, having married the daughter of Albert, was 
the legitimate heir ; but the Hussite, George Podie- 
brad, made himself Regent of Bohemia, and Matthias 
Corvinus, son of the celebrated Hunyady, seized 



the crown of Hungary. Matthias, finding that 
Casimir, hampered by his di£ferences with the 
Order, declined to accept the throne of Bohemia 
either for himself or his son, after Podiebrad's ex« 
communication by the Pope, determined to unite 
that kingdom with Hungary. 

On the death of George Podiebrad, Wladislaus, 
who was greatly disliked by his father, was crowned 
King of Bohemia at Prague. Casimir now com- 
menced intriguing with the disaffected Hungarian 
nobles for the deposition of Matthias Corvinus, and 
despatched his second son Casimir with 20,000 
Poles to expel the son of Hunyady ; but they were 
defeated by Matthias, and driven across the frontier. 
On the death of this great Hungarian, his country- 
men elected John Albert, the third son of Casimir; 
but Wladislaus, who was as ambitious and unprin- 
cipled as his father, gained over to his side the 
widow of Matthias, and with her assistance had 
himself proclaimed king. A fierce and desperate 
fratricidal war commenced. John Albert was de- 
feated and taken prisoner, and was not released 
until he had renounced all claims to the throne of 
Hungary, whilst Casimir, in indignation and re- 
venge for the unnatural conduct of his son Wladis- 
laus, disinherited him; and writers affirm that the 
anxiety and distress caused by these troubles 
hastened the King's death. 

Under Casimir's rule, the system of representative 
Diets was introduced, each palatinate and every 

DEATH OF Von tiefen. 229 

district sending two deputies. From this period 
Poland was to all intents end purposes an aristo- 
cratic republic, and the sole labour of the Diet was 
to destroy the power of the executive, and reduce 
all who were not of noble origin to the worst con- 
dition of serfdom. Casimir was succeeded by his 
third son John Albert, in 1492. 

In the year 1497, in compliance with a request 
from the King of Poland for assistance against the 
Turks, the Grand Master, at the head of 800 horse* 
men, proceeded to join the King, but died on the 
march, at Lemberg, from an attack of dysentery. 
The knights who accompanied John Albert on this 
unfortunate expedition had to cover his rear in the 
retreat from Moldavia, where they were surrounded 
and nearly all cut to pieces, so that but few returned 
to Prussia. Von Tiefen had reached an advanced 
age when elected, but he possessed all the activity 
and energy of a young man. He had raised him- 
self from the lowest post in the Order to that of 
Grand Master, and appears to have been beloved by 
every one for his manifold good qualities. His body 
was interred with great pomp, and he was the last 
Grand Master of the Teutonic Order who was 
buried in the crypt of the cathedral of Konigsberg. 

At a General Chapter, the majority of the knights 
wore of opinion that the only means of preventing 
the downfall of the Order, and of achieving the 
expulsion of the Poles, was the election of some 
powerful German prince, who could count on suffix 


cient external assistance to accomplish these objects. 
Messengers were therefore despatched to Germany, 
and the friends of the Order advised the knights to 
elect Duke Frederick of Saxony, which they did in 
1498. The Duke hesitated at first to throw off the 
^egianco to Poland, but, being assured of the 
assistance of the Kurfursts at the Reichstag at 
Augsburg and Freitag, he entered Prussia, accom- 
panied by a considerable retinue. John Albert, on 
Lli.^^ 4- him to «w»r fealty, Met «a, a 
firm refusal, the Duke alleging that he was for- 
bidden to do so by the Emperor. Hostilities now 
became imminent, but the death of John Albert 
established a temporary calm. His brother Alex- 
ander, who succeeded to the throne, now appealed 
to Pope Julius II., and so far successfully that Duke 
Frederick received orders from the Holy See to 
fulfil the conditions of the treaty of Thorn ; but the 
Grand Master referred the Pontiff to the conclave 
of cardinals and the Emperor. In 1504 Duke 
Frederick proceeded to the Reichstag at Cologne, 
where he attempted to prove the illegality of the 
treaty of Thorn. The Emperor had already, prior 
to this, given substantial proofs that he regarded 
the principal towns of Prussia as imperial, and 
Dantzic was shortly after placed under the ban for 
disobeying the imperial edict. 

Both sides now began preparing for war. In 
1506 the Pope attempted to interfere, but tlie Poles 
contended that the peace of Thorn was still in f orce^ 


and therefore they did not require his mediation. 
The Grand Master assembled a Landtag, at which 
the police laws of Kuchmeister and Erlichshausen 
were renewed, and arrangements were made for 
mustering all the available forces of the Order, as 
it was expected that the new Bang of Poland, Sigis- 
mund, who had succeeded his brother Alexander, 
would commence taking active measures to punish 
the contumacy of the knights, who, through their 
Grand Master, still refused to take the oath of 
fealty. The Grand Master informed the Landtag 
at Memel that he had gained over to the side 
of the Order the Emperor Maximilian, the King of 
Hungary, and his own house, and that he himseK 
intended to return to Germany. At the suggestion 
of Duke Frederick, to prevent bloodshed if possible, 
the Emperor and the King of Hungary now opened 
negotiations with the King of Poland. At a confer- 
ence which was held at Posen (1510), Duke Frederick 
demanded of the Polish King that that part of the 
treaty of Thorn which bound the Grand Masters to 
take the oath of allegiance to him should no longer 
continue in force, and that the admission of Poles 
into the Order should be discontinued. Sigismund 
would not forego his right of receiving the oath of 
allegiance, but he was not imwilling to make other 
concessions. As neither party would give way in 
regard to the vexed question, the conference broke 
up, but it was agreed that a fresh meeting should 
take place. 


The interest of the Order requiring the presence 
of the Grand Master in Germany on the first f avourr 
able opportunity, he handed over the government 
of the country during his absence to William von 
Eisenberg as Stadtholder, assisted by the Grand 
Comthur, Simon von Drahn. Unfortunately, at this 
juncture Duke Frederick died suddenly, in 1510, 
at Rochlitz, and his death caused considerable 
disunion amongst the knights. 

The Stadtholder, William von Eisenberg, 
favoured the idea of another German prince 
being made Grand Master. His opponents urged 
that, if a prince were elected, he would not be 
content with the present revenue of that high 
office, and that fresh taxes would therefore have 
to be enforced, which would create discontent 
amongst the people. Moreover, the friendship 
of the Emperor appeared likely to prove very 
one-sided, that is to say, the title of Grand Master 
would probably be made hereditary in the family 
of the elected prince, on his agreeing to throw off 
his connexion with Poland and place Prussia under 
the rule of the Emperors of Germany. There was 
also another great peril to the Order in having a 
German prince at its head, as the religious conten- 
tions in Germany already gave signs of an impend- 
ing storm, and the prince elected might, by his 
family ties, be drawn into the vortex. 



A.D. 1510-1622. 

The Margrave Albrecht of Brandenbnzg elected Grand Master 
(1511) refuses to take the Oath of Allegiance to his Uncle 
Sigiamund — Diet of Posen (1515) — Death of the Emperor 
Maximilian — Sigismimd summons the Grand Master to 
Thorn (1519) — Sigismund invades Pnisaia — Devastates Pome- 
sania — Armistice — Negotiations for Peace (1620) — Siege of 
Heilsberg — Discontent of the Mercenaries — Equivocal Policy 
of the Grand Master — Mediation of the Emperor Charles Y. — 
Four Years' Truce (1621) — Conditions— Siege of Belgrade — 
Condition of Prussia — ^Debasement of Coinage — Expedients 
for raising Money — ^The Grand Master assumes Sovereign 
Power — His Underhand Policy — The Grand Master repairs 
to Prague (1622) — George, Bishop of Samland, Regent 

The Stadtholder, William von Eiaenberg, who 
was already in negotiation with Joachim, Kurfiirat 
of Brandenburg, was induced by that prince to 
bring forward as candidate for the post of Grand 
Master his cousin, the Margrave Albrecht of Bran^ 
denburg, grandson of Albert Achilles, and nephew 
of Sigismund, King of Poland. His election was 
supported by the Emperor Maximilian and Duke 
Qeorge of Saxony. 


The young prince had been educated by the 
Archbishop of Cologne, and had been present at 
the siege of Padua, and, under the care of his 
father, had accompanied Maximilian in most of his 
military expeditions. At the time of his accepting 
the candidature, he occupied the post of canon of 
the cathedral of Cologne, and had not yet attained 
his twenty-second year. Albrecht possessed all 
those peculiar talents without which a ruler in this 
stormy era could scarcely maintain his footing. 

The King of Poland approved of the selection, 
but demanded that the new Grand Master should 
swear allegiance within six months. On the 13th 
of February, 1511, the Margrave Albrecht of Bran- 
denburg was solemnly invested with the insignia 
of Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights at 
Mergentheim, and in the following year he made 
his triumphal entry into Konigsberg. His £j:st step 
was to restore order in Samogitia, which was then 
in a very unsettled condition. As the trade in 
amber was one of the chief sources of the Order's 
revenue, the Grand Master organized a regular 
body of custom-house officers to patrol along the 
beach to prevent its being illegally collected. 

Casimir, the brother of the Margrave, a man of a 
subtle and intriguing disposition, had been commis- 
sioned by the Grand Master to induce Sigismund to 
modify his demands concerning the oath of alle- 
giance. Sigismund, to strengthen his friendly rela- 
tions with his nephew, the Grand Master, invited 


the latter to his marriage with the daughter of 
Stephen Zapohay^ and sister of John of Hungary. 

The young Grand Master, who saw in this a 
trap cunningly laid to force him to take the oath 
of allegiance, declined the invitation, and sent the 
Pomesanian bishop, Von Dobencck, with a biilHant 
suite to represent him at the ceremony. 

Sigismund, who knew that the wealth and influ- 
ence of the family of Brandenburg would be of the 
greatest assistance to him in the war he was then 
waging against the Muscovites under Glinski, now 
offered to allow the Grand Master annually the sum 
of 2,000 ducats and cede to him considerable terri- 
tory in Podolia on his acknowledging his vassal- 

These overtures were declined, as the young 
Grand Master hoped, with the assistance of the Pope 
and his family, not only to make himself indepen- 
dent, but also to recover all Polish Prussia should 
any disaster befall the Polish army in Russia. 

The King of Poland now despatched ambassadors 
to Rome to secure the support of Pope Leo X., but 
the Pontiff remained firm to the interest of the 
Order, and reprimanded the King for not having 
accepted the Grand Master's proposed compromise ; 
he further advised him to refer the decision of the 
entire affair to the Lateran Council. 

In return for this, the Grand Master permitted a 
monk, named John Baptist, to sell indulgences from 
the Pope, allowing them to eat food prepared with 


milk to be eaten on fast days, by which the Pontiff 
obtained a very considerable sum of money. 

In the year 1513, to the astonishment of many 
knights who had supported the election of the Mar- 
grave Albert, the forebodings of their opponents 
were verified, for at a Reichstag, which was held in 
1513 at Treves and also at Cologne, it was proposed 
that the territory of the Order should be incorpo- 
rated into the German Empire. The Margrave, find- 
ing that this discussion did not create any outburst 
of opposition amongst the strong opposition on the 
part of the knights, determined to exercise his sove- 
reign power; and in 1513 offered to renounce all the 
rights of the Grand Masters over Liefland (Livonia), 
together with the yearly tribute which the Master 
of Liefland had to pay to the Grand Masters, on 
condition of the former paying him a ton of gold. 
As no opposition followed this audacious violation 
of all the rules of the knights, the Margrave now 
commenced ruling as an independent sovereign. 

Some idea can be formed of the influence of the 
Brandenburg family at this time from the fact that 
the King of Poland, at a Diet at Posen (1515), 
declared that he no longer objected to the Order 
consisting of nothing but German knights, and the 
Emperor withdrawing the interdict which he had 
placed on Dantzic and Elbing at the request of the 
Grand Master. 

The cause of these concessions was as fol* 
lows t — 


Both Sigismund and the Emperor required the 
alliance of the Zollem family. The former knew 
that, if he could depend on them, he would be in a 
position to prosecute his war against the Russians 
and Turks. The Emperor, in his turn, desired their 
alliance to enable him to carry out his ambitious 
projects towards Bohemia and Hungary, 

The Grand Master's treasury being in a satisfac- 
tory condition, ho reprovisioned the strongholds, 
and made large purchases of war material. 

In 1517, under the pretext of contracting an 
o£Eensiye and defensive alliance with Brandenburg, 
he persuaded the knights to resign their right to the 
repurchase of the Neumark. 

At a conference of the princes of the family, the 
representative of the Master of Liefland, Walter 
von Plettenberg, declared that that province would 
assist the Grand Master if he openly refused to take 
the oath of allegiance to the Polish King, and the 
Brandenburgers, in return for the concessions the 
knights liad made to them, guaranteed a free pas- 
sage of troops through the Neumark and their 

In the year 1518 Sigismund, having lost his queen, 
espoused Princess Bonna Sforza, daughter of Duke 
John of Milan.* By this marriage Sigismund hoped 

* The Dake of Sforza was a descendant of Jacopo Attendolo, 
who was born at Faenza of humble parentage. The exploits of the 
Conduttieri excited his youthful imagination, and he left the plough 
to enlist under Alb^rioo da Barbiano. In a great battle fought at 


to detach MaximiKan from his alliance with the 
Order. In fact, Polish historians state that the 
Emperor not only undertook to help Poland against 
the Muscovites, but also to force the Grand Master 
to take the oath of allegiance. Unfortunately for 
Sigismund, the Emperor Maximilian died in 1519, 
and was succeeded by his grandson Charles V. 

The Poles were unable to commence hostilities on 
account of their armies being on the frontiers of 
Bussia. In the same year (1519), the hired troops who 
had been subsidized by the Grand Master commenced 
operations by burning Meseritz, but were defeated 
in their attempt to penetrate into Polish Prussia 
by way of Konitz and Posen. After this check the 
greater part of the mercenaries entered the service 
of Christian II. of Denmark, who, with the assistance 
of the Archbishop of Upsala, was attempting to 
re-conquer Sweden. But the » Grand Master was 
nothing daunted, although he feared that the new 
Emperor Charles V. would in all probability side 
with Poland. It has been stated that the Emperor 

Marino against the '' Breton Company " in the pay of Pope Gre- 
gory XI.y Jacopo Attendolo performed such feats of valour that his 
name became celebrated all over Italy nnder the surname of Sforza. 
After a series of triumphs in the pay of various Italian republicsi 
he became High Constable under Janna IL of Naples. For having 
recovered Rome for Pope Martin, he received as reward the fief of 
Cotignola, his native place, with the title of Count. He met his 
death while crossing the river Pescara, and his son Francesco Sforza 
after bis death became Duke of Milan. 


had written to the Grand Master, calling upon him 
to take the oath of allegiance to the King of Poland, 
Nevertheless, whetlier Sigismund believed he could 
reckon on the aid of the Emperor or not, he ordered 
the Grand Master to appear before him at Thorn, 
As no notice was taken of this summons, Sigismund 
entered Prussia at the head of 20,000 men, and on 
the 19th of December,' 1519, declared war against the 

The Poles as usual commenced plimdering the 
country, Pomesania being the first to experience 
their tender mercies. The Grand Master, availing 
Inmself of this, suddenly surprised and captured 
Bi^aunsberg, the inhabitants of which were forced to 
take the oath of allegiance. We are told that the 
burgomaster connived at the easy surrender of the 
town. The Poles on their side in a very short time 
seized several important places, and defeated a corps 
of the knights at Liebemuhl. In a second engage* 
ment the knights were commanded by the Margrave 
in person, but were repulsed, and the Grand Master 
was wounded ; and in consequence of this disaster 
Mohrungen and Osterode submitted to Sigismund. 
A force of 8,000 Poles now laid siege to Prussian 
Holland, but they were compelled to retire pre- 
cipitately, and in their retreat they were overtaken 
by the knights and totally routed, with the loss of 
2,000 men in killed, wounded, and prisoners. 

The war was now prosecuted with only partial 
success on either side« Melsack was captured by 


the Order ; Marienwerder by the Poles. The Bishop 
of Pomesania, to save his see from pillage, acknow- 
ledged the supremacy of the King of Poland, an 
act which naturally produced a most disheartening 
eflfect, and Prussian Holland and the towns of 
Brandenburg and Heiligenbcil capitulated. 

The Polish army now advanced to the vicinity of 
Konigsberg, crossed the Pregel, and were about to 
invade Samland, when the Grand Master, believing 
that all was lost, concluded an armistice with the 
King of Poland, and proceeded to Thorn to ascer- 
tain on what conditions a reconciliation could be 
effected. Pending negotiations the Margrave re- 
ceived secret information that King Christian of 
Denmark, having been acknowledged King of 
Sweden and Denmark by the Estates at Upsala, had 
despatched to his assistance 2,500 men. He there- 
upon quitted Thorn and broke off all negotiations. 
The Dantzigers, to prevent the landing of the Danes, 
closed the smaller entrance to the Frische Haff by 
sinking vessels, but were unable to close the wider 
channel, and during these operations they burnt 
part of Memel. The Margrave recaptured Wormdit, 
but Braimsberg still held out. Albrecht now offered 
to conclude a peace with Poland on the following 
terms: — 

The King should deliver over to the Order all 
their former territory, and in return the Grand 
Master offered to acknowledge Sigismund as his 
feudal lord for that portion of the knights' possessions 


fidtuated on the east bank of the Vistula. This 
Sigismund indignantly refused, 

Heilsberg, haying for a long time defied the 
efforts of the Grand Master, had by its constant 
sorties forced him to withdraw his troops. 

During the siege he had thrown upwards of 
800 projectiles and 200 shells into the town. At 
this critical juncture, Wolf von Schoneberg and 
William von Eisenberg, at the head of 14,000 men, 
with nineteen pieces of artiUery and two large siege 
guns, arrived in Prussia to the assistance of the 
Order; but they brought with them no military 
chest, provision, or stores, and for some imaccoimt- 
able reason the Grand Master seems to have made 
no attempt to supply the mercenaries with these, 
the most necessary item of war at such a time — ^that 
is, if he wished to spare his people from being 

On the appearance of the Germans, Konitz, 
Stargard, and Dirschau at once surrendered; but 
Dantzic manfully withstood the efforts of the mer- 
cenaries, who now directed their steps to Oliva. 
Here the deputies of Putzig met them, and acknow- 
ledged the supremacy of the Grand Master. Want 
of pay and provisions created great discontent, and, 
finding that the Grand Master made no attempt to 
assist them, they dispersed, and commenced plun- 
dering the country ; but before they could return 
home they were attacked, and the greater part of 
the booty was recaptured. We have just seen 

VOL. n. r 


that the cause of the Q^nnans returning home 
was the want of provisions and money, and that 
the Grand Master made no effort to assist them. 
At the time of which we axe speaking, the Grand 
Master had been reinforced by the Danes, and had 
at hi. eomn^nd a park of aiu^y vastly ^porior 
to any which his opponents could bring into the 
field, and his troops were nearly all commanded by 
veterans. Yet, with all these odds in his favour, he 
never attempted to attack the Polish garrison on 
the Werder, which commanded the passage of the 
Vistula, although it was only defended by 3,000 
Poles. Had he done this, the Margrave could have 
effected a junction with the German contingent. 
In case of his being defeated, the possession of 
Braunsberg would have covered his retreat ; besides, 
the Poles and their subjects in Prussia must have 
su^de^d, had the M^gravo joined his Ge^uo. 
allies. If we take the above into consideration, it 
appears highly probable that the Margrave was 
actuated by some ulterior motive, for the purpose 
of destroying the power of the knights. 

After the defeat of the Germans, Albrecht greatly 
increased his military chest, by imposing heavy' 
war contributions in the shape of income tax and 
other obnoxious imposts. The priests and nobles 
were also compelled to contribute their share. The 
lead was taken from the roofs of the churches and 
converted into shot, and the church bells were cast 
into cannon. 


It is true that the conquests made by the German 
mercenaries were soon lost to the Poles, but the 
Grand Master captured Johannisburg, in Masovia, 
and defeated a troop of Tartars, for Sigismimd had 
now a considerable force of these barbarians in his pay. 

In 1521 the Order captured Ghitstadt* Elbing 
would also have been captured by surprise, had not 
the knights retreated on the death of their leader. 
Both belligerents now shunned an engagement in 
the open field, and contented themselves with plun- 
dering and devastating each other's territory. 

During these hostilities, the envoys of the Emperor 
Charles V. and Wladislaus of Hungary had been 
attempting to bring about a peace, and in April, 
1521, a four years' truce was concluded. 

The conditions of the truce were : — 

1. That all hostilities should immediately cease. 

2. That the question as to the oath of allegiance 
should be referred to the Emperor, aided by the 
advice of the Cardinal Matthew of Salzburg and 
Duke George of Saxony, and, in the absence of the 
Emperor, by Archduke Ferdinand and King Lewis 
of Hungary and Bohemia, aided by the advice of 
Cardinal Thomas of Grau and Bishop George of 

3. The mercenaries of the Order were to return 
to Pomerania, the King of Poland undertakings to 
pay and support them during their march. 

4. The arbitrators had also to decide in respect of 
aU conquests made by both belligerents. 

r 2 


6. All prisoners on both sides to be set at liberty ; 
and no change was be made in the above terms 
until the arbitrators had given their decision. 

Finally, it was agreed that the Pope should be 
requested to instruct the above-mentioned cardinals 
to steadfastly endeavour to eflfect a permanent peace 
before the expiration of the truce. 

What chiefly induced Sigismund to conclude this 
truce was the siege of Belgrade by the Sultan Soli- 
man, who, having no other conquest to make in 
Asia, was resolved to throw his immense forces into 

By the truce the Polish King was able to detach 
a force of 6,000 men, under Count Tamowski, to 
the succour of Belgrade. A large portion of Prussia 
had now been reduced to poverty and starvation. 
Party feuds had greatly increased, and the roads 
were no longer safe for travellers. By circulating 
bad coin, the Prussian money was reduced to only 
one-third of its original value. The only person 
who profited by the war was the Margrave, for by 
his exactions his military chest was full, and he had a 
well trained and efficient force of his own adherents. 

Strengthened by this, he now had his own enact- 
ments published by having them attached to the 
doors of the churches, without asking the advice of 
the Landtag or any of his fellow-knights. Various 
calumnious reports were now artfully circulated 
against the Order by the German agents of tlio 


But the Prussians began to suspect the real 
designs of Albrecht, and at the Landtag of Bar- 
tenstein, 1521, the deputies declared that they 
objected to the assumption of sovereign power by 
the Grand Master, and that they were determined 
to remain faithful to the Order. The insolent con- 
duct of many of the Franconian nobles, who had 
followed Albreoht to Prussia, created such dis- 
content that the Margrave Casimir was obliged to 
leave Prussia, and the following illegal act of the 
Margrave excited the hatred of the priests. At the 
commencement of the war, he had ordered aU 
the silver ornaments and precious articles of the 
churches and religious establishments to be con- 
veyed to Konigsberg, under the plea of saving them 
from being carried off by the Poles. 

In order to obtain a fresh supply of money, the 
Grand Master now deliberately had them melted 
down and struck into money. Not content with 
this, he attempted again to mulct his unfortunate 
subjects. The towns at first refused, but by dis- 
missing many burgomasters and other officials, and 
replacing them by willing instruments, he, with the 
assistance of the nobles, attained his object. 

The Margrave had, some time previously, inti- 
mated to his councillors that he intended pleading 
the cause of the Order at Nuremberg, and induced 
the Regent to assemble the arbitrators to bring 
about an early peace with Poland, but to effect this 
fresh funds were necessary. The subjects of the 


Order had now become thoroughly convinced of the 
utter impossibility of renewing the struggle with 
Poland, and that no help could be expected from 
Germany on account of the religious agitation. In 
order to imderstand why the Grand Master required 
so much money, we must bear in mind that, in the 
days of which we are speaMng, favours could only 
be obtained from the advisers of European sove- 
reigns by means of bribes. 

Albrecht's interests were represented at the Court 
of Poland by his brother, the Margrave Casimir; 
at Rome, by the Margrave John ; at the Court of 
Vienna, by Heinrich and Dietrich von Schoneberg, 
George of Saxony, and Doberitz, the Duke of 
liegnitz; at Presburg, by the Margrave George. 
His interests at the Reichstag were represented by 
his cousin, the Archbishop of Mentz. Although 
ostensibly supporting the interests of the knights, 
these representativiBs had had secret instructions to 
destroy their power, and secure Prussia for the 
Grand Master and his family. 

During the negotiations for a truce, hostilities 
were still carried on, and the Hungarian merce- 
naries committed frightful excesses on the subjects 
of the Order. Some idea may be formed as to the 
debasement of coin when we find Albrecht writing 
to his secretary, " It matters little so long as they 
have the external appearance of purity, and the 
mercenaries are ready to accept them." 

On the 25th of May, 1521, Bishop Hiob of Po* 


mesania died suddenly. The Grand Master seized 
this opportunity to obtain the election either of one 
of his relations or some willing instrument, through 
the medium of his brother John, who was then at 
Rome. The Pontiflf gave John the Provostship of 
ZschiUen, a very lucrative office. 

The government of the bishopric was intrusted 
by Albrecht to the Haus Comthur of Konigsberg, 
and the ecclesiastical matters to George, Bishop of 
Samland. By these means the greater part of the 
revenue of the bishopric was received by the Grand 
Master imtil the appointment of a fresh bishop. 

We have before seen that the successors of St. Peter 
had several times tmsuccessfuUy requested the Order 
to assist the Hungarians in their wars with the Turks, 
and the Margrave now determined to offer his 
services to the King of Hungary for that purpose. 
In so doing, he knew he would ingratiate himself 
with the Pope, the Emperor, and the King of 
Hungary, and that during his absence Germany 
would protect the Order from any attack on the part 
of Poland. Besides, his army of mercenaries would be 
paid by his allies, and he himself, after the completion 
of the campaign, would have a large outstanding 
debt for his own personal services. 

It is highly probable that Albrecht believed that, 
if he undertook the crusade against the Turks, he 
might be able to induce the King of Poland to 
make concessions prior to his leaving Prussia ; but 
Sigismund, being informed of the Margrave's 


intention and his wish to come to terms, gave a 
most chilling answer to his overtures, and declared 
that if the Grand Master wished to settle matters 
amicably, he had only to carry out the unfulfilled 
conditions of the " perpetual peace.'' 

To counteract any increase of power on the part 
of the Margrave, Sigismund obtained the nomina- 
tion of Cardinal Achilles de Grossis as Bishop of 
Pomesania, with the promise that he would restore 
to the Bishop of Riesenburg the town or city which 
he then held. The cardinal despatched a repre- 
sentative to Pomesania, who formally took possession 
of the see in his name, and arranged that the 
cardinal in his absence should receive annually the 
sum of 3,000 ducats. 

The Grand Master formally protested against the 
proceedings, and called upon Pope Adrian to 
acknowledge the right of the Chapter to elect their 
own bishop. At a Landtag held at Graudenz, March, 
1522, for the purpose of settling some disputes con- 
cerning the trade of the two countries and the coin 
then in circulation in the Order's territory, the 
Grand Master's representatives absented themselves, 
and after a long debate it was decided by the Poles 
that all further commercial intercourse with the 
knights' subjects should be discontinued, and that 
the coins struck in Prussia under the present Grand 
Master should no longer be considered a legal tender 
in Poland, until the Grand Master had repealed the 
exorbitant dues he was exacting. During the war 

LIEFLAin). 249 

with Poland the Grand Master appears to have 
contracted a considerable debt with the Eurfiirst 
Joachim of Brandenburg. This prince had repeatedly 
pressed him for payment. The Grrand Master, who 
had no desire to part with his hoarded wealth, 
called upon the Order in Prussia to enable him to 
raise the necessary funds, as it was utterly impossible 
at that moment to increase the fiscal burdens of 
the country. The Order called upon the Master of 
liefland to assist them, but this officer declared that 
the lieflanders were themselves as heavily taxed as 
the Prussians. The Grand Master now hit upon 
the following plan, by which his individual authority 
over that province would be greatly increased. 

He proposed to his council that they should hand 
over Liefland to Joachim as security for his money, 
and as there was little chance of the Lieflanders 
being able to redeem their province, on account of 
their impecuniosity, the Grand Master could easily, 
if he pleased, redeem Liefland with the funds he had 
hoarded up. His councillors appear to have been 
so utterly blind that they not only agreed to the 
Grand Master's plan, but went to Liefland to arrange 
matters with the Master, who, foreseeing the ulte- 
rior object of Albrecht, assembled a Landtag, 
which unanimously opposed the scheme, and de* 
spatched envoys to Joachim and the Grand Master, 
promising to do all in their power to aid Albrecht 
in repaying the debt. Lewis, King of Hungary, 
now invited the Grand Master to meet him at 


Prague during Easter, which invitation Albrecht 
accepted. After having received the promise of the 
King of Poland that no act of hostility should be 
committed by him or his subjects against the 
knights, the Grand Master left Prussia on the 10th 
of April, 1522. During his absence the government 
of the country was carried on by George, Bishop of 
Samland, as Regent, and William von Eisenberg as 
Stadtholder. King Lewis of Hungary met the Mar- 
grave before the gates of Prague, at the head of all 
his principal nobles and state officials. 

Lewis now seemed to have changed his opinion as 
to the desirability of the Grand Master assisting him 
with a force against the Turks, but he informed the 
Grand Master that he had requested the Eangof Poland 
to send representatives to Vienna, where he and the 
Archduke Ferdinand, who then acted as Regent for 
the Emperor, who was then in Spain, would do their 
best to arrange a peace. During his sojourn in 
Prague, a deputation arrived from the Deutsch- 
master to demand that the Grand Master should 
rule in accordance with the laws and regulations of 
the Teutonic Order. We have seen how the Grand 
Master had constantly violated the statutes of the 
Order for his own personal aggrandizement in 
Prussia, and it would seem that he had been con- 
stantly demanding fresh funds from the Deutsch- 
master without the knowledge or consent of the 
knights ; and another cause of complaint was that 
Albrecht had imdertaken to pay and maintain the 


large contingent of German mercenaries which had 
been despatched to him during the war. Having 
failed to do this^ the mercenaries, on their return to 
Germany, had seized several of the knights' domains, 
which they refused to surrender unless their arrears 
of pay were settled. The Deutschmaster therefore 
required that the Margrave should make himself 
responsible in writing for the sum of 7,000 gulden, 
to assist him in settling with the mercenaries. The 
Deutschmaster had requested the Master of Liefland 
to join him in calling the Grand Master to account, 
but that official, fearing the Margrave might pledge 
his province to the Kurfiirst Joachim, declined to 
have anything to do with the matter. 

Albrecht, who trusted he should be able to obtain 
fresh funds from tiie knights in Germany, gave an 
evasive answer to the deputies, and postponed any 
discussion on the subject until his return to Prussia. 



A.D. 1522-1525. 

The Margr&ve Albrecht repaiis to Nnremberg (1522) — ^AmbiUous 
Designs of the Deutschmaster — ^The Ten Conditions — ^Con- 
ference at Qrandenz (1523) — The Qrand Master enlists Mer- 
cenaries to assist — ^The Fugitive King Christian of Denmark — 
Negotiations of the Margrave to change the Constitution of the 
Order — Consults Martin Luther for Advice (1523) — ^Letter of 
Luther on the Subject — Double Dealing of the Qrand Master — 
First Evangelical Sermon preached at Eonigsberg — Secret 
Instructions of the Margrave to the Regent — Bishop Folenz 
(1524) — Increasing Agitation for Religious Reform — Frotest of 
the Deutschmaster — Discontent at the Grand Master's pro- 
longed Absence from Frussia — Secret Overtures of the Mar^ 
grave to Sigismund — Duplicity of the Grand Master — Fapal 
Remonstrances — Conference of Fresburg postponed — The 
Margrave arrives at Vienna (January, 1525) — Sends Envoys to 
Sigismund at Cracow — Conditions proposed by the King of 
Foland — The Final Treaty — The Margrave enters Cracow 
(April 2, 1525) — Swears Fealty to Sigismund — Returns to 
Eonigsberg (May 9, 1525). 

. The Margrave Albrecht left Prague in the month of 
July, 1522, for Franconia, so as to bo near Nurem- 
berg, where he trusted, through the religious con- 
troversy then agitating Germany, to obtain the 


support of the Papal party in carrying out his 
ambitious views. The condition of Prussia was at 
this period most deplorable. All trade with Poland 
was at a standstill, and foreign merchants deserted 
the ports on account of the heavy import duties and 
debased coinage. The Bishop of Samland induced 
the King of Poland to consent that Polish produce 
might be purchased in Poland for good coin ; but 
this was of no benefit to the subjects of the knights, 
as all the good money had either left the country 
or been withdrawn from circulation for the Grand 
Master's foreign intrigues. It appears that about 
this time Henry VTII. of England also interested 
himself in behalf of the Order, for we find that 
monarch writing on the 22nd of September, 1522, 
requesting the King of Poland to come to terms 
with the Grand Master. 

Albrecht, finding that the King of Hungary and 
the Archduke Ferdinand would not move in the 
matter of appointing a period for a settlement of 
the Polish question without the consent of Sigis- 
mund, instructed his brother, the Margrave John, 
to request the Emperor that the mediators should 
at once name a day for the commencement of tho 
conferences, with or without the consent of either 
the Grand Master or the King of Poland. 

The Deutschmaster, finding that no arrangement 
could be come to with the Margrave, did his utmost 
to have himself acknowledged as imperial prince, 
which position would enable him to treat on terms 


of equality with the Grand Master, and by his 
newly acquired power force the Margrave to rule 
in Prussia in accordance with the regulations of the 
Order, In fonner times the Deutschmaster occupied 
the same post in the Reichstag as the Grand Master 
during the latter's absence. Albrecht, on learning 
the designs of the Deutschmaster, spared no effort 
to prevent their accomplishment, 

KOnigsberg and the other towns of Prussia were 
now on the verge of revolt. They had, in fact, 
refused to pay the increased taxes. The Bishop of 
Samland, who acted as Regent, had made himself 
odious to the people by the inexorable and hard- 
hearted manner in which he carried out the orders 
of the Margrave for raising fresh funds. 

In the midst of this turmoil of intrigue, misery, 
and discontent, the celebrated Bishop Fabian of 
Ermland died on the 30th of January, 1523. The 
town and palace of Heilbronn, the residence of the 
bishop, was immediately seized by a Polish captain 
at Sigismund's order. The Grand Master enjoined 
his brother and his procurator Busch to persuade 
the Pope to allow a candidate of his own choosing 
to be appointed to the vacant bishopric, which the 
Pontiff consented to do on condition of the Grand 
Master paying upwards of a thousand ducats. 
This Albrecht declined. Thereupon Pope Adrian 
declared he should remain neutral in the matter of 
the next election. The Margrave, who had con- 
stantly been attempting to obtain pecuniary 


assistance from the Deutschmaster; was now 
informed by the latter that he would advance 
7,000 gulden on the Grand Master agreeing to 
ten conditions, the principal of which were that 
neither he nor any of his successors or knights in 
Prussia or Liefland were to interfere in the election 
of the Deutschmaster, and that the Margrave would 
not take away any of his present prerogatives. 
The Grand Master had also to bind himself not to 
dismiss any official appointed by the Deutschmaster, 
and neither to raise money nor pledge any part of 
the German domains of the Order without his 
special consent, and, finally, that after agreeing to 
the above conditions, he should in no way whatever 
attempt to evade carrying them out by means of 
Papal Bulls or imperial edicts, of which he was to 
take no heed. Albrecht declined to agree to the 
conditions imless they were greatly modified, as 
they tended manifestly to render the Deutsche 
master independent, and called upon the latter to 
advance him the sum of 15,000 gulden, nominally 
for the purpose of effecting a favourable com* 
promise with the King of Poland, but really to 
be used either for bribes or some other private 

The Deutschmaster remained inflexible, but 
promised, if the Grand Master would agree to the 
conditions, he would at once set to work and strain 
every nerve to assist him in his pecuniary difficulties. 
The Kin g of Poland, to prevent the Grand Master 


accusing the Poles of having committed acts of 
violence against the subjects of the Order, publicly 
called together a conference at Graudenz, in which 
all those who had any charge to bring against his 
people were to appear, and, to the credit of Sigis- 
mund, ample justice was dealt to all parties. 

Albrecht at last induced the Emperor to order 
George of Saxony to arrange the preliminaries of a 
peace conference as soon as possible. Through the 
intercession of the Queen of Hungary, King Lewis 
wrote to George of Saxony and to the Archduke 
Ferdinand that the peace conference should com- 
mence on the ensuing Michaelmas-day, but it was 
shortly after postponed at the urgent request of the 
King of Poland. 

As there appeared to be little chance of a settle- 
ment for some time, the Margrave lent a ready ear 
to the overtures of the Margrave Joachim of Bran- 
denburg to assist him in reinstating King Christian 
on the throne of Denmark, especially as the latter 
was believed to have a considerable treasure with 

* This monarchy by hifl attempts to coerce the nobility and impose 
fresh taxes, had caused a revolt daring the war with Sweden. At 
an assembly of the Estates, the latter formally deposed h\m and 
elected his uncle Frederick, Duke of Sleswig-Holstein, and the 
Swedes, availing themselves of this favourable opportunify, raised 
Qustavus Yasa to the throne, at a Diet assembled at Strengnaes. 
Thus the Union of Calmar, which had lasted 126 years, came to a 
termination. At his coronation Frederick was forced by the nobles 
to declare the Danish crown elective, although it had been heredi- 


The Margrave enlisted a large body of merce- 
naries in Germany, but, not having received the 
necessary moneys to pay the troops, he repaired to 
Berlin, where the fugitive king then resided, and, to 
his great chagrin, there discovered that, however 
willing Christian might be, he had not sufficient 
funds to repay him for his trouble. Doubtless 
in the arrangement which the Grand Master had 
made with Christian, prior to raising mercenaries, 
he had been promised the assistance of the latter 
against the Poles. 

The Deutschmaster, becoming aware of this, 
charged the Grand Master with wilfully wasting 
valuable time in enlisting soldiers for the King of 
Denmark, instead of looking after the interests of 
the Order, and stated that, should Christian become 
entangled with Dantzic, Sigismund would accuse the 
Order of being the abettors. 

The Grand Master again demanded from the 
Deutschmaster 15,000 gulden to enable him to pro- 
ceed to Pesth, to take part in the conferences. The 
Deutschmaster declined to give it, unless the 
^ Margrave signed the ten conditions, and further 
stated that he and his Chapter were ready to 
abide by the decision of the Pope or the 
Emperor, but the Grand Master rejected the latter 

tary since the time of Magnus Lagabaeter. Christian fled from 
Copenhagen to the Netherlands, to solicit assistance from the 
Emperor and princes of Germany. 

VOL. n. S 


From all we can learn of the Margrave's transac- 
tions with his brothers, it is apparent to us that the 
Grand Master was himself the cause of the con- 
ferences being so constantly put oflF, as he could not 
induce the arbitrators to agree to his designs con- 
cerning the Order. He had already been in 
negotiation with Pope Adrian concerning certain 
changes which he wished to make in the statutes of 
the Order ; but, however tempting his oflFers might 
have been, the Pope distinctly refused to sanction 
the contemplated changes. The Margrave, finding 
the Pontiff inflexible, now turned his attention to 
another quarter. 

In the Eeform doctrine which was then agitating 
Germany, Albrecht believed he saw the way to 
obtain his great object, and opened secret negotia- 
tions with Luther, through his confidential adviser, 
Master John Oeden, who submitted to Luther the 
rules and statutes of the Teutonic Order, stating 
that the Grand Master wished to introduce a 
thorough reform in its organization, and requesting 
him to give his counsel as to how this was to be 
carried out in accordance with the true Christian 
faith, promising that he would act up to the letter 
of Luther's advice. In the autumn of the year 1523 
the Margrave had a secret interview with the Reformer 
at Wittenberg. Here we are told the fiery apostle of 
the Reformed faith advised the Margrave to take a 
wife, declare himself an independent sovereign, 
and introduce the Reformation. We subjoin the 

Luther's LErrEii. 269 

tranfilation of a letter of Luther referring to this 
interview : — 

^^ To John Bnsiiiann^ venerable brother in Christ. 

^' Grace and peace in Christ. Your kind letter 
gave me much pleasure and filled my heart with joy, 
seeing that the Lord Jesus has sent His word to you. 

" We love you greatly, because you wish the 
truth to be spread, not by violence or tumult, but 
by the power of the word only. 

'^ Our friend Paulus Speratus has come amongst 
you, having been sent by our august master. 

" I heartily commend him to you. He is a very 
worthy man, and well informed as to what is going 
on in these parts. 

^^ Satan has stirred up amongst us various pro- 
phets, who strive to maintain and spread their 
doctrines by the use of force. 

" There is a report that a cruel edict of the 
Emperor has been published, in order henceforth 
to extinguish the detested Lutheran sect, and 
several cities of the empire are in great fear ; but 
Christ lives and reigns, and wiU triumph over all 
His enemies. 

^^ When the Margrave Albert first consulted me 
as regards the Order, I advised him to disregard 
its absurd and effete statutes and get married. I 
recommended him further to establish in Prussia 
a regular government, either as a dukedom or 

8 2 



'^ Pliilip gave him the same advice. He, how- 
ever, only smiled, and said notliing in reply. 
Subsequently I found that lie approved of my plan, 
and was anxious to mature it as soon as possible. 
He thought that it could be best carried out if the 
people, headed by some of the nobles, first urged 
him to do so,'' &c., &c. 


Albrecht could now, if the mediators refused to 
acknowledge him in his independence, bring for- 
ward the authority and advice of Luther as a 
pretext for his violating his oath of Grand Master, 
and thereby gain the support of the German Re- 
formers, especially if backed by a portion of his 
Prussian subjects. Already in 1518 the doctrines 
of Luther were preached by a priest named Knade, 
and his example was followed by John Boscenstein, 
Doctor Schulz, and others, some of whom married. 

Luther was now openly doing his utmost to in- 
troduce the Reform doctrines into Prussia. This 
afforded the Grand Master a favourable opportimity 
of currying favour with the Pope, the Emperor, and 
the Bang of Hungary. He accordingly wrote to the 
Master of Liefland, ordering him to punish in the 
most severe manner all those guilty of heresy, and 
instructed the procurator at Rome to represent to 
the Pope that, to his deep regret, the Reformed 
faith had found adherents amongst the knights, and 
requesting the Pontiff's advice as to the best means 
of coercing the offenders. The Grand Master hoped 


that by doing this he would be able to persuade 
Cardinal de Grossis to resign his bishopric to liim, 
on condition of receiving a yearly salary ; but these 
negotiations were frustrated by the death of the 
cardinal and Pope Adrian, who was succeeded by 
Pope Clement VII. 

The Grand Master now, to prevent the 
bishopric of Culm being filled up by Sigis- 
mund, induced the Cliapter to secretly elect a 
friend of Luther's, named Doctor Erard von 
Quels (formerly secretary to the Duke of Leig- 
nitz). Sigismund, however, had sufficient influence 
to obtain the election of the Canon of Frauenburg 
as the Bishop of Ermland. 

Von Quels, although a Lutheran at heart, did 
not dare to commence the work of reform until his 
election had been sanctioned by the Pope. At 
this time the Reformed faith was openly ac- 
knowledged by many of the inhabitants of Dantzic, 
Thorn, and Elbing. Many of the nuns had 
left their cloisters for the purpose of marrying. 
The Margrave was in the mean time exerting 
himself in the most secret manner to prepare 
his subjects for the Reformation, and his Regent, 
George von Samland, was also ordered to connive 
at the spread of the Reformed faith. The knights 
and ecclesiastics, who believed the Margrave's devo- 
tion to the Church of Rome, naturally carried out 
his orders to suppress the doctrines of Luther, and 
thereby gained the hatred of the Reformers. 


On November 15th the first Evangelical sermon 
was preached in Konigsberg by John Brismanij, 
to whom we find Luther writing about this 
time ; — 

^^ To John Bnsiiiann. 

^^ Dear brother in Christ, — I duly received your 
two letters, but could not reply to them before as I 
had no messenger by whom to forward a letter. 

^^I now send you a note by the person who 
brought the previous ones. I beg you will remember 
me to the Bishop of Samland, that illustrious 
vessel of Christ, and convey to him my humble 

'' I shall not neglect, when a convenient oppor- 
tunity presents itself, to dedicate a book to him, so 
that his name may support my character as a 

The Grand Master had now recourse to the 
following clever plan of propagating Luther's 
Evangelical doctrines. His secretary Christopher 
Gattenhofer and a certain Wolfgang Maler estab- 
lished a prfnting-preas and paper-mill ; and this 
establishment was placed under the direct superin- 
tendence of Bishop George, which may be con- 
sidered to be the commencement of the inspired 
Prussian press system. The Grand Master, who 
had been residing at Berlin during the recess of 
the Reichstag, now returned to Nuremberg. We 
are told that he had again another interview with 


Luther at Wittenberg, to ask his advice as to the 
line of action he should follow at the Reichstag, for 
the Margrave was already suspected of secretly 
conspiring against the Papacy. 

The Margrave now began to intrigue against the 
Deutschmaster to prevent the latter from taking his 
seat in the Diet. Other causes conspired to excite 
the Deutschmaster's suspicions as to the sincerity of 
the Grand Master, who still kept together a large 
number of mercenaries, under the plea that they 
were intended for the service of the Danish King, 
and we find that his subjects in Prussia, particularly 
at Konigsberg, strenuously resisted the payment of 
fresh taxes, as they suspected that the Grand Master 
intended using the money to raise troops to renew 
hostilities with Poland, the termination of the 
four years' truce being imminent. 

On the other hand, the Grand Master indignantly 
affirmed that these suspicions were unfounded, and 
that he was doing liis utmost either to bring about 
a prolongation of the peace or a final settlement. 
But the fact was, he was not very sanguine that the 
result of the conferences would be in his favour, for 
he feared that Prussia would either be declared a 
fief of Poland or of the Empire. 

At the commencement of the yeai> 1524, he had 
secretly given instructions to his regent in Prussia 
to allow sermons to be preached and also the bap- 
tismal service to bo read in the vernacular, and that 
Luther's translation of the Bible should be circulated* 


The agents of the Grand Master artfully represented 
to the people that their misery and poverty were 
occasioned by the oppressions and exactions of the 
Romish Church and the knights. These reports so 
excited the mass of the lower orders that many 
churches and monasteries were plundered, and the 
members of the Order were constantly insulted. 
Orders were issued that a list should be taken of all 
the plate, pictures, and other valuables possessed by 
the ecclesiastical establishments, so as to prevent 
any article of value being carried out of the 
country prior to the intended confiscation of church 

On the celebration of Easter and Pentecost the 
Regent, Bishop George, cast aside the mask and 
openly advocated the doctrines of the Reformers. In 
confirmation of this we find Luther writing on the 1st 
of February, 1524, expressing his joy that at last a 
bishop in Prussia had the courage to preach against 
the doctrines of Satan. 

The Grand Master still pretended to ignore his 
connexion with the Lutherans, but Pope Clement, 
in an interview with the Margrave John at Rome, 
openly charged the Margrave Albert of treacherously 
allying himself with the enemies of the Holy 
See, and that he could no longer honestly expect 
the support of the Papacy, as, although the sworn 
champion of the Catholic faith, he had not only 
violated his oath as a warrior of Christ, but also as 
a subject of the Pope and the Emperor. 


The Margrave did not attempt to deny the cor- 
rectness of the Pope's accusations, but, as a proof of 
his regard for the old religion, he ordered the 
Regent to prevent, if possible, the knights discon- 
tinuing to wear the distinctive costume of the Order, 
and directed that the brothers should, under any 
circumstance, retain the sign of the Cross. This 
arose from the lives of the knights being constantly 
in danger on account of the malignant feeling of 
the lower orders towards them, as they were the 
cause of the heavy burden of taxation and the 
promoters of the renewal of the war with Poland, 
By this deceitful policy Prussia was divided into 
two hostile camps, serious 6meutes being of every- 
day occurrence. Each day the agitation increased, 
for the majority of the people were totally imac- 
quainted with the ambitious projects cherished in 
the heart of the Grand Master, who dared not 
openly avow his intentions to any honest man of 
the Order, such as Reus von Plauen. 

At a Landtag, which was held at Konigsberg in 
July, 1 524, the deputies of town and coimtry stoutly 
refused to grant the Grand Master any further 
subsidies. In this dilemma the Margrave resolved 
to apply to the King of Denmark for the repayment 
of the money which he had expended in raising 
troops for him. The Danish King, having no funds, 
had allowed the Grand Master to confiscate all 
Danish property in Prussia as an indemnification. 
The Prussians now openly expressed their disappro- 


bation of the prolonged absence of the Margrave, 
and many expressed a desire that he should be called 
upon to resign. The report also reached the Mar- 
grave that the DeutschmEistcr and the Master of 
Liefland, fearing that the spread of the Reformation 
would bring about the expulsion of those who 
adhered to the Catholic religion from their offices, 
had sought the Pope's protection. He thereupon 
despatched to the Margrave John at Rome a refutation 
of the allegations brought against him by the Pope. 
In this document the Margrave adroitly evaded the 
question of the direct assistance he had afforded to 
the Reformers, and desired his brother to lose no 
time in expressing to the Sovereign Pontiff his un- 
bounded respect and fidelity towards him ; but his 
brother, in his reply, stated that the Pope was fully 
cognizant of his underhand support of the Lutherans. 
The Margrave Casimir, it would seem, had some 
time previously been treating with Sigismund as to 
the terms ho would grant, should his brother the 
Margrave Albrecht abdicate the post of Grand Master 
in favour of a Polish nominee, alleging that the Mar- 
grave's religious convictions impelled him to take 
some step of the kind. This was just what Sigismund 
did not wish, as he was unwilling to lose the 
alliance of his nephew, who, as his vassal, could 
be of incalculable assistance to him in case of a war 
with the Emperor. Casimir informed the King that 
it was the intention of the Margrave to enter the 
service of the King of France, although it is well 


known that ho had negotiated to aid the Emperor 
against the French monarch. 

Luther, who was well aware of all the 
phases of this intrigue, sent instructions to his 
agents in Prussia to prepare tho people for the 
inauguration of the Margrave as their sovereign 
and the total abolition of the Order. In his letters 
at this period, Luther enjoins his friends to exhort 
the people from the pulpit to call upon the Grand 
Master ^^ to abolish such a government as that of 
the Order, which was neither religious nor secular, 
and to appeal to the Margrave to marry and estab- 
lish a regular form of government." The Margravo 
had some time before addressed certain questions to 
Luther as to the claims of the Pontiffs to be con* 
sidered the successors of St. Peter. 

The following is Luther's reply to the first 
question : — 

" To Albrecht^ Margrave of Brandenburg. 

^^Most illustrious prince, most gracious lord, — 
Herewith I send a reply to tho questions put by 
your highness. 

" Q. 1. Did Christ build His Church on Peter and 
his successors, tho Popes ? 

'^ Reply. No, but upon Jesus Christ only, the Son 
of God. That neither Peter nor the Popes arc to 
be regarded as tlie foundation stone of tho Church 
can be proved in many ways. Fii-st, because the 
gates of hell have prevailed against Peter and the 


Popes, inasmuch as they all have sometimes 

'^For to prevail against does not mean to take 
away honour, riches, or physical power, but to 
overcome by faith and holiness in the spirit. There- 
fore such a foundation means one without sin, and 
who cannot sin, which is Christ alone." 

Albert now repaired to Vienna to ascertain in 
what light he was there regarded. During his stay 
there he was informed that the King of Hungary 
had summoned a conference at Presburg for Janu- 
ary 6, 1525. Shortly after Archduke Ferdinand, as 
representing the Emperor, invited the Grand Master 
to appear, either in person or through envoys, at the 
conference for the arrangement of a compromise 
between Poland and the Order ; but just at this time 
the Papal legate in Vienna had a formal interview 
with the Grand Master, and demanded, in the name 
of the Pope, that the Bishop of Samland should be 
at once ejected from his office, and steps taken to 
prevent the further progress of the Reformation. • 

The Margrave, who was not a man likely to 
shrink from any expedient, now despatched to the 
Bishop of Samland a recapitulation of the Pope's 
complaints, and expressed his dissatisfaction at the 
bishop's acts, which had been carried out without 
his advice or knowledge, and requested that the 
innovations should immediately be discontinued. 

The Grand Master placed in the hands of the 
legate a copy of this letter, and wrote on the same 


day to the bishop privately, telling him that he had 
been compelled to deny his relations with the 
Reformers to conciliate the Pope. He also re- 
quested the bishop to answer his letter in such a 
way as not to compromise him. In conclusion, the 
Margrave promised ^' to protect the bishop to the 
utmost, as long as he was preserved by the grace of 

On November 13th we find the Grand Master 
again writing an indignant letter refuting the 
charges against him, but this time it was to his 
brother John and the procurator at Rome. It was, 
doubtless, intended to be shown to the advisers 
of the Pope, for both of his agents must have been 
fully cognizant of his connexion with Luther. In 
his letter he says : '' The charge against us of being 
Lutheran is unfounded, and this we can prove from 
the fact that we have always strenuously put down 
any sectarian teaching opposed to the true faith, 
and, to the best of our knowledge, up to the present 
time we have acted as becomes a pious Christian 
prince, and, after arranging our affairs with Poland, 
it is our sincere determination to place ourselves at 
the disposal of the Holy Father, from which resolu- 
tion neither Luther nor any other human being 
shall dissuade us." 

The Deutschmaster now forwarded an ultimatum 
demanding that the Grand Master should at once pub- 
licly disavow his support of the Lutherans in Prussia, 
and that he should punish the bishop and priests 

• « 


who had fallen away from the Catholic faith, and 
also prove to the Deutschmaster^s satisfaction that 
he had no intention of renouncing the Catholic 
faith and espousing a wife, or of making himself the 
hereditary ruler of Prussia. In case of the Grand 
Master not complying with these demands, the 
Deutschmaster would refuse all pecuniary assist- 
ance, but he would advance 7,000 gulden on the 
Margrave signing the ten conditions. 

The Grand Master, as usual, denied all know- 
ledge of what was going on in Prussia ; and as to his 
Lutheran principles, they were nothing but the 
calumnies of his opponents, pretending that he had 
no power to coerce a sovereign bishop. The 
Margrave concluded his epistle by ordering the 
Deutschmaster to forward him 10,000 gulden to 
enable him to take part in the conference of 

The dispute with the Deutschmaster continued 
until the end of the year. In January, 1525, 
Albrecht had arrived at Vienna, en route for 
Presburg, when he was informed that the meeting 
had again been postponed, on account of Sigismund 
wishing to consult the Polish Reichstag as to the 
modus vivendi to be adopted at the conference. It 
would seem that the Grand Master had about this 
time dexterously managed to overreach the Deutsch- 
master and to obtain from him 7,000 gulden, to be 
repaid in the space of one year, which if not carried 
out, the ten conditions were to come into force. 


As the Prussian commissioners had already been 
selected, and many of the representatives of the 
princes were on their way to Presbizrg, the Grand 
Master, after protesting to the Archduke against 
the delay, proceeded to Ofen and wrote to the 
representatives, calling upon them at once to pro- 
ceed to the investigation of the case. On the 
Margrave's arrival at Ofen, the capital of Hungary, 
the Papal legate Campcggio handed to him a 
letter from the Pontiff, dated December 1, 1524. 

In this document the Pope reiterated all the 
former accusations against Albrecht, and categori- 
cally demanded of him that he should at once order 
the Bishop of Samland to appear before the Papal 
legate, and if he could not satisfactorily answer the 
charges brought against him, ho should be imme- 
diately expelled from his see, and a fresh bishop 
appointed. Although the Grand Master knew 
better than any man that Campeggio was most 
thoroughly acquainted with all the ramifications 
of the spread of the Reformed faith in all parts of 
Europe — for he was then specially intrusted with 
this subject by the Pope — ^yct Albrecht had the 
boldness to repeat his perfect ignorance as to 
what was said and written in Prussia. 

He drew the attention of the legate to the state 
of agitation which prevailed throughout Germany^ 
and showed that neither sword nor prison had been 
able to intimidate the followers of Luther. He 
therefore counselled a policy of moderation in 


Prussia until his return to that country, when he 
would at once put an end to all those innovations 
and practices which were at variance with the 
Catholic faith. After several weeks spent in fruit- 
less attempts to induce the King of Hungary to call 
upon Sigismund to send commissioners, Albrccht 
applied to those who were supposed to exercise an 
influence on Ferdinand. This prince now, in con- 
junction with the King of Hungary, requested the 
Grand Master and the King of Poland to agree 
to the prolongation of the compromise for several 
years, the ex^ct period to be afterwards fixed. 

It seems somewhat strange that the Grand Master 
was not acquainted with the intention of the King 
of Poland not to send envoys. At Ofen, it became 
evident to him that he could expect little sympathy 
from the arbitrators — the Emperor, the King of 
Hungary, Archduke Ferdinand, Duke George of 
Saxony, and the Archbishop of Salzburg, who 
were strong supporters of the Papacy — if they 
believed that he was in any way connected with 
the Reformers, and this would become evident 
if he returned to Prussia — for the agents of Luther 
had already made considerable progress in inducing 
the people to no longer regard him as Grand 
Master, but as their Protestant saviour, who would 
redress their wrongs, and overthrow for ever the 
supremacy of the Pope. 

In fact, Albrecht had now no other alternative 
but to throw oflE the cloak of hypocrisy. He ac- 


cordingly entrusted his brother George of Brandon* 
burg and the Duke of Liegnitz to reoommenoe his 
former negotiations with Sigismund. The princes 
repaired to Cracow, and the Grand Master, who 
had been residing for some time in Silesia, pro- 
ceeded to Beuthen, about fifty miles from Cracow, 
so as to be close at hand. 

On the 19th of March, Albrecht's envoys returned 
to him with the answer — 1. That the King of Poland 
would not consent to any alteration of the articles 
objected to by the Grand Master, and promised, 
if the Margrave would acknowledge Sigismund 
as his feudal lord, and declare Prussia to be a 
fief of the Crown of Poland, he would restore 
to him all the conquests made during the last 

2. That the Grand Master should restore all the 
conquered territory in Ermland to the bishop, who, 
in return, would allow the Grand Master for life 
the annual sum of 3,000 marks. 

3. That Prussia should become a ducal fief of 
Poland, and that the brothers of the Margrave, 
Casimir, George, and John, should be heirs pre- 
sumptive, but none could inherit the fief unless he 
first swore allegiance to the King of Poland. 

For appearance' sake, the Grand Master sum- 
moned several Prussian representatives. Although 
they were supposed to be willing instruments, they 
strongly objected to the last condition, but, over- 
come by the arguments of the princes and the 

VOL. II. • t 


Grand Master, these patriotic representatives of the 
interests of Prussia agreed to renounce their right 
of demanding that these conditions should be sanc- 
tioned by a general Landtag. 

The Grand Master in his reply to the King 
requested that he should be allowed to occupy 
Braunsberg, Tolkemit, Neumark, and Brathean ; but 
this the King refused, as it was at variance with his 
coronation oath, but offered to pay the Margrave 
for life the sum of 4,000 gulden. The following 
were the principal conditions of the treaty — the 
most remarkable incident of European history — 
in which the Margrave is for the first time styled 
Duke Albrecht. 

1. All pending disputes between the King of 
Poland, Duke Albrecht, the Duke of Masovia, 
and the Bishops of Ermland and Culm were to 

2. Each of the contracting parties to restore 
all towns, castles, districts, and munitions captured 
during the war. 

3. Full amnesty to be granted to all those who 
had avoided military service, and the children of 
those who had been executed on account of the 
above offence should receive back their forfeited 

4. No punishment to be dealt out to any town 
that had not been true to its allegiance, either to 
the Grand Master or to the King of Poland, 


5. The relations between the Grand Master and 
priests to be clearly defined. 

6. Duke Albrecht was to acknowledge himself as 
the hereditary vassal of the King, and also the 
Margrave Georgo should take part in the oath of 
allegiance ; and the Margraves Casimir and John 
should within a year give in their solemn adherence 
to the above compact. 

7. After the death of the four Margraves and 
their heirs, all the specified domains of the fief 
should lapse to the Crown of Poland. 

8. The King undertook to guarantee and protect 
all privileges and rights of the subjects of the Duke 
which were not at variance with his feudal obliga* 

9. The Duke of Prussia was to occupy the next 
seat to the King of Poland in every Landtag or 

10. The Dukes of Prussia before selling any part 
of their domains were bound to offer it for purchase 
first to the King of Poland a year before the in** 
tended sale; and also that castles and towns 
could only be pledged to the Duke's immediate 

11. No feudal military service would be re- 
quired from the Duke for six years, unless the 
King of Poland was entangled in a war on account 
of the treaty. After this period the Duke was , 
always to have on the Polish frontier a force of one 
hundred well-equipped cavalry. If these or more 

t 2 


were required by the King beyond the frontiers of 
the Duke, the King of Poland undertook to pay 
and maintain them. 

12. All restrictions on trade between the two 
countries to be abolished. 

13. No fresh taxes or tolls to be levied without 
the consent of both parties. 

14. Dantzic, Elbing, and Thorn, and the Duke of 
Prussia to have the right of coining money ; but this 
was not to come into operation before a special 
commission had decided on the question. 

15. The Grand Master had to renounce, in the 
name of himself and successors, any privilege 
formerly granted to the Order by the Emperors, 
the Popes, or the Kings of Poland. 

On the 2nd of 'April the Grand Master, clad in 
the robes of office, entered Cracow, where he was 
most splendidly received by the King. 

On the 9th of April the deputies affixed their 
signature to the treaty, with the declaration that 
henceforth all Prussians would regard the Duke as 
their hereditary sovereign. 

On the following day the King, surrounded by his 
nobles, wearing the crown and sceptre, tookhis seat on 
the throne which had been erected for this purpose. 
At a given signal seven councillors of the Order, 
headed by the Bishop of Pomesania, appeared before 
. the throne, and on their knees requested that the oath 
of allegiance should be administered. Tlie Bishop 
of Cracow having answered in the affirmative, the 


Duke, accompanied by the Margrave G^rge, Duke 
Frederick of Liegnitz, together with several repre- 
sentatives of Prussia, on neariug the King first 
thanked him for his gracious kindness, and declared 
that his refusal to take the oath of allegiance to the 
King and the subsequent war was caused by the 
knights ; that he had constantly done his utmost to 
prevent hostilities, and, as a sign of his desire to 
become a vassal of Poland, presented to the Eling 
the original document by which Prussia was 
bestowed on the Teutonic Order by the Emperor 
Frederick II, of Germany; then knelt down and 
received in his hands the flag of vassalage, of white 
damask, on which was embroidered a black eagle 
with golden claws, with streaks of gold on the 
wings, and the letter "S" worked in silver on 
the breast. Albrecht then proceeded to solemnly 
swear allegiance on the Testament, which had been 
deposited on the knees of the Eling. Sigismund, 
having with three strokes of the imperial sword 
dubbed the Duke a knight, then encircled his 
neck with a golden chain and handed to him the 
vassal's banner. After this Albrecht took his place 
beside the King, and several PoUsh and Prussian 
notables were knighted. The ceremony was con- 
cluded by a Te Deum in the cathedral and a grand 

The Duke despatched a manifesto to the imperial 
princes of Germany, declaring that he had been 
compelled to conclude the above arrangement with 


the King of Poland on account of the Emperor and 
the Pope having forsaken him, Duke Albrecht 
now hurried to Brieg to order his crown jewels and 
robes. They were as follows : a gold chain, to 
which was attached an eagle with outspread wings 
ornamented with diamonds; also a golden crown 
set with precious stones, and on the breast of the 
eagle was worked the letter " S." On the 9th of 
May he returned to Konigsberg, after an absence of 
three years, and was received by his Protestant 
supporters with acclamations of welcome. 





V . 


'--. ..'• 



A.S. 940-1132. 

History of the German Race from b.c. 120 until a.p. 600— The 
first Inhabitants of Brandenburg — The Wends and Sclaves — 
Conquests of Charlemagne — Trasiko, King of the Obotrites — 
Death of Charlemagne (814) — Division of the Empire — ^Revolt 
of the Wends — Henry the Fowler subdues the Wends 
/ij — Qero first Margrave of the ''Nord Mark" (940) — Conquest 

of Brandenburg by Lothair (994)— Lothair made Her^ditaiy 
Margrave — History of Brandenburg from Werner (1003) to 
Udo IV. (1130)— Battle of Aschersleben— Death of Udo— 
Conrad von Plotzkau (1130) — Conrad killed at the Siege of 
Monza (1132). 

' The history of the ancient inhabitants of Branden- 
burg is so closely connected with that of other 
German tribes that we think it advisable first to 
give a condensed account of the German race, as 
derived from the earliest reliable historians. The 
Rr^t mention that we have of the German nations is 
ibout 120 B.C. Little or nothing is known of their 
)rigin, but it is presumed that tliey belonged to the 


Indo-EuFopean family, on account of aflSnities in 
the German dialect with Latin, Greek, Sanscrit, 
&c. They seem to have migrated from their 
original settlements in Asia, and gradually pene- 
tratiBd into Europe, driving before them the Keltic 
race. The advance of these barbarous hordes 
appears to have been regulated by the mountain 
ranges traversing Central Europe. One body of 
them settled down between the Vistula and the 
Rhine, the Baltic and the Danube, and were called 
by the Romans ''Germani," a word of German 
origin, signifying " Spearmen." 

In 113 B.C. two of the then German tribes, 
known as the Cimbri and Teutones, left their settle- 
ments on the coasts of the North Sea and migrated 
southwards, overrunning the Roman province of 
Noricum, now Styria, where they encountered 
and defeated the Consul Papirius Caxbo. They 
then entered Switzerland, and were joined at Zurich 
by another tribe named the Tigurini. This tre- 
mendous force, after overrunning Gaul and Spain, 
resolved to conquer Italy, and for this purpose 
separated into two bodies — the Cimbri advanced 
by way of Tyrol ; tlie Teutones, with their allies 
the Ambroncs, marched through Provence. The 
Romans despatched their two most able generals, 
Marius and Catulus, against these barbarians, who 
are said to have numbered nearly 300,000 fightifig 
men. Marius entrenched himself in a camp on the 
Rhone ; and Catulus determined to oppose the Cim- 


bri in their progress through the Tyrolese mountain 

After seyeral unsuccessful attempts to storm 
Marius' camp, the Teutones sought to penetrate into 
Italy by another route. Marius quickly followed, 
and overtook them at Aquse SextisB (Aix), where he 
again adopted his former tactics of entrenching 
himself in a camp and keeping on the defensive. 

The Roman grooms whilst conveying water to 
the camp were attacked by the Ambrones. The 
former, being armed, repelled their assailants and 
drove them back to their waggon barricade. The 
women, we are told, urged their husbands to renew 
the fight, in which they themselves joined. For 
two days the struggle was carried on with doubtful 
success, but on the third day the military talents of 
Marius and the discipline of his troops prevailed, 
and the Teutones fled, after having lost upwards of 
100,000 men. 

Catulus, being unable to prevent the advance of 
the Cimbri, was obliged to fall back ; but Marius 
having efEected a junction with him, the two 
generals advanced to meet the barbarians in the 
open field, and on the 30th of July, 101 B.C., a groat 
battle was fought on the plains of Vercellse. The 
Cimbri were almost annihilated, and their wives, 
who had taken up their position behind the barricade 
of waggons, killed themselves rather than fall into 
the hands of the Romans. 

The next mention we have of the Germanic race 

^8^ HIStO&t OF PROfiSlA. 

18 the war between Julius Gaesar and Aroovistus, 
chief of the Suevi, who had crossed the Rhine to 
assist the Sequani. Julius Caesar, to whom the 
province of Graid was assigned by the Senate, 
marched against Ariovistus, who was totally 
routed at Yesontio (Besan9on), 58 B.C., and forced 
to recross the Rhine. Octavius Augustus on 
becoming Emperor determined to subjugate the 
German tribes, and despatched his son-in-law 
Drusus to carry out his project. 

The victorious career of the Roman legions 
partially cleared up the impenetrable mist which 
up to this time surrounded the early history of the 
Germanic race. Latin writers describe the Teutons 
as a people of gigantic stature, light hair, blue eyes, 
and a florid complexion, and wearing either skins 
or coarse woven flax. From infancy they were 
trained to perform feats of strength and dexterity. 
One of their favourite pastimes resembled the 
Scottish sword-dance. 

The men occupied themselves solely with hunting 
and warfare, whilst the women and slaves performed 
domestic and agricultural duties — a peculiarity still 
to be remarked in many parts of Germany, where 
the women often perform a far greater amount of 
out-door work than the men. On the whole, the 
Germans appear to have been a moral race, although 
they were in the habit of celebrating their fUcn 
amid drunkenness and gambling. 

The different German tribes seem to have been 


Hi confitant war with one another, and eyery tribe, 
however small, was, on acoonnt of its ardent love of 
independence, willing to be exterminated rather than 
be subjugated. The domestic life of these early 
Germans resembled in some respects that of their 
descendants of the present day. The tics of 
relationship were held most sacred, all members 
of the same family being bound to assist one 
another to the utmost. 

The authority of the father was almost absolute 
in his own houaehold, which was expressed by the 
word " Munt," hence all the members of the family 
under the father's roof and authority were said 
to be "unmundig," a word still used in Grerman 
to denote minors. 

The son attained his majority as soon as he was 
capable of bearing arms, and the daughter on her 
betrothal, which generally took plau^e at a public 

Their dwellings were isolated wooden structures 
surrounded by a wall or embankment, and generally 
fortified in such a manner as to prevent a surprise. 

There existed but two classes among them — ^free- 
men and serfs, the latter being composed of prisoners 
of war or those freemen who had forfeited their 
freedom by some criminal offence. Those in a state 
of serfdom could neither possess property nor enjoy 
any political rights. In a word, serfs were con- 
sidered in the light of chattels rather than human 
beings. The higher class of freemen comprised such 

284 HISTORY 01? PRllfiSlA. 

as were distinguished either by their noble birth, 
by the extent of their property, or the number of 
their retainers. These were called ^^Adelings" or 
" Nobles," who, although possessing no special pre- 
rogatives, yet exercised considerable influence in 
proportion to their estate. 

The government of each tribe was democratic, 
inasmuch as all matters of government or legislation 
were discussed at public meetings, at which every 
freeman had a voice. A public meeting of freemen, 
called the ^^Mahl," was held at fixed periods for the 
administration of justice and the discussion of all 
questions affecting the commonwealth. 

In the earliest period they appear to have liad 
neither kings nor princes, but in process of time 
certain nobles were elected commanders by popular 
vote, and assumed the title of " Fiirst" (Prince) or 
^^Graf" (Count), which gradually became heredi- 
tary. In time of war the public assembly elected a 
general, who was called the " Herzog," — literally, 
the leader of the army, — and every freeman was 
boimd to appear armed when smnmoned, provided 
the war was of a public nature. Not so, however, in 
private warfare, that is, when any noble undertook 
an expedition on his own account, either to avenge 
some private wrong or for his own special interest. 

In this latter case the noble, or liege lord, invited 
his retainers or dependents to enter his service by 
the promise of pay or a share of the plunder. In 
their military campaigns they were accompanied 


by their wives and children^ who were protected by 
waggon barricades, and from time to time, during 
the conflict, supplied the warriors with food or 
other requisites. 

Their system of warfare was very simple, the 
army consisting for the most part of infantry. On 
the signal for attack being given, they advanced 
against the enemy with an impetuous rush, amidst 
cries and gesticulations and war - songs. Their 
first rank generally consisted of members of the 
same family, and, to render their attack more 
irresistible, their bodies were sometimes connected 
by chains. They were armed with a short two- 
edged sword, a spear, a long lance, and a battle- 
axe. For defence, they were protected by long 
oblong wooden shields, which were painted with 
grotesque figures. The head was protected by a 
helmet made of the head of some wild animal, the 
horns protruding, the rest of the skin hanging 
down the back as a cloak. 

These Germans lived in a state of semi-barbarism, 
and without the slightest acquaintance with art or 
science, or with any of the refinements of the 
ancient Greeks or Romans. But it must not be 
hence inferred that they were complete savages, as 
they were distinguished by certain characteristics 
which would have done honour even to the more 
refined nations of antiquity. Of these may be 
mentioned, their respect for the weaker sex and their 
exemplary domestic life. Moreover, they had some 


slight knowledge of the art of writing, using runic 
characters, either for inscriptions or for rude poetry, 
^vhich consisted of war-songs celebrating the deeds 
and exploits of their warriors, recited at all their 
festivities by a distinct class of men styled Scalds. 

Some of these songs recounted in heroic verse the 
legends connected with the origin of the German 
race, viz., that their great hero Tuisco, the son of 
Hertha (Earth), created Mannus, who had three 
sons, the founders of the three German families, the 
Ingawones, Hermiones, and Istawones. The fol- 
lowing tribes, the Batavi, Belgae, Treviri, Ubii, 
and Wangiones, probably belonged to the latter of 
the above-mentioned families, and resided on 
the Lower and Middle Rhine. The Frisians, 
Marsi, Amsivari, Chamavi, Bructeri, and Sigambri 
belonged to the family of the Ingawones, and 
occupied the country lying between the Weser, 
the Rhine, and the North Sea. The last family, 
the Ilermioncs, consisted of the Chatti, Cherusci, 
Hermunduri, and Suevi, who dwelt between the 
Elbe and Danube. 

Some writers maintain that in the religion of the 
early Germans there is clear proof that they enter- 
tained the belief in an Almighty Being, in a future 
life, and in a new creation, when this world would 
pass away, and be replaced by a kind of paradise. 
They designated their supreme deity ^'AUvater," 
** Father of all," to whom they attributed the 
creation of the world and of all natural agencies. 


They had, further, three principal deities : Woden^ 
oorreq>onding to Minerva (the god of wisdom); 
Donar or Thor (the god of thunder) ; and Fro (the 
god of productiyeness). The god of war was called 
Zin, and their principal goddess Frauwa or Friga, 
corresponding to Venus of the Greeks and Romans, 
They appear also to have worshipped a mystical 
goddess, supposed to reside in some distant island 
in the North Sea, and known by the name of 
Hertha, the origin of the word ^^Erde" (Earth). 
The sun and moon were also regarded as deities. 
From the general notion that everything in nature 
was endowed with life and connected with the 
deity sprang the belief in intermediate beings 
exerting a supernatural influence over the affairs of 
the world. Such were nymphs, fauns, hobgoblins, 
gnomes, dwarfs, giants, &c. 

The Germans, like other heathen races, believed 
in witchcraft and soothsaying, and hence female 
soothsayers were in great repute, and their usual 
mode of deciding on future events was by the 
casting of lots. As abready said, a future life 
was a principal dogma of their religion, and they 
assigned for the sole abode of their heroes a place 
called the " Walhalla." They appear to have held 
annually three great religious assemblages, usually 
in groves or on elevated spots, at which public 
affiurs were also discussed. They had neither 
temples nor allegorical representations of their 
deities, and little is known of their priesthood. 


To return to the narrative. In the year 12 B.C., 
Drusus, son-in*law of Augustus Cassar, invaded 
Gevmany, crossed the Rhine, and, after defeating 
the Sigambri, sailed with his legions down the river 
into the North Sea, and from thence to the mouth 
of the river Ems, where he built the castle of Aliso. 

In the foUowing year the Roman general gained 
a series of victories, and built upwards of fifty 
strongholds, amongst them Mayence and Bonn, and 
caused a dyke to be constructed from Neuwied, 
extending as far as the Danube, as a line of defence 
against the inroads of the Germans. 

In the year 9 B.C., Drusus advanced victoriously 
as far as the Elbe, where a female soothsayer 
having warned him of his approaching cud, he 
returned homewards. 

His brother Tiberius succeeded him in the com- 
mand, and very soon reduced several other tribes 
to submission. By degrees the tenitory between 
the Elbe and the Rhine became tributary to the 
Roman empire. The Marcomanni, however, under 
their leader Marbod, now advanced from their 
settlement on the Upper Rhine into Bohemia, 
which they overran. Tiberius soon determined to 
check the progress of this warlike tribe, and was 
about to attack them from two points when, in 
consequence of a general rising in Pannonia and 
Dalmatia, he came to terms with the German 
leader Marbod, to enable him to direct his whole 
army against the rebellious Pannonians. 


About this period, Quintillus Varus, who was in 
Mmmand of tho Roman army in Germany^ had by 
his ovorbearing and tyrannical conduct so enraged 
the Germans that they resolved to throw ofi the 
Roman yoke, under the leadership of the world- 
wide celebrated Arminius or Hermann, a young 
man of twenty-five years, who, like Marbod, had 
resided in Rome, and there acquired a thorough 
knowledge of Roman tactics. 

Hermann appears to have managed the prepara- 
tions for the revolt with such skill and secrecy that, 
although Varus was warned by Segest, the patriot's 
father-in-law, of the intended insurrection and 
Hermann's complicity with it, yet the Roman 
procurator continued to regard the young German 
as one of his most devoted friends up to the very 
moment of the outbreak. 

The signal of a general rising was given by some 
patriots residing on the Ems, who rose in arms. 
Varus, who was with his army near the Weser, 
marched at once, at the head of three legions, to 
quell the insurrection. 

The Roman general, believing that he could rely 
on the loyalty of the tributary German people, took 
no precautions to prevent them participating in tlic 
revolt. The princes, under the plausible pretext of 
assisting Varus, had called out all their available 
fighting men, and allowed Varus to advance towards 
the Ems by way of the Teutoburg forest, where 
they surrounded the Roman army, which, after a 


290 history' of pbussu. 

sanguinary struggle of three days and nights, was 
abnost annihilated. Varus, seeing all was lost, fdl 
by his own hand. 

No sooner did the Germans gain this great 
victory, by which they might have recovered their 
independence, than petty jealousies arose between 
the various princes, who were especially envious of 
Hermann's renown. 

Germanicus, son of Drusus, who, on the accession 
of Tiberius to the Roman purple, became general- 
issimo in Germany, took advantage of these dissen- 
sions to attack successively the Chatti and Marsi, 
. whom he soon compelled to submit. Hermann's 
wife Thusnelda, daughter of Segest, the ally of the 
Romans, was made prisoner and conveyed to Rome, 
never to return to the arms of her beloved huusband. 

The infuriated warrior, thirsting to revenge the 
loss of his wife and the bleeding wounds of liis 
fatherland, put himself at the head of his tribe, the 
Cherusci, defeated the Roman forces, and compelled 
them to retreat. 

In the following campaign Germanicus advanced 
with fresh levies, and encoimtered Hermann at a 
place called Idistawiso (Minden), in the vicinity of 
the Weser. Hermann was defeated, wounded, and 
only escaped his pursuers by the swiftness of his horse. 
The serious losses of the Romans, however, com- 
pelled them to retreat. This encouraged all the 
Teutonic tribes to rise en masse against the hated 
foes. Another desperate battle ensued, but the 


victory this time was undecisivo, and Gennanicus, 
haying incurred the displeasure of the Emperori 
was shortly after recalled. 

The Germans, as usual, instead of profiting by 
their temporary success, again commenced quarrel- 
ling amongst themselves. The Semnones and 
Longobardi, who had revolted against Marbod, 
appealed to Hermann for assistance, which was 
readily granted, for the two rivals had now become 
deadly opponents. In a battle which ensued, 
Marbod was defeated and betook himself to the 
Romans, who allowed him to reside in Italy. 
Hermann did not long survive his triumph, for 
he was soon after assassinated by his own kinsmen. 

Through the intestine struggles of the Germans, 
the Romans became paramount in Germany and 
divided the country into provinces. Tho native 
triboH wlio were not annexed to the Roman Empire 
appear to have kept up poi-pctual warfare with each 
other, and it was not until the year 70 that they 
made any effort to throw off the Roman yoke, under 
the leadership of Claudius Civilis. During the 
troublous period wliich followed the death of Nero, 
the revolt spread from tribe to tribe, mainly through 
the exhortations of a female soothsayer named 
Velleda, of the tribe of the Bructeri, who seems 
to have played the part of a Maid of Orleans. 
Vespasian, as soon as he found himself firmly seated 
on the throne of the Caesars, despatched Petilius 
Cerealis with a large army against the revolted 

u 2 


tribes, whom he defeated at Augusta Trevirorum 

The struggle was continued by Civilis for some 
time with varying fortune; but the Roman general 
having secretly rendered Civilis suspected by his 
own men, the latter became unpopular amongst 
his followers, and was compelled to como to terms 
with the Romans. 

During the reign of Marcus Aurelius, 161-180, the 
Marcommi, the Quadi, and Hermunduri, who lived 
to the north of the Danube, determined to recover 
their independence and to invade Italy. Aurelius, 
however, succeeded, by the military skill of his 
generals, not only in checking their further progress, 
but also in driving them back to their original 

During the gradual decadence of the Roman 
Empire the feeling of a common unity between the 
different Germanic tribes began to gain ground. 
About the year 216 several of the German tribes 
residing to the south of the Mayn united, under the 
name of Alemanni. In course of time, although 
engaged in constant hostilities with the Romans, 
this warlike people extended their sway as far as the 

Nearly half a century afterwards we come across 
a new nation called the Franks, of whom there 
were two branches — ^the Salian, occupying that part 
of France to the north of the Loire ; and the 
Ripuarian, who had settled on the Lower Rhine. 


Both branches were ruled by hereditary kings, and 
gradually formed a confederation, in which they 
were joined by the Chatti, Bructeri, and Cha- 

Another confederation of tribes appears to have 
been formed about the same period under the name 
of Saxons, who occupied the coimtry between the 
Weser and the Elbe. Besides those already men- 
tioned, there existed on the extreme eastern frontier 
of Gei'many, extending from the mouth of the 
Danube as far as the Baltic, another powerful race, 
the Goths, who in course of time separated, and 
were known as the Ostrogoths and Visigoths or 
West Goths. All these races were in constant 
conflict with the Roman Empire, which sought to 
avert the impending invasion of Italy by enlisting in 
their legions Germans, who soon became convinced 
that, in consequence of the utter demoralization of 
their conquerors, the latter could no longer maintain 
their su2)remacy over tlieir German provinces. 

Tlie transfer of the capital of the empire from 
Home to Constantinople, in the beginning of the 
fourth century, left Italy to the mercy of the 
Germanic races, who gradually availed themselves 
of the weakened state of the empire to recover 
their independence. 

In the year 374 the Huns, imder their Khan 
Balamir, migrated from Asia into Europe, crossing 
the Wolga, the Don, and the Dnieper. In their 
progress they conquered the Alans, a tribe of 


German origin, and even the Goths were com- 
pellied to retire before this wave of immigration. 

Theodosius the Great drove the Ostrogoths, or 
East Goths, across the Danube, where they were 
compelled to submit to the Huns, who by this time 
had overrun the greater part of Russia, Poland, and 

In the year 437 the Burgundians extended their 
territory as far as the Rhone and Sadne; the 
Franks about the same time took possession of 
Gaul, and captured Cambray; and in 449 the 
Anglo-Saxons, under Hengist and Horsa, landed 
in England to assist the Britons against the Picts 
and Scots. 

After the disruption of Attila's vast empire, the 
West Goths, or Visigoths, occupied Pannonia as far 
as Vienna ; the Heruli took possession of Bohemia, 
Austria, and Bavaria, as far as the river Lech ; and 
the Suevi and Alemanni settled down between the 
Lech and the Alps and the Moselle. 

After the sacking of Rome by Genserich, leader 
of the Vandals, the imperial scej^tre was wielded 
by the creatures of the various German leaders ; 
amongst them was Odoaccr, who took Augustulua 
prisoner and proclaimed himself King of Italy, but 
was iji turn deposed by Theodoric in 490. 

Towards the beginning of the sixth century we 
come across a tribe of the Germanic race hitherto 
unmentioned, viz., the Bayer, or Bavarians, who 
were probably descendants of the Horuli, Rugiatis, 



and Turcilingians, who are said to have been a 
powerful, united, and independent people. 

The earliest known inhabitants of Brandenburg 
appear to have been the descendants of the ancient 
Suevi, namely, the Semnones and Longobardi, who 
dwelt on both sides of the Elbe. They were a war- 
like and hardy race, and were distinguished by 
their hospitality and by their humanity to their 
captive slaves. Their religious rites resembled 
those of the neighbouring Germanic tribes. In 
course of time they were forced to migrate west- 
ward, through the advance of the Sclavonic or Sclave 
race from the plains of Asia, between the fourth 
and sixth century.* 

At the commencement of the sixth century, this 
latter people occupied a great part of Central 
Europe, between the Baltic and the Black Sea. 
One tribe of them, which settled on the banks of 
the Elbe, was called " Wend8."t The Wends were 
smaller in stature than the neighbouring nations, 
devoted to agricultural pursuits, and far more indus- 
trious and intelligent than the German races who 
had been forced by the migration of Asiatic tribes 

* The word "Slave" or '' Sclave" is said to be akin to the 
Polish word '^slowo/' meaning language, which the Sclave race 
adopted to signify that they came from one common origin, as 
speaking the same tongue. The Teutons, having reduced the 
natives to a state of servitude, adopted the term '' Sclave " tu 
signify a serf. 

t See Appendix B. 


westward to take refuge in the mountains. They 
were divided into — 

1. Ohotrites, inhabiting the present duchies of 
Mecklenburg and Pomerania. 

2. Haveller, in Brandenburg. 

3. Sorbes, between the rivers Saale and Elbe. 

4. Lusatians. 

Their creed bore a marked resemblance to that 
of Zoroaster, and they possessed religious allego- 
rical pictures. After their subjugation, they were 
characterized by great cunning and natural talent 
for intrigue, but, nevertheless, still retained their 
attributes of bravery and determination. 

A certain number of towns still exist whose names 
have a Sclave or Wendish origin. Moreover, re- 
mains have been discovered of the sites of ancient 
towns inhabited by the Wends, which prove that 
this great race had attained a higher state of 
civilization than the neighbouring tribes, as is also 
attested by the archajological collections in the 
Berlin Museum. The form of govennnent was 
democratic, and only in time of war did they 
elect one of their warriors as rvler) his authority 
lasting only during the continuance of hostilities. 

In course of time, in consequence of constantly 
recurring wars, these temporary chiefs gradually 
established their supremacy, and became per- 
manent rulers of the eastern portion of the 
Sclavonic tribes. 

In 810 the Wends, asjsititcd by Gottfried, King of 


Jutland, revolted and recovered their independence, 
but on the death of that prince they were again 

In 789 Charlemagne crossed the Elbe to subdue 
the Wends of Brandenburg, having already overrun 
a large portion of the country occupied by the 
Sclavonic race, and, having reduced them to sub- 
mission, he imposed a tribute on the inhabitants, 
and appointed Trasiko King of the Obotrites, who 
had embraced Christianity, 

On the 29th of January, 814, the greatest of 
German Emperors breathed his last at Aix-la- 
Chapelle. He was succeeded by his only legiti- 
mate son, Louis, sumamed the Pious, a weak 
and irresolute prince, and the vast empire became 
the prey of intestine divisions. 

In 843 the sons of Louis distributed it amongst 
themselves, according to the following arrange- 
ment : — Lothair had for his share Italy, Burgundy, 
the Netherlands, and the left bank of the Rhine ; 
Charles the Bold became King of the Franks; 
and Louis the German received for his share 
all the German territory to the west of the Ehine. 
In consequence of this division of the empire, the 
Wends recovered their independence, and extended 
thoir rule, on the left bank of the Elbe, from 
Thuringia to Luneberg. 

In 920 Henry the Fowler invaded the country 
of the Wends, and in 928 took the stronghold of 
Gana, now called Jaliua, and Brannibor, afterwards 


called Brandenburg, the chief town of the Haveller, 
the Wends after this being again forced to pay the 
same tribute as under Charlemagne. 

The Emperor of Germany, Otho I., divided the 
country into Margrayates, of which one, the Nord- 
mark,* was placed imder the rule of Gero* This 
soldier had, by his tyrannical rule, excited a revolt 
of the people ; and in 940, after several years of 
continued warfare, the town of Brandenburg fell 
into his hands, through the treachery of one of the 
native princes. Otho I. was at that time at war 
with the Hungarians in South Germany. In 965 
the Wends again rebelled, under the command of 
their princes Nakko and Stoinif , and attempted to 
recover Brandenburg. They expelled Gero, sacked 
and burnt all the churches and religious establish- 
ments, and were victorious over a German army 
under the command of Hermann Billing of Saxony. 

On returning from Hungary, Otho advanced with 
Gero against the Wends, and defeated them in a 
battle near the river Dosse. 

Stoinif was taken prisoner and put to death, but 
Nakko escaped, and for a time successfully resisted 
the imperial arms, but was ultimately forced to 
yield. A few years later, in 965, Gero entered 
the monastery of Gernrod(9, which he is said to 
have founded. 

* The word signifies either a border land or a tract of uncultivated 
country. The Nordmark, or "Mark of North Saxony," was sub- 
sequently called the Altmark. 


On his retirement, Dietricli of Ballenstadt suc- 
ceeded to the Margrayate of the Nordmark, and by 
his despotic conduct forced the Wends to an out- 
break, which was followed, in 980, by a general in- 
surrection of other tribes. 

One of the Wendish princes, named Miztevoi, 
ruler of the Obotrites, had demanded in marriage a 
cousin of the Duke of Saxony, but Dietrich treated 
the proposal with scorn and prevented the union. 

In reyenge, Mizteyoi put himself at the head of 
the insurgents, and a general rising ensued, ending 
in the defeat and flight of Dietrich, the devastation 
of the German settlements, the destruction of all 
traces of Christianity, and the return to heathenism. 

Dietrich followed the example of his predecessor 
Gero, and retired into the monastery of Magdeburg, 
where he died in 986. 

Lothair, a German military chief of one of the 
neighbouring districts, made several attempts to 
recover the territory of Dietrich, and in 994, by 
the treachery of the military commandant of the 
Wends, ho succeeded in possessing himself of Bran- 
denburg, which was, however, shortly after retaken 
by his opponents. 

LoTUAiR, 985—1003. 

Lothair was not long, however, in recovering hi^ 
lost authority over tlio Wends, and so great was liis 
influence among tlic Gorman princes, that lie was 
able to secure tlio election of Henry of Bavaria to 


the imperial crown, in opposition to his rival Eckart, 
Landgrave of Meissen and Thuringia, and Hermann, 
Duke of Suabia. 

The Emperor, in recognition of Lothair's support, 
not only confirmed his title, but also guaranteed it 
to his son Werner. 

Werner, 1003—1009. 

By the treaty of Werben, a small town near Mag- 
deburg, in 1003, the Wends acknowledged the 
supremacy of Henry II. Shortly after Werner's 
accession to his Margravate, he strongly protested 
against the rich endowments wliich the Emperor 
Henry was constantly bestowing on the ecclesiastics 
in his territory. This naturally excited the anger of 
the Emperor, and in an interview which WemeThad 
with a certain Count Dedo, concerning a complaint 
which the latter had made against him, Werner in 
a fit of anger drew his sword and killed him on the 
spot, an act for which he was declared under the 
ban by the Emperor, and his title forfeited. 

It has been stated that Werner was in negotiation 
with the Poles- and Wends in a conspiracy against 
the Emperor, but this does not seem to liave been 
really proved. He met with his death in the year 
1014, in attempting to carry oflF by force a rich 
heiress in Thuringia. 

Bernard L, 1009—1019. 
Bernard, who succeeded Werner, was constantly in 


dispute with tho ecclesiastics, whose power was ever 
on the increase tlxrough the favour of the Emperor 
Henry ; and in a controversy which he had with 
the Archbishop of Magdeburg, concerning certain 
temporal rights, he made such an obstinate resist* 
ance that the prelate excommunicated him. 

History has handed down little or nothing con- 
cerning the rule of Bernard, who was succeeded by 

Bernard II., 1019—1044, 

Bernard, on assuming the reins of government, 
assisted the Emperor Conrad in quelling an in- 
surrection of the Wends, and also in his wars 
against Duke Miecislaus of Poland, who had ad- 
vanced victoriously as far as the Elbe, when his 
career was checked by the treachery of his brother, 
who offered to betray him to the Emperor, a fate 
which he avoided by taking refuge at the Court of 
Ulrich, Duke of Bohemia. When subsequently 
Miecislaus recovered his power by the death of his 
brother, whose proposal the Emperor had rejected 
with disdain, he showed his gratitude by a volimtary 
and imconditional submission to the imperial autho- 
rity. On Bernard's death in 1044 he was succeeded 
by his second son, 

William, 1044—1056. 

This Margrave enjoyed the special favour of the 
Emperor Heniy HI. The greater part of his reign 
was occupied in checking the insubordinate spirit 


of the Wends, which eventually culminated in a 
general rising. In a battle which took place between 
the Margrave and the insurgents at the castle of 
Pritzlava, near Werben on the Havel, he was totally 
defeated and lost his life, and, being childless, was 
succeeded by Udo, a near relative of the Emperor. 
His brother Otho, the son of a Sclave mother, was at 
the time absent from Germany. 

Udo I., 1056-57. 

Udo I, possessed all the requisite qualities for ruling 
the turbulent Wends, but unfortunately he died 
three months after his accession, and was succeeded 
by his son. 

Udo n., 1057—1083. 

Otho, the half-brother of William, opposed tlio 
accession of Udo, but shortly after lost his life in a 
duel. During the reign of Udo 11. , disturbances broko 
out in the kingdom of the Obotritcs, which con- 
tinued for many years. 

Udo was unable to take any part in this struggle, 
as he was engaged in a war with the Emperor 
Henry IV. He was taken prisoner at the battle of 
Unstrut, and remained in captivity for seven years 
till his release in 1082, and died shortly after. 

Henry I., 1083—1087. 

Henry I. succeeded Udo H., and at his death 
his brother Udo became Margrave, who was 
fortunately able to maintain neutrality between 

HENBY II. 303 

the opposing parties m Gennany. He appears to 
have treated his Wendish subjects with great modera* 
tion, which no doubt prevented them from taking 
part in the struggle which was then going on in 
the kingdom of the Obotrites. Udo III. died in 
1106, and was succeeded by his son. 

Hbnky n., 1106—1128. 

Udo III. lett a young son Henry, as yet in 
his minority, whose uncle Kudolf was declared 
guardian and regent. Rudolf, who was an am* 
bitious and quarrelsome man, joined the Saxons in 
their revolt against the Emperor for having appro* 
priated the estates of the Count of Weimar, a prince 
who had died without issue, hoping by this to obtain 
absolute power and to increase the Margravate. 

In 1114 Rudolf and his ally Lothair were defeated 
by Henry and forced to submit ; but in the following 
year, 1115, Henry was in turn repulsed at the battle 
of Welfesholz, and was forced to withdraw from 
Saxony, Lothair and Rudolf eventually compelling 
the Emperor to reguarantee to them their respective 

On the death of Rudolf, who had forcibly held the 
reins of government, his nephew Henry become sole 
Margrave and ruled until 1128, when he died with- 
out issue, his successor being the son of Rudolf, 

Udo IV., 1128—1130. 
This prince, like his father, was restless and am- 


bitious. The Emperor Lothair having iiuprisoued 
his brother-in-law, Count Hermann of Winzenburg, 
Udo took up arms in the latter's favour, but was de- 
feated and killed at the battle of Aschersleben in 
1130, by the imperial forces, under Albert the 
'' Bear." 

Udo IV. left two brothers, of whom one was in 
orders ; the other, whom the Emperor believed to 
be secretly opposed to him, was on l^at account ex- 
cluded from the succession, and the Margravate was 
given to Conrad, son of Hilperic von Plotzbau, one 
of the most celebrated knights in Saxony. 

Shortly after his assumption of power he accom- 
panied the Emperor Lothair to Italy in support of 
the cause of Pope Innocent II. against his rival, 
Anaclete II. Conrad was killed by an arrow at the 
siege of Monza in 1132, 



A.D. 1133-1308. 

Albert the <^Bear" becomes Margrave of the Nordmark (1133): 
Annexes Brandenburg; Death of Albert (1170) — Otho I. 
(1170—1184): Internal Condition of Brandenburg; Cam- 
paign of Barbarossa in Italy— Otho II. (1184 — 1204): 
Albert IL (1205—1220): Sides with Philip of Suabia— 
Otho III. (1220—1268): Henry Ton Meissen invades the 
Mittelmark; Otho taken Prisoner; Otho ransomed and 
renews Hostilities; Assists the Teutonic Knights; Division 
of Brandenburg; The Stendal and Salzwedel Families — 
Otho IV. (1280— 1308)— Albert III. (1272—1301): His 
Court Life ; Purchases Soldin — Hermann the Long (1301 — 
1308): Assumes the Title <' Regent of Silesia"; Religious 
Endowments; Purchases Lower Lusatia; Incorporation of 
Berlin and Kolln; Campaign in Mecklenburg; Death of 
Hermann (1308). 

Albert the ^^ Bear ^' was the son of Otho the Rich| 
Count of Ballenstadt, and the Saxon princess Elike. 
On tho accession of Lothair to the throne in 1 125, 
Albert laid claim to the duchy of Saxony, which 
was, however, given by the Emperor to Henry the 
Proud. Albert then forcibly took possession of a 



part of the duchy, for which he was punished by 
being deprived of Lusatia, which had been bestowed 
on him in 1123. On being reconciled to the 
Emperor, he accompanied him to Italy, when in 
the year 1133, in recognition of his military services, 
and as a set off for the loss of Lusatia, he was 
appointed Margrave of the Nordmark, which was 
vacant by the death of Conrad von Plotzkau. On 
Conrad III. becoming Emperor, one of his first 
objects was to weaken the power of Saxony, to 
eflfect which he enacted that no prince of Germany 
could rule over two duchies, Duke Henry refusing 
to resign Saxony, he was placed under the imperial 
ban ; that province was given to Albert the *^ Bear," 
and Bavaria to Leopold V. of Austria. 

Albert the "Bear "had not long taken possession of 
Saxony when he was expelled by Henry, who died 
shortly after, in 1139, and his young son was pro- 
claimed his successor by the nobles. In attempting 
to regain Saxony, Albert not only lost the Nordmark, 
but also all his estates; but at the Reichstag at 
Frankfort in 1142 he was formally reinvested with 
the Margravate of the Nordmark and Lusatia, 
which was declared to be no longer in any way 
connected with the duchy of Saxony. Albert 
having, either by force or intrigue, made Pribislaus 
of the Wends his vassal, on the death of that prince, 
his successor Jaczko attempted to throw off the 
yoke, but was defeated by the Margrave, who then 
annexed Brandenburg to the Nordmark. Albert now 

OTHO I. 307 

adopted Charlemagne's policy of conversioii, forcibly 
compelling his new subjects to become Christians. 
The state of Brandenburg being at this period 
anything but flourishing, the constant wars and 
inroads of the Germans having reduced the people 
to a deplorable condition, a considerable number of 
German colonists were introduced from the Rhine 
provinces to cultivate the land and to overawe the 
Wends, Albert, by these means, greatly improved 
the state of the country and broke the spirit of 
independence which had characterized the people. 

In 1158 the Margrave made a pilgrimage to the 
Holy Land as a thank-offering for the acquisition 
of Brandenburg. On his return he was accom- 
panied by several Knights of St. John, for whom he 
built residences, and endowed these establishments 
with a large part of the domains of the defeated 

The talents of these military and priestly adven- 
turers were of great service to Albert, enabling him 
as they did to render himself all supreme in his 
newly acquired territories. This sagacious but un- 
principled ruler died in 1170. 

Otho L, 1170—1184. 

Albert was succeeded by his son Otho, who took 
an active part in the war waged by Frederick 
Barbarossa in Italy. At the death of Pope Victor, 
Frederick refused to acknowledge the new Pope 
Alexander III. Accordingly the latter withdrew 

X 2 


to Genoa and thence to France, where he succeeded 
in forming a league against the Emperor, being 
actively supported by the republics of Genoa and 
Venice, which regarded with jealousy and fear the 
supremacy of Barbarossa in Italy. 

At first Frederick was disposed to come to terms 
of reconciliation, but being joined by Henry III. of 
England, who also had some disputes with the 
Pontiff, he recognized the rival Pope Pascal III, 
In 1167 the Emperor Frederick had undertaken an 
expedition into Italy, the principal cities of which 
had formed themselves into a league. Unfortunately, 
however, a most violent pestilence broke out, 
which carried off a great part of his army and 
compelled him to retreat with the remainder pre- 
cipitately beyond the Alps. At Susa the Emperor 
nearly fell into the hands of the Italians, and only 
escaped capture through the devotion of one of his 
knights named Hermann von Siebeneichon, who 
placed himself in his master's bed and was seized 
in his stead. 

In 1 1 74 Frederick Barbarossa crossed the Alps again 
with a large army. He caused Susa to be razed to 
the ground, and captured several important fortresses. 
Meanwhile, the Lombards had assembled an immense 
army, determined to meet the Emperor in the open 
field. As Frederick was awaiting fresh reinforce- 
ments from Germany, he determined to remain for 
a time on the defensive ; but the Italians, conscious 
of their numerical superiority, forced an engagement 


OTtto 11. 309 

at Legnano, where his small army was almost over* 
whelmed, the Emperor himself narrowly escaping' 

Frederick now resorted to diplomacy, and opened 
secret negotiations with the Pope, who, after some 
hesitation, agreed to a peace, which was concluded 
in 1177. The Margrave Otho, who had accompanied 
Frederick Barbarossa in his fifth campaign in Italy, 
was one of the principal advisers of that monarch, 
and from his great capacity and energy he was 
appointed mediator between the latter and the 
Pontiff. His mediation resulted in the famous 
treaty of reconciliation at Venice, 1177, which 
enabled Frederick to return to Germany and to call 
to account Henry the Lion. As a mark of imperial 
favour, Otho received the duchy of Pomerania and 
the rank of Grand Chamberlain, which was made 
hereditary in his family. Under his rule Branden- 
burg entered on a period of prosperity, and through 
the introduction of German emigrants the Wends 
were gradually naturalized. Amongst the various 
religious endowments which he founded was the 
Cistercian monastery of Lehnin, in which many of 
the Ascanian family were afterwards buried. Otho 
died in the year 1184, leaving three sons by his 
marriage with Judith, daughter of Bolealaus of 


Otho H., 1184—1204. 

After the death of Otho I., his dominions were 
ruled over by his three sons, the eldest of whom^ 

3i6 histoby op i^EtissU. 

however, Otho, exercised sovereign authority. He 
was a man of considerable ability and patron 
of the fine arts, but, like most princes of the age, 
he allowed himself to be unduly influenced by the 

In a dispute between Waldemar, Bishop of 
Sleswig, and King Canute of Denmark, Otho sided 
with the former, and displayed considerable braver}' 
in repelling the attacks of the Danes on his terri- 
tory. To atone for some misdeeds, he promised 
the Emperor and the Holy See, in the year 1196, 
to take part in a crusade, but, repenting of his vow, 
he requested the Pope to absolve him from it. 
This the Pontiff would only accede to on con- 
dition that the Margrave made over to the arch- 
bishopric of Magdeburg the Altmark, with the 
earldoms belonging to it, and a part of the Middle 

This Otho did, with the proviso that he should 
be able to reclaim it within the sj^ace of a year. 
On the death of the Emperor Henry VI., Otho 
at first espoused the cause of Henry's young son, 
but, finding there was no chance of his succeeding 
to the throne of his father, he became a partisan of 
Philip of Suabia, young Frederick's uncle. 

In all the acts of the Margrave, we find him 
attempting to make the Church subservient to his 
ambitious projects. He appears to have taken a 
very prominent part in the affairs of the empire 
until his death, which took place in 1204. 

ALBKRT il. 3li 

Otho was succeeded by his younger brother, 

Albert IL, 1204—1220, 

a man of no ordinary intelligence and capacity. 
Like his predecessor, he believed that the interest 
of his state required a close alliance with Philip of 
Suabia, but on the murder of that sovereign, in the 
year 1208, at the castle of Altenburg, near Bam- 
berg, by Otho von Wittelsbach, the Margrave 
offered his support to the Emperor Otho IV. 
^ During the struggle which ensued between the 
Emperor and the Pope, on account of the former's 
religious policy, the Margrave rendered himself 
conspicuous by the determined attitude he assumed 
towards the many adversaries of the Emperor. In 
recognition of these services, the Emperor Otho 
solemnly acknowledged the Margrave's feudal rights 
over Pomerania, and on Frederick's coronation, in 
1215, these rights were again confirmed by him. 

At the death of Albert, in 1220, John and Otho, 
his two sons by Matilda, daughter of Conrad of 
Lusatia and Meissen, were both minors, and his 
widow and Henry von Anhalt became joint 

Shortly after the regents' accession to power, 
they became entangled in a petty war with the 
Ai^hbishop of Magdeburg, and being defeated at 
the battle of Plane, near the river Havel, were 
compelled to take refuge in their strongholds of 
Brandenburg and Spandau. As a set-off against 


this humiliatioii, the regents demanded for Otho 
the hand of Beatrice, daughter of Wenceslaus, 
King of Bohemia. The marriage took place in the 
year 1231, the bride receiving as dowry the Lusa- 
tian towns Bautzen, Gorlitz, Lanbar, and Lobeu. 
This alliance was followed by a ratification by the 
Emperor of all the sovereign and feudal rights 
enjoyed by the former Margraves, and from this 
period Otho and John became joint rulers of 

In the year 1238 Henry von Meissen attempted 
to obtain forcible possession of the Lusatian towns 
Kopenick and Mitterwalde. To prevent this, they 
were placed imder the protection of Willibrand, 
Archbishop of Magdeburg, the two Margraves of 
Brandenburg being at that period engaged in a 
dispute with Bishop LudoU of Halberstadt, con- 
cerning their right to inherit the fief of the Count 
of Hamersleben. The archbishop imdertook the 
charge, claiming from the Margrave certain towns 
in return for his services. On the Margrave^s 
refusing, the prelate surrendered the towns of 
Kopenick and Mitterwalde to Henry von Meissen, 
who immediately invaded the Middle Mark,* and 
Bishop Willibrand thereupon uniting his forces with 

* The Middle Mark (Mittelmark) formed a portion of the Electorate 
of Brandenbnrg on the right side of the Elbe, and was bounded by 
the DnchieB of Magdebni*g and Mecklenburg, by the Neumark and 
Pii^gniti^ and in the fifteenth centoiy was absorbed into the Nea- 

OTHO III. 313 

those of Ludolf^ Bishop of Halberstadt, conjointly 
besieged Hamersleben. Otho III. of Brandenburg, 
in attempting to raise the siege, being defeated 
and taJken prisoner, was forced to pay as ransom 
the smn of 1,600 marks, together with the cession 
of the castle of Alyensleben. 

The two Margraves now marched against Henry 
von Meissen; the bishops on their part invading 
and devastating the Altmark. Although greatly 
inferior to their opponents as regards numbers, the 
Margraves did not hesitate to divide their army. 
John, the younger, advanced against the episcopal 
forces, which he totally defeated at Gladigau, on 
the left bank of the Biese, a tributary of the Elbe, 
in the year 1240. 

Ludolf was taken prisoner, and had to obtain his 
liberty by the restoration of the 1,600 marks and 
the castle of Alvensleben. Otho was also victorious 
at Mittenwalde over his antagonist, Henry von 
Meissen, who was forced to disgorge all the terri- 
tory that he had seized. 

In 1241 a renewal of hostilities by the bishops 
ended in a like failure, and resulted in the acquisi- 
tion of several fiefs by Brandenburg. 

In 1244 the Pomeranians, under Bamim, one of 
their principal dukes, attempted to assert their 
independence, but were defeated by the Margraves, 
and Bamim appears to have been forced to give his 
daughter Hedwig to John I., with a very con- 
siderable dowry, consisting of several districts in 


Pomerania. The successes of the Margraves now 
enabled them to play a prominent rdle in the affairs 
of the empire. 

On Frederick II. being excommunicated by Pope 
Innocent IV., at Lyon, for having attempted to 
curtail the power of the Church, the Margraves 
sided with the Papal party, and on Count William 


of Holland being elected the rival Emperor, they 
had received the right of reversion to the duchy 
of Saxony (in case of failure of issue), together 
with the fief of Zerbst. 

From 1251 to 1255 the Margraves were the allies 
of the Teutonic Order in the war against the 
heathen Prussians. On the death of Count William 
of Holland, in his campaign in 1256 against the 
Frisians, the Margraves were undoubtedly regarded 
as two of the most astute and capable princes in 
Germany, a reputation which resulted in the 
imperial crown being offered to the Margrave Otho 
in the year 1256. That prince was, however, too 
well aware of the jealousies which existed amongst 
the German princes to doubt that, should he accept it, 
fresh rivals would soon spring up, and he might be 
placed in a perilous position ; he therefore refused 
the proffered dignity. 

The two Margraves, who had each a numerous 
family, determined if possible to prevent any dis- 
putes breaking out amongst their children on their 
demise, and before their death divided their terri- 
tory into two separate margravates, John taking 

OTHO IV. 315 

Stendol (which he made his capital), together with 
the towns of Tangermuiide, Werben, Sandou, 
Osterburg, Gransee, Hayelburg, Wolmerstadt, 
Konigsbergy Kremmen, with a portion of Upper 
Lusatia; whilst Otho's portion included Salzwcdel 
(the capital), the towns of Plauen, Arneburg, 
Jericho, Berlin, Spandau, Soldin, Strausberg, Raucii, 
Frankfort, and the remaining part of Lusatia. Up 
to their death, 1266-67, the two Margraves were 
imremitting in their endeavours to improve the 
condition of all classes, particularly in the Neu- 
mark,* and by wisely abstaining from taking any 
part in the n;tanifold disputes of their neighbours, 
they were enabled to devote their exclusive atten- 
tion to the promotion of the prosperity of the 

John I. was succeeded by his three sons, John II., 
Otho IV., and Conrad I., who ruled jointly. His 
two youngest sons, Eric and Johann, became 
respectively Archbishop of Magdeburg and Bishop 
of Havelbm'g. A sixth son, named Henry Lack- 
land, had forfeited his right of inheritance on 
account of a morganatic marriage. 

Otho III. was succeeded by his four sons, John 
III., sumamed the Boaster; Otho V., surnamed the 
Long; Otho VL, surnamed the Short; and Albert 
III. Extraordinary as it may seem, the sons of the 

* The Neumark consisted of a long but narrow strip of territory 
extending as far as Poland, and bounded by Pomerania, Silesiai and 
Lower Lusatia. 


two Margrayes remained a united family^ although 
much weakened by the division of Brandenburg. 

Otho IV. appears to have been the ruling 
spirit amongst them. John III., of the Salzwedel, 
died in 1268, a year after his father, and Otho V., 
of the Salzwedel family, became guardian of his 
two younger brothers, Otho VI. and Albert III. 
Albert attained his majority and became joint 
regent in 1272, and Otho VI. in 1280. 

About the year 1268 the Margraves were em- 
broiled in hostilities with Poland and Mestwiu, 
Duke of Pomerellen, the war only ending in 1273, 
when Pomerellen was declared a fief .of the Bran- 
denburg family, and the towns of Stolpo and 
Schlawe were ceded to the Margraves. 

In the dispute between the Emperor Rudolf of 
Hapsburg and Ottocar, King of Bohemia, on ac- 
count of the Emperor refusing to invest that 
monarch with the duchies of Austria, Styria, and 
Camiola, a desperate struggle ensued, which ended 
in the death of Ottocar at the battle of the March- 
feld. Otho, Margrave of Brandenburg, then 
became mediator between the Emperor and Otto- 
car's young son Wenceslaus, for whom, by his 
powerful intercession, he succeeded in obtaining 
Bohemia and Moravia, being himself appointed 
guardian of the youthful king. 

In 1277, on the death of the Archbishop of 
Magdeburg, the Margraves proposed their brother 
Eric as candidate, but were opposed by the 

OTHO IV. 317 

Chapter, who elected Count Bubso yon Querfort. 
A compromise was effected, and the Magdebnrgers 
now acknowledged Count Giiniher yon Schwalen- 
burg as primate. 

Otho IV. now advanced with an army on Magde- 
burg, but was defeated and made prisoner by Count 
Giinther. The Margrave was conveyed to Magde- 
burg and confined in a wooden cage, ultimately 
obtaining his liberty, however, on the payment of a 
bribe of 4,000 marks. Count Giinther, disgusted at 
the venality of his clergy and councillors, resigned. 
On the retirement of Giinther von Schwalenburg, 
the Chapter proceeded to elect Count Bemhard von 
Wolpe to the vacant bishopric. The Margraves of 
Brandenburg thereupon again declared war against 
Magdeburg. During the siege of Stassfurt, the 
Margrave Otho IV. was struck by an arrow, the 
point of which remained in his head for many years 
after. Hostilities were protracted till 1281, when a 
compromise was effected. Both parties agreed to 
return their respective conquests, and the Chapter 
of Magdeburg undertook to elect Eric of Branden- 
burg on the next vacancy. Bishop Bemhard died 
in the following year, 1282, and Erich was accord- 
ingly elected to the vacant see. 

At first the new archbishop was very unpopular 
amongst the Magdeburgers, but by his prudence 
and moderation he soon conciliated them, and ac- 
quired their esteem. John II., one of the brothers, 
died in the course of the same year. 


Meanwhile Otho V., who was acting as guardian to 
the young Bohemian prince Wenceslaus, son of King 
Ottocor, found himself opposed by the Queen- 
mother Kunigunde, a woman of a strong mind and 
of an ambitious and intriguing disposition, and who 
was seeking to obtain an undue ascendency over 
her young son, and thus virtually to retain the 
government in her own hands. The Margrave 
Otho, fearing that the influence and example of the 
mother would be pernicious to his ward, succeeded 
in obtaining possession of the person of young 
Wenceslaus, and had him conveyed to Zittau, in 
Lusatia, where he was educated under his super- 
vision. The Queen - dowager now m'ged the 
Bohemian nobles to complain to the Emperor 
Rudolf, and to represent to him that it was 
evidently Otho's intention to put aside the prince 
and seize the reins of government. 

The Emperor, not wishing a further increase of 
power on the part of the Askanian family, expressed 
his dissatisfaction with Otho, who thereupon, in 
disgust at the conduct of the Bohemians, resigned 
his guardianship. 

The Margrave John II. died in 1282, and the 
two surviving Margraves, Otho and Conrad, pur- 
chased the Mark of Landsberg from Albert of 
Meissen and Thuringia in 1191. This transaction 
was ratified by the Emperor Adolf of Nessau, who 
succeeded Rudolf of Hapsburg, and who made the 
Margrave Otho IV. military commandant in Thu- 

OTHO IV. 319 

ringia and peace arbitrator in Lower Saxony. But 
the latter soon perceived his mistake in siding with 
Adolf y and, finding that he was constantly losing 
ground, joined the other imperial princes in de- 
manding the Emperor's deposition, and the election 
of Albert of Austria, son of Rudolf. 

In the battle of Gellheim, Adolf, having lost his 
helmet in the engagement, rushed with a chosen 
body of knights into the midst of his opponents, 
and was killed by his rival Albert in a hand-to- 
hand encounter. 

Otho V. of Brandenburg died in the course of 
the year 1297, leaving a son Hermann, sumamed 
the Long. Of the family of Stendal the two surviving 
brothers ruled jointly until 1304, when Conrad I. 
died, and Otho IV., the only surviving representa- 
tive of the dynasty, ruled absolutely until his death 
in 1308. 

During the latter part of his reign the lay portion 
of his subjects demanded that the clergy should 
bear an equal portion of the burden of taxation, 
for up to this time they had been free from all 

Otho, with considerable difficulty, forced the 
ecclesiastics to pay the taxes, disregarding the 
excommimication pronounced against him by Pope 
Boniface VIII., who was afterwards compelled to 
withdraw it. 

Towards the end of his rale, Otho became 
entangled in a dispute with the Emperor Albert I. 


concenung Meissen, given in security to Wenccs- 
laus, King of Bohemia, who in his turn had pledged 
it to the Margrave of Brandenburg. 

The Emperor reclaimed Meissen, which claim 
the Margrave had the courage to resist, and was 
put under the imperial ban. The dispute lasted 
until the death of the King of Bohemia, whose 
successor brought about a compromise between the 
Emperor and the Margrave. 

Otho died in 1308, regretted by his subjects. As 
regards talent and statesmanship he was only 
surpassed by his nephew Waldemar the Great, of 
whom we shall speak presently. 

The Salzwedel line was now represented by the 
Margraves Albert III. and Otho VI. Of the latter 
very little is known, but the former seems to have 
directed the affairs of the Margravate until his 
death in 1301. 

The Margrave Albert who became joint regent 
in 1272, married Matilda, the sister of Eric, 
King of Denmark, and had by her four children — 
two sons, Otho and Henning, and two daughters. 
Marguerite and Beatrice. 

Albert was an ambitious and warlike prince. In 
1272 he conquered the province of Stargard in 
Pomerania. In 1279 he assisted the Bishop of 
Ilildesheini in a campaign against Albert, Duke of 
Brunswick. He also took part in a war between Bang 
Adolphus and Thuringia. In 1280 he again invaded 
the district of Stargard. His military exploits were 


highly extolled by the MinnesSnger or Troabadours. 
A great patron of the fine arts, he was also passion- 
ately fond of poetry and music, and entertained at 
his Court a great number of poets and minstrels, 
who showed their gratitude by celebrating his 
achievements in verse. 

Albert was also strongly attached to the Church, 
and was particularly partial to ecclesiastics. Acting 
on the advice of his favourites, he founded and 
endowed the Cistercian monastery of Wantzke in 
Stargard. Towards the latter part of his life he 
was surrounded by priests and gave himself up to 
religious exercises, eventually assuming the garb of 
the Dominican monks, and devoting a groat portion 
of his time to fasting and penance. 

In 1298 we find that Albert purchased Soldin 
from the Knight Hermann von Warboich for 630 
pounds of Brandenburg money. About the same time 
his daughter Margaret, widow of Duke Przemislaus of 
Poland, was betrothed to Prince Niklot of Rostock 
in the presence of the leading German princes. 

In 1298 Albert founded a cathedral and chapter 
in Soldin, and towards the autumn of that year the 
church and the altar were consecrated by Bishop 
John of Havelburg. In the altar were placed relics 
of St. Bernard and of the 11,000 Virgins. 

In 1299 Albert visited Strausberg, and presented 

the Dominican monks, whom he held in great 

favour, with the estate and buildings adjoining the 

monastery, with the one proviso that they should 

VOL. II. y 


on no account resell it to the citizens. In the 
course of the same year Albert founded another 
religious establishment in connexion with the Cis- 
tercian Order, to which he gave the name of 
Himmelstatt. As an endowment he presented the 
town of Kladoros, together with thirteen adjoining 
villages, with all the revenues arising from the 
lakes and forests. 

During this year Albert lost his two sons and 
also his wife, who was buried in the cloister of 
Strausberg. After her death Albert never quitted 
his favourite residence at Eberswald. 

During the latter part of the year 1300 he was 
)eized by illness, and, feeling his end approaching, 
^ent for his nephew, the Margrave Hermann, whom 
ue made the heir to his title and estates. He 
breathed his last shortly after, either at the end of 
the year 1300 or early in the year 1301. The 
precise date is not known. It is, however, certain 
that he was interred in the church of Strausberg by 
the side of his wife. 

The Margrave Hermann now succeeded his imcle 
Albert III., although Otho VI. did not die until 
1303. He was at once involved in a dispute with 
Duke Henry of Mecklenburg, who had married 
Beatrice, the daughter of the Margrave Albert, and 
had received as dowry the province of Stargard, 
undertaking to pay in return the sum of 3,000 silver 
marks. The payment had been deferred from time 
to time, and on Albert's death was still owing, and 


much hostility of feeling was excited by the 
Margrave pressing for the money. About the same 
time his brother-in-law Bolco, Duke of Sweednitz 
and Fiirstenbergy died, leaving two sons under age, 
the guardianship of whom was imdertaken by the 
Margrave, who now styled himself Regent of Silesia. 

In 1302 the wife of Hermann gave birth to a son 
and heir, an event wHch was celebrated with great 
rejoicings. The young prince received the name oi 

In the course of the year 1302 the Princess 
Marguerite, widow of Duke Przemislaus, and who 
had been betrothed to Niklot of Rostock, was 
married to Duke Albert of Saxe-Lauenburg. Like 
his uncle Albert, the Margrave Hermann seems to 
have devoted a great deal of his time and attention 
to acts of piety and charity, for we find that at the 
end of tho year 1302 he endowed several religious 
establishments, and bestowed large gifts on the 
hospitals for the maintenance and support of the 

In November, 1303, the Margrave was residing 
at Spandau, where he issued a decree granting to 
the town of Gorlitz the privileges known aa the 
** Magdeburg Right." This document is of no little 
interest and importance, as we find therein that 
Hermann styles himself *^ Margrave of Brandenburg 
and Lusatia," from which we infer that he had 
already entered into negotiations for the acquisition 
of this important territory. 



In 1304 the misunderstanding between the Mar- 
grave and Count Henry of Mecklenburg respecting 
the pajrment of the 3,000 marks, to which we have 
already referred, began to assume a more serious 
aspect. Though the Margrave became more and 
more urgent for the payment of the debt, Count 
Henry was as unwilling as ever to meet his obliga- 
tions, and entered into an alliance with the Counts 
of Schwerin and Boitzenburg and the Duke of Saxe- 
Lauenburg, having made up his mind to resist 
the Margrave's claim, if necessary, by force of 

Ultimately both parties, fearing to risk open 
hostilities, came to the following compromise, by 
which it was agreed that Count Henry should pay 
to the Margrave the sum of 5,000 marks silver, and 
on the other hand the latter renounced all claim to 
the district of Stargard in favour of the Count, re- 
serving only the right of coinage and the working 
of iron. 

In July of 1304 Hermann purchased from the 
Margrave Diezmann Lower Lusatia and the terri- 
tory lying between the Spree and the Elster for 
6,000 marks. In the summer of this same year he 
also acquired possession of the estates of the Mar- 
grave Otho the Long, who died without heir. 

In 1305 Hermann formed an alliance with the 
Margrave of Brandenburg and the Princes of Meck- 
lenburg against the King of Denmark. He also 
allied himself with King Wenceslaus of Bohemia, 


and sent a contingent to assist that monarch in his 
war with the Emperor. 

It is probable that the Margrave Hermann him- 
self took part in hostilities, for we find that in the 
early part of the year ho was stationed with his 
army at Oschatz in Meissen, of which he appears to 
have taken possession. 

In March, 1305, Hermann had already retmned 
to Spandau, where he granted the patronage of the 
church of St. Katharine to the Cathedral Chapter of 
Brandenburg. On this occasion several of his chief 
court officials were present and signed as witnesses, 
among whom were the chief notary and an officer 
styled in the document " coquinarius," or head 

In August of the same year peace was concluded 
between the Emperor and Wenceslaus, King of 
Bohemia, and in consequence the opponents of the 
former monarch, including the Margrave Hermann, 
were released from a sentence of outlawry which 
had been passed upon them. 

It was about this time that King Wenceslaus, not 
being able to raise the sum of 50,000 marks to 
redeem the territory which had been mortgaged to 
the Margrave of Brandenburg, proposed, in lieu 
of the repayment, to renounce all his rights over 
Ponierania. This oflFer was, however, not considered 
by the Margrave a fair equivalent, and was refused. 

During the year 1306 Hermann visited difEerent 
cities in his dominions, and in the summer took part 

Sdd Misi'OBT OF PfitfiSfA. 

in a wax in Pomerania, between the rivals Wladis- 
laus Loktek and Peter von Neuenburg^ wbo were 
struggling for supremacy. 

Towards the end of the year 1306, the Margrave 
appears to have entered into negotiations with his 
cousins for the acquisition of that portion of the 
Altmark which hitherto belonged to the Stendal 
family, for we find that, in November of this year, 
he published a docmnent, offering to confirm all the 
rights and privileges of the town of Stendal, should 
it be transferred to him by his cousins. 

Hermann, it would seem, was very liberal to the 
occupiers of his estates, and had guaranteed them 
various immunities. He also protected the poorer 
vassals from the exactions and oppressions of their 
superiors, as he severely reprimanded several land- 
owners against whom complaints had been made of 
oppressing their dependents. 

In the year 1307 a very important municipal 
change was made in Berlin. Hitherto the two 
towns of Berlin and Kolln, although only separated 
from one another by the Spree, were totally distinct 
corporations, having different judges, magistrates, 
and courts of justice. The advisability of placing 
the two townships imder one jurisdiction had long 
been discussed. Many objections and difficulties 
presented themselves, but these were at last over- 
come ; and in the course of the year 1307 Berlin 
and Kolln became incorporated, having the same 
town councillors and magistrates in common. At 


the head of the council were two aldermen, but the 
title of burgomaster was not adopted until nearly a 
century later. 

In 1308 the Margrave Hermann, together with the 
Margraves Otho and Waldemar, entered into an 
alliance with Count Nicolaus of Schwerin against 
the intriguing Nicolaus of Werle, a Mecklenburg 
count who had considerably increased his domains, 
and was in expectation of also inheriting the estates 
of Count Henry of Mecklenburg. The ambition of 
Nicolaus excited the envy and jealousy of his neigh- 
bours, more especially of Count Nicolaus of Boitzen- 
burg, who induced Prince Witzlausof RUgen to join 
him in an expedition against the Count of Werle. 

In a battle fought at Ramelsdorf the allied forces 
of Nicolaus and Witzlaus were defeated, and Count 
Nicolaus thereupon sought the assistance of the 
Margraves of Brandenburg, Otho, Waldemar, and 
Hermann, in return for their support offering to 
concede to them as a fief a large portion of Schwerin. 
The Margraves accepted the offer, and, uniting their 
forces with the remnant of the army of Count 
Nicolaus, advanced into Mecklenburg with 4,000 
cavalry and a large body of infantry, including 
bowmen and artillerists. Having penetrated as far 
as Tume, they captured, after a short siege, the for- 
tified castle of Eldenburg, and began to strengthen 
the fortifications as a basis of offensive opera- 
tions. An engagement shortly took place, in which 
Count Nicolaus of Wittenburg was taken prisoner. 


Before the end of the year 1307, another event 
created a great sensation throughout Germany, 
namely, the assassination of the Margrave Diez- 
mann of Thuringia, who, as we have before seen, 
had sold the territory of Lusatia to the l^argraves 
of Brandenburg. 

The assassin, who was captured, could not be 
induced, even by torture, to divulge his instigators, 
but suspicion points to Count Philip of Nassau, who 
had a private feud with the Margrave Diezmann. 

Hermann continued engaged, together with his 
cousins, in military operations, and in refortifying 
the castle of Eldenburg ; but he did not live to see 
the conclusion of the war, for in the month of 
January, 1308, he was taken suddenly ill, dying 
very shortly after. 

The death of the Margrave caused great grief 
throughout his dominions, universally respected as 
he was for his high character and admired for his 
talents. Moreover, his sudden death threatened to 
give rise to serious complications and embarrass- 
ments, as his only son Johann was a boy of five 
years of age. His wife, Anna of Austria, daughter 
of the Emperor Albert, by whom he had five chil- 
dren, survived him. 



A.D. 1308-1320. 

Waldemar the Great (1308— 1319)— Waldemar declares himself 
Ouardian of the Margrave Johann^ son of Hermann the Long — 
Death of Otho IV. (1308)— Betrothal of Waldemar to Agnes, 
Sister of the young Margrave Johann — Transfer of Pomerania 
to the Teutonic Knights (1309)— Grand Fete near Rostock— 
Waldemar knighted by King Eric of Denmark (1311) — Siege 
of Rostock by the Allies (1312) — ^Waldemar severs Alliance 
with Eric — ^Reconciliation (1314) — Death of the Emperor 
Henry VII. (1313) — Candidates for the Imperial Sceptre — 
Coalition against Waldemar — Defeat of the Margrave near 
Strelitz (1316)— Siege of Stralsnnd — ^Negotiations for Peace 
— ^Treaty of Templin (1317) — Death of the Margrave Johann 
— ^Waldemar adopts the Son of Henry the Landless — Death of 
Waldemar (1319)— Death of Henry IIL (1320)— Condition of 

According to the law almost universal in Germany 
at this period, the ^lardianship of minors devolved 
upon the brothers or relatives on the father's side, 
and on the death of the Margrave Hermann, either 
the Margrave Otho or Waldemar, in the ordinary 
course, should have undertaken the guardianship of 
their young relative. 


But this had been anticipated by the Margrave 
Hermann, who, not haying been on the best terms 
with his cousins, had made an imusual testamentary 
arrangement, entrusting the caxe of his son to four 
of his confidential and trusty advisers. The 
regency of the territory of Lusatia was entrusted to 
three other knights. 

This arrangement on the part of the Margrave 
implied want of confidence and good-will towards 
his cousins, who were, according to strict law, the 
rightful guardians. On hearing of the appointment 
of a regency, the Margrave Otho, who was still in 
Mecklenburg engaged in the war, was not a little 
annoyed, and began to take measures to get the 
young Margrave into his hands. With this object 
in view, he entered into an understanding with 
Waldemar, who had also a personal interest in the 

For some time previous a marriage had been 
projected between Waldemar and his relative 
Agnes, sister of the young Margrave Johann, by 
the Mai^ravine Anna, the girPs mother. Walde- 
mar was most anxious for the marriage, which 
would unite the two rival families, and at the same 
time was equally desirous that the regency should 
be entrusted to his brother Otho, in contravention 
of the Margrave's testamentary arrangement. He 
therefore entered eagerly into Otho's ambitious 
designs, and succeeded in persuading the Margra- 
vine to completely set aside the di»positir>ns 


of the will, and to entrust the young Johann to 
the care and tutelage of either Otho or himself. 

The regents appointed by the late Margrave, 
fearing that their young ward would not be safe in 
the hands of these ambitious and intriguing self- 
appointed guardians, strongly protested against 
such proceedings, and conceived the design of seiz- 
ing the person of the young Margrave by force. 

To legalize their project, they appealed to the 
Margravine, who, after much hesitation, gave her 
consent. The project was kept strictly secret. 
Having made the necessary preparations, the 
regents employed agents at the Court of Waldemar 
to secure the person of the youthful Prince and to 
carryhimoflF. This wa8 ddlftJly carried out, and 
the subject of dispute accordingly found himselE 
once more in the care of his old guardians, in the 
castle of Spandau. The regents garrisoned the 
town, and took the necessary precautions for the 
safe keeping of their ward. 

In the meanwhile Waldemar proceeded to the 
residence of the Margravine, to complain of the 
forcible abduction of the Prince. That lady pro- 
testing that her counsel had not been asked, and 
denying any complicity in the proceedings of the 
regents, Waldemar resolved to recover the person 
of Johann without further delay, and advancing 
on Spandau with a strong force, he surprised the 
castle and seized the young Margrave, whom he 
conveyed back to his Court. The regents, fearing 


tho vengeance of Waldemar, thought it prudent to 
betake themselves to the Court of Henry, Count of 
Mecklenburg. Waldemar now publicly declared 
liimself the guardian, and signed himself as such in 
all public documents, Otho having probably re- 
nounced his claims to the guardianship. No further 
mention is made of him until his death, in 1308. 

In May of the same year the Emperor Albert 
was assassinated, at Windisch, by his nephew, 
Duke John of Suabia, and a host of competitors 
appeared for the imperial sceptre. 

The Margrave Waldemar cherished an ambition 
in this direction, but, finding he had little chance, 
retired from the competition. Of his rivals, the 
most influential were Frederick, sumamed the 
Handsome, Louis of Bavaria, and the King of 
France. One of the principal reasons whicli 
induced the Margrave Waldemar to withdraw his 
candidature for the imperial crown was the un- 
settled state of aflfairs in Pomerania and Mecklen- 
burg, to which we have already referred. 

During the year 1309 Waldemar visited the 
principal cities in his dominions. At Spandau he 
granted an interview to Frederick von Alvensleben, 
one of the foiu* guardians of the young Margrave 
Johann, and from this time we find that he was 
generally attended by one or other of these 
knights, which leads to the supposition that their 
consent had been obtained to his acting as regent 
and guardian. The Margravine Anna, who had 


originally acquiesced in this arrangement, but had 
subsequently retracted, had withdrawn from poli- 
tical affairs, and was living in retirement on her 
private estate at Henneberg. 

In May, 1309, she was visited by Waldemar at 
Tangermiinde, when he was betrothed to her 
daughter Agnes, sister of his ward. In a decree 
issued in the same month he already styles himself 
the brother-in-law of the young Margrave Johann, 
Waldemar now publicly declared himself regent, 
and, by a series of artful devices, succeeded in con- 
ciliating the different towns which had at first 
united themselves into a confederation to resist his 
pretensions. Waldemar confirmed the rights and 
privileges enjoyed hitherto by the towns of Berlin 
and KoUn, and issued a decree ordering the extra- 
ditibn of all criminals who should take refuge in 
the territory of his " beloved cousin, the Margrave 

The time fixed for the marriage of Waldemar 
with his relative Agnes was fast approaching. In 
consequence of their near relationship it was 
necessary to obtain the Papal dispensation, and ac- 
cordingly the Margrave wrote to Pope Clement V., 
who, in November, 1309, forwarded from Avignon 
the requisite dispensation. 

In 1310 Waldemar took part in hostilities against 
the seaports, which originated in the following 
manner. Count Henry of Mecklenburg had be- 
trothed his only daughter Matilda to Duke Otho of 


Liineberg, and proposed to celebrate the festivities 
in his capital. But a misunderstanding had long 
existed between Henry and the citizens of Wismar, 
who allied themselves with the other seaports, 
Rostock, Stralsund, and Greifswald, and determined 
to assert their independence, refusing even to allow 
the marriage to take place in their town. 

Henry, repulsed from Wismar, invited his friends 
to Sternberg, where the ceremony was performed, 
and requested the assistance of his guests in 
reducing the rebel towns to submission. Eric, 
King of Denmark, who had also a dispute with 
these towns, readily joined the coalition, on con- 
dition that Waldemar joined the alliance, as he 
feared that otherwise the latter might unite 
with their opponents and prove a very formidable 

There had long existed an estrangement between 
Brandenburg and Denmark, in consequence of 
the Danish King having, in a previous war, 
assisted Niklot against the former, but an acci- 
dental circumstance caused the Margrave to readily 
accept the invitation to join the alliance. Walde- 
mar had long cherished a desire to receive the 
distinction of knighthood, and as it was a condition 
of that order that the bestower of the dignity must 
be higher in rank than the person on whom it was 
conferred, the opportunity now accidentally pre- 
sented itself. The Margrave accordingly agreed to 
aid in the campaign, on condition that King Eric 


would undertake to confer the coveted honour upon 
him and ninety-nine of his chief nobles. Eric at once 
expressed his wiUingness, and resolved to celebrate 
the event with all distinction by convoking the 
whole of the nobles to a four weeks' festivity in the 
town of Rostock. Should the town refuse to admit 
the guests, it was resolved to form a large camp 
outside its walls in the best season of the year, and 
on the conclusion of the festivities to reduce the 
town to submission by force of arms. 

As it was necessary to make serious preparations, 
the fSte was adjourned until the summer of 1311, 

The negotiations for the purchase of a part of 
Pomerania by the German Order, which had been 
pending since 1309, now came to a satisfactory con- 
clusion, and Waldemar despatched an embassy to 
Stolpe, where it was finally settled that the Margrave 
Waldemar should transfer to the Order the cities of 
Dantzic, Dirschau, and Swetz, and surrounding 
territory, in consideration of 10,000 Brandenburg 

The money paid was very welcome to the Mar- 
grave, who hoped thereby to be in a position to 
make an imposing appearance at the grand fSte 
to be held at Rostock in the following year. 

As soon as the news of the intended campaign 
reached the ears of the people of Rostock they 
determined on making active preparations, and 
forthwith prepared to put the place in a state of 
defence. The walls were strengthened, and no 


effort was spared to enable the town to make 
a long and determined resistance. In the spring of 
1311, having first sent invitations to all the chief 
princes and nobles to attend the projected festivities, 
the Danish King proceeded to Rostock with a largo 
retinue, and asked permission to enter the place to 
celebrate a royal fUe. The municipality held a 
consultation, and sent reply that they would bo 
willing and eager to welcome him into the town 
with a limited retinue, but not with his present 

The monarch would not, however, hear of any- 
such conditions, and the citizens held a meeting at 
night to consider their line of procedure. 

Eric having been allowed to enter the town with 
a small retinue and been courteously received by 
the council, fearing foul play from the attitude 
of the masses, abruptly withdrew, and the citizens 
immediately closed the gates against all strangers. 

The King retired with his followers to a large 
meadow, at some distance from the town, and 
caused an immense camp to be formed on the plain 
extending from Bertoldesdorf to Michelsdorf. The 
former is now called Bartelsdorf, and is situated 
about a quarter of a mile north of Rostock. 

In the com'sc of the first week there arrived some 
of the most distinguished princes invited, including 
the Margrave Waldemar with his bride and his 
young ward, the Margrave Johann. Princes and 
knights attended from all parts of Germany and 


Poland. The clergy were also represented by such 
dignitaries as the Archbishops of Magdeburg and 
Bremen and the Bishops of Halberstadt^ Sleswig, 
Lubeck, Brandenburg, Schwerin, &c. Besides these 
high personages the assemblage was graced by the 
presence of a great number of ladies, wives and 
daughters of the distinguished guests. It is estimated 
that the whole number of visitors amounted to 
upwards of 6,000, not including the host of servants, 
followers, musicians, conjurors, and performers who 
came to take part in the festivities. The King of 
Denmark and the Margrave had jointly made ample 
provision for the guests. Of wine and beer there 
was no limit, and the tables were free to all. They 
had also provided an immense store of com and 
hay, so that the horses might not lack provender. 
In fact, everything was on a scale of unprecedented 

On the evening before the day appointed for the 
grand ceremony of the investiture of the Margrave 
with the order of knighthood, the Danish King sent 
him a splendid scarlet mantle and coat, as also a 
bridled charger, sword, and shield. 

On the morning of the ceremony all attended 
mass ; after which the King repaired to his tent 
and took his place upon a magnificently adorned 
throne, on which were placed all the objects 
necessary for the performance of the ceremony. 
At a given signal the Margrave proceeded from his 
own quarters towards the tent of the King, clad in 

VOL. II. z 

338 mSTOBY OF pbussia. 

the knightly robes and seated on the charger, and 
accompanied by a procession of ninety-nine of his 
nobles and by a band of musicians. 

On arriving at the royal tent he dismomited, 
and the united assemblage of princes and nobles 
saluted the King. The Margrave then fell on his 
knees, and, after repeating the usual formula, was 
duly dubbed a knight. The King performed the 
same ceremony for each of the ninety-nine attend- 
ants of the Margrave. The investiture being over, 
the most distinguished of the assembly sat down to 
a banquet of unusual magnificence. 

On the following day was held a grand tourna- 
ment, at which the princes vied with one another 
in skill, dexterity, and endurance. 

These festivities were continued for a whole 
month, and the time was spent alternately in 
banqueting, sports, and dancing. The noble and 
illustrious troubadour Henry von Meissen has handed 
down in verse the particulars of this memorable 

Notwithstanding the extraordinary nature of these 
festivities, the practical object of the meeting was 
by no means lost sight of, for before the end of the 
month a joint plan of operations for reducing to 
submission the towns of Wismar and Rostock was 
concerted by the King, the Margrave, and the 
Count of Mecklenburg. 

The meeting had hardly dispersed when the 
army of Henry of Mecklenburg advanced towards 


Wismar and the Danish fleet began to blockade tho 

The siege was forthwith commenced, and several 
attempts were made to take the town by storm. 
The citizens, however, offered such a vigorous 
resistance that the Danish fleet was compelled to 
retire, and the army of the confederates suffered 
heavy losses, their repeated assaults being steadily 
repulsed. On tho other hand, the inhabitants of 
Wismar, finding that Rostock could not assist them, 
reluctantly listened to overtures of peace, which 
was successfully concluded by the mediation of 
Duke Wladislaus of Sleswig and Nicolaus of Werle. 

In the beginning of the year 1312 it was deter- 
mined to make a joint attack on Rostock, whose 
vessels had plundered some of the Danish ports, 
the Margrave Waldemar promising a contingent of 
400 well-equipped soldiers. The united forces first 
laid siege to Wamemiinde, which was forced to 
surrender after a three months' resistance. 

The allies now pushed on the siege of Rostock 
with vigour. Four towers were erected, occupied 
respectively by the Danes, the Brandenburgers, tho 
Mecklenburgers, and the rest. Meanwhile a plague 
broke out among the allies, which compelled the 
greater part of the army to withdraw. The Danish 
King and the Margrave returned home, leaving 
Henry of Mecklenburg to continue the siege single- 
handed. All his efforts would have been fruitless 
if internal dissensions had not broken out in the 

% 2 


town itself, and one of the loading partisans, Hein- 
rich Runge by name, a man of violent disposition, 
succeeded in making himself a sort of dictator. 
The self-elected governor, having caused the chief 
citizens to be executed, entered into negotiations 
for peace with the besiegers ; and on the town of 
Rostock undertaking to pay as war indemnity the 
sum of 14,000 marks within seven months and to 
release all prisoners of war, a peace was concluded, 
Wamemtinde remaining in the hands of the allies 
until the Rostockers had discharged all their obli- 
gations. Thus was finally settled the contention 
between the seaports and their nominal ruler, the 
Count of Mecklenburg. 

Waldemar made great efforts to acquire popu* 
larity amongst his subjects, by extending privileges 
and immunities, as well as by enacting laws for the 
protection of property and the punishment of 

In the summer of 1313 the whole of G-ermany 
was in a state of agitation in consequence of the 
sudden death of the Emperor Henry VII. of Luxem- 
burg, who was one of the greatest monarchs that 
had ruled over Germany, and who had followed in 
the footsteps of Frederick Barbarossa. Henry YIL 
of Luxemburg was elected Emperor about the same 
time that Waldemar succeeded to the Margravate. 

Almost immediately after his election he received 
an embassy from Bohemia offering the Princess 
Elizabeth, sister of Wenceslaus, in marriage to his 


son John, a boy of fourteen, who was afterwards 
known as King John of Bohemia. 

The Emperor at first rejected the proposal, but at 
last consented, and despatched to Bohemia a large 
body of troops under the command of his son 
John, who was received with shouts of welcome. 
Bohemia was at this period in a state of anarchy, 
in consequence of the tyranny and misrule of 
Henry of Carinthia, who had seized the reins of 
government. The young Prince, aided by ex- 
perienced and able advisers, soon restored order 
and expelled the usurper. 

In the meanwhile war was raging in Italy be- 
tween the Guelphs and Grhibellines, The latter 
sought the aid of the Emperor, who crossed the 
Alps triumphantly and entered Milan, the ancient 
capital of Lombardy, where he placed the crown 
on his own head. 

The Emperor, leaving Count Werner von Hom- 
burg governor of Lombardy, now marched against 
Rome with a force of 2,000 men. He succeeded in 
entering the city, but was repulsed in an attempt 
to storm the citadel, which was defended by able 
veterans sent by Robert, King of Naples, 

The Emperor was obliged to withdraw fi'oni 
Rome, but succeeded in making himself master 
of a great part of the country, and distributed the 
Italian imperial offices among his faithful adherents. 
His son. King John of Bohemia, was on the point 
of crossing the Alps with reinforcements when the 


successful career of the Emperor was cut short by 
his sudden death, at Buonconvento, in August, 

On the death of the Emperor Henry VII. of 
Luxemburg, a great number of competitors ap- 
peared for the imperial sceptre. The Margrave 
Waldemar was at first anxious to put himself 
forward, but, finding that his rivals were too 
formidable, he resolved to withdraw his candi- 

The principal competitors were King John of 
Bohemia, son of the late Emperor, who was strongly 
supported by his uncles, Baldwin of Treves and 
Peter of Mayence, but who subsequently re- 
nounced his claims in favour of Louis of Bavaria ; 
Frederick of Austria, who represented the House 
of Hapsburg, and was supported by the Pope ; and, 
lastly, Louis of Bavaria, of the House of Wittels- 
bach. The latter at first promised to support 
Frederick of Austria, but, on the retirement of 
King John, finding himself at the head of the 
Luxemburg party, he resolved to come forward 
as a candidate. The Margrave Waldemar was 
in favour of Frederick of Austria, and proceeded 
to Frankfort to bo present at the election. The 
contest lay between Frederick and Louis of 
Bavaria. The latter, having received the majority 
of votes, was crowned with great splendour at Aix- 
la-Chapelle, but his rival, who was supported by 
the Margrave Waldemar and other princes, was 


crowned at Bonn by the Archbishop of Cologne, 
Henry von Virneburg, after which the Margrave 
returned home in December, and took no active 
part in the war which was waged for several years 
between the rival Emperors. 

In August of the year 1314 the young Margrave 
Johann attained his majority, and assumed the 
reins of government, so that from this time forward 
the Court of Johann was distinct from that of 

In the course of the autumn the Margrave con- 
cluded an oflFensivo and defensive alliance with 
Henry of Mecklenburg. Towards the end of tho 
year the war between the Danes and the seaports 
of Stralsund and Greifswalde was resumed. For 
some unexplained reason, the Margrave Waldemar 
appears to have severed his alliance with the Kong 
of Denmark, and to have concluded a treaty with 
the town of Stralsund. This step on the part of 
the Margrave lost him many friends, for wo find 
that the former regents appointed by tho late 
Margrave Hermann, as well as many of the most 
influential nobles, disapproved of his policy, and 
leagued themselves with his opponents, who, how- 
ever, finding that they had little prospect of suc- 
cess against the superior means and forces of the 
Margrave, resolved to come to terms with him. 
Accordingly a treaty was signed between Walde- 
mar and the King of Denmark, by which the 
Margrave undertook to renounce his alliance with 


the town of Stralsund, which was to retain all its 
rights and privileges, on condition of acknow- 
ledging the supremacy of Prince Witzlaus of 
Riigen. On his return from Frankfort, the Mar- 
grave is said to have inflicted a very peculiar 
punishment on his ambassador, Nicolaus von Bock, 
who was chained to the banqueting hall and only 
allowed to be fed on aj^ples, the unfortunate man 
soon perishing of hunger.' 

In tke course of the year 1415 the whole country 
was ravaged by a dreadful contagious disease, 
which carried o£E thousands of victims. The 
Crusaders had brought with them from Asia several 
varieties of disease hitherto peculiar to that con- 
tinent, at least in their severer forms, amongst 
which were the plague, cholera, and leprosy. The 
unfortunate victims of leprosy, when once infected, 
very seldom recovered — nay, often lingered for 
years, the objects of pity and disgust. 

So universal was the disease, that most of the 
principal towns in Germany were provided with 
permanent lazarettos for the reception of the un- 
fortunate sufferers, who were strictly forbidden to 
associate with the rest of the population. Various 
precautionary measures were taken to prevent the 
spread of the disease, so that in course of time it 
was stamped out. Even in the year 1529 the 
hospitals of St. George, in Hamburg, were still 
tenanted, but in other parts of Germany the 
malady had disappeared before the fifteenth century. 

i • 


In the summer of 1315 King Eric entered into 
an o£Pensiye and defensive alliance With the Eangs 
of Norway and Sweden, with King Wladislans 
Loktek, and also Prince Witzlaus of Rugen. The 
Margrave, suspecting that the confederation had 
hostile intentions against himself, entered into a 
closer alliance with the Margrave Johann and with 
the Count of Holstein, and made the necessary pre- 
parations for the impending struggle. 

Although both sides were eager for hostilities, an 
attempt was made by Witzlaus of Rligen to bring 
about a compromise ; but neither party was willing 
to make concessions, and all attempts to effect a 
friendly arrangement failed. 

In order to raise funds, the Margrave Waldemar 
sold the territory of Bernstein to the Duke of 
Stettin for 7,000 marks. He then took into his pay 
a large body of mercenaries, whom he despatched 
for the defence of Stralsund against the proposed 
invasion of the island by Prince Witzlaus. The 
Mar^ave himself, at the head of another force, 
advanced into the territory of Duke Henry of 
Mecklenburg, who had been appointed commander- 
in-chief of the army of the confederation. 

As a pretext for commencing hostilities, the 
Margrave demanded from the Duke the restoration 
of tlio territory of Stargard, which had formerly 
belonged to the House of Brandenburg. This 
being indignantly refused, Waldemar about the 
middle of December, 1315, declared war, and 


laid siege to the castle of Fiirstenliagen, close to 
Waldeck, and, after taking the fortress by storm, 
the Margrave, contrary to the advice of his coun- 
cillors, proceeded to besiege the town. 

As it was now the worst season of the year, 
and the army of the Margrave had been thinned by 
the prevailing epidemic, the plague, the garrison 
determined to make a vigorous resistance, unt^er 
the command of a very able and experienced 
captain, named Martin von der Huda. Waldemar, 
finding it impossible to take the place by storm, hit 
on an ingenious plan, namely, to enter the town by 
means of a subterraneous excavation under the 
walls and fortifications. The passage was nearly 
completed when the besieged obtained information 
of the scheme, and, having succeeded in tracing the 
situations of the galleries, directed a stream of 
water into the mine, drowning the workmen and 
rendering the operations useless. 

The besiegers lay before the town nearly two 
months without making any perceptible progress. 
The Margrave, finding all his efforts fruitless, and 
that his army was suffering both from disease and 
the severity of the winter, determined to raise the 
siege and to march against Duke Henry of Meck- 
lenburg, who had by this time collected an army, 
and had advanced into New Brandenburg. 

At the end of February, 1316, therefore, he 
withdrew from Waldeck and advanced against the 
Duke of Mecklenburg, who had retired from Bran- 


denburg and had taken up his position near StreUtz. 
Finding the army of the Duke drawn up in battle 
array, the Margrave at once commenced the attack. 
A fierce fight ensued, in which the Brandenburgers 
were worsted, and were driven back into the lakes, 
many being either drowned or made prisoners. 

In March, 1316, the King of Denmark, either to 
gain time or with a desire for peace, convoked an 
assembly of princes at Rendsburg, to consider the 
advisability of negotiations for a cessation of hos- 
tilities. A long and bitter discussion took place, 
consisting of mutual recriminations, and the result 
was as might be expected. It may be very justly 
doubted whether the King of Denmark had con- 
voked the assembly from sincere motives, for in the 
following month, as soon as the weather was favour- 
able for a campaign, he summoned his allies to 
send their promised contingents in order to besiege 
Stralsund. It was not, however, until the end of 
June that the forces were in a position to seriously 
begin the siege. 

The island was garrisoned by Brandenburgers 
and Pomeranians, who were prepared to make the 
most obstinate resistance. 

Anticipating an attack both by sea and land, the 
Dukes of Pomerania had collected their fleet off the 
island. The Stralsunders had also equipped vessels 
of their own, determined to make a bold stroke 
before the arrival of the whole force of the allies, 
and secretly organized a night attack. 


On the 21st of June, shortly before daybreak, a 
large body of Stralsimders made a sortie from the 
two principal gates and penetrated the camp of the 
enemy, many of whom were surprised and killed 
before the sentinels could give the alarm. Finding 
themselves overpowered, the besiegers fled from 
the entrenchments in wild dismay, leaving behind 
a large amount of booty and a great number of 
prisoners, among whom were Duke Eric of Saxe- 
Lauenburg and other princes. 

In the mean time King Eric, having united his 
forces with those of the King of Sweden, advanced 
on Stralsund to avenge the defeat of his allies. He 
had already despatched a large fleet of eighty ships, 
manned by 7,000 seamen, imder the command of 
the Count Hermann von Grieichen, to blockade the 
port. The Margrave Waldemar, on hearing of the 
advance of the allied army of Danes, Swedes, and 
Mecklenburgers, resolved to oppose their progress 
without loss of time, and by forced marches came 
up with the enemy at Schulzendorf . As his army 
was much inferior in numbers to that of his 
opponents, he was advised by his friends to avoid a 
battle and remain on the defensive. 

The Margrave was, however, too headstrong to 
be persuaded and too proud to hear of retreat. On 
one of the hottest days of August a most sanguinary 
engagement took place at Gransee, near Potsdam, 
in which great bravery was displayed by both sides. 
The battle lasted the whole day with alternating 


BUCC6BS, and at dusk both parties retired to their 
respective camps. Although neither side could 
claim the victory, the allies had succeeded in their 
object, namely, to prevent the Margrave from 
affording aid to the Stralsunders, but they were not 
equally fortunate by sea. In a naval engagement 
which took place about the same time, the Danish 
fleet narrowly escaped entire destruction at the 
hands of the Stralsunders, under the command of 
Christopher von Halland, who captured the island 
of Svenborg and put an end to the blockade* 

The hostilities were protracted until the winter^ 
when both sides, having experienced severe losses, 
commenced negotiations for peace, and ultimately 
a conference was arranged at Meienburg, where two 
knights were selected on each side to draw up the 

On the 1st of January, 1317, the preliminary 
articles were agreed to, and it was arranged that 
the treaty should be signed in the month of March 
by tiie belligerents at Templin, where it was settled 
that each of the contracting parties should remain 
in possession of the territory over which they ruled 
prior to the war, and that Stralsund should enjoy 
all her former rights and privileges. This treaty 
freed Brandenburg from a struggle which had 
nearly destroyed her life's energies. 

In 1317 the deaths of the Margrave Johann with- 
out iflsue and of Henry the Landless occurred about 
the same time, the latter leaving a young son named 


Henry III., who was adopted by Waldemar and 
made liis heir. Waldemar died in the succeeding 
year (1319), and Henry suryived him but a twelve- 

Waldemar may be regarded as one of the greatest 
rulers of his time, possessing much military ca- 
pacity. His grand object appears to have been 
the gaining of an extended sea-board for his 
dominions. Unfortunately for him, however, his 
territory was not sufficiently strong to give him the 
necessary support, and he could never count on his 
allies, who always deserted him at the first disaster. 

The Askanian dynasty, after a rule of about 170 
years, had raised Brandenburg to the position of 
the most important State of North Grermany. Its 
extent of territory was more than doubled, for they 
had not only made considerable acquisitions by 
purchase, conquest, and diplomacy, but they had 
also acquired feudal rights over an extensive tract 
of country. 

The population of Brandenburg consisted of 
Saxons, Wends, and Dutch (settlers). The Catholic 
religion was firmly established, and a large number 
of churches and religious institutions had been 
foimded and endowed. 

The nobles or great vassals appear to have been 
constantly in dispute with the Margraves on account 
of the latter attempting to make them subordinate 
by defining the exact nature of their authority. 

Most of the inhabitants of towns and villages 


lived by the ctdtiyation of land, the industrial pur- 
suits being left to the slaves and freedmen, and in 
the twelfth century this part of the population 
monopolized the entire trade of the country. Their 
power and wealth were greatly augmented by the 
Askanians, and gradually the nobles who resided in 
the towns, being imable to support their position, 
dropped their titles and intermarried amongst the 
traders. It was thus that a strong aristocratic 
element was introduced among the citizens, which 
in after-years led to wars between the towns and 
the landed nobility. 

The principal commercial centres of Brandenburg 
were Salzwedel, Stendal, Seehausen, Gkurdelegen, 
Osterburg, Werben, Brandenburg, Berlin, and 
Frankfort, which all belonged to the Hanseatic 

Salzwedel was the chief emporium from being in 
direct communication with Hamburg and Lubeck 
by land and water. The chief articles of industry 
were linen and cloth. The former was made by 
the villagers in the Wend districts ; the latter by 
the Germans and Dutch. Wine and beer were also 
made in large quantities. It is stated that the 
Wends were the first to introduce beer, whereas the 
cultivation of the grape was carried on by Ehenish 

The import and export duty appears to have been 
very Ught. 

The condition of the peasants was superior to 


that of neighbouring countries, for they .were 
greatly protected by the Askanians, and their 
interests were represented at the Landtag by their 
own deputies. 

The first coins of Brandenburg were "Blech- 
pfennings," made of very thin silver. In the twelfth 
century pfennings of increased value were struck, 
and were called denars. These were reckoned 
according to weight, and a pound of denars was 
equivalent to a silver mark; a rouleau of twelve 
denars was called a shilling. 

Justice was administered by the governors of 
provinces, who were always of noble birth. Each 
province was divided into a number of districts in 
which cases were decided by bailie. 

There also existed a High Court of Appeal at 
Tangermtinde, over which the ruler was supposed 
to preside. As the towns increased in size, their 
magistrates were invested with the right of ad- 
ministering justice within the immediate precincts 
of the town. 



A.D. 1320-1347. 

Interregnnm (1320 — 1323) — Condition of Brandenburg — State of 
Europe — Struggle between Frederick of Austria and Louis of 
Bayaria— Battle of Morgarten— Battle of Muhldorf (1322)— 
Diet of Nuremberg (1 323) — Louis elected Margrave of Branden- 
buig — Expedition of the Emperor Louis into Italy — Transfer 
of the Papal See from Rome to Avignon — Pope John XXIL — 
The Anti-Pope Martin V. — Pope Clement VL — The Margrave 
Louis invades Pomerania — Battle of Eremmen (1331) — Diet 
of Frankfort (1344)— Diet of Rhcnse— Charles of Moravia 
elected Emperor (1346)— Death of the Emperor Louis (1347). 

On the death of Waldemar the Great, Brandenburg 
became the scene of internal dissensions for several 
years, and was reduced to a state of utter ex- 
haustion. Various claimants attempted to make 
themselves supreme, bands of robbers plundered the 
country, and the clergy in vain attempted to put a 
stop to the disorders by wholesale excommunica- 
tions. Added to this, the plague broke out and 
carried off a large number of the j^opulation. 

The whole of Europe was at this period dis- 
tracted by intestine struggles. Italy was a prey to 

VOL. 11. a a 


the fury of exasperated factions, and Germany was 
the scene of a violent and protracted contest be- 
tween the rival Emperors, Frederick of Austria and 
Louis of Bavaria. The latter, who had been elected 
by a majority of the electoral princes, was also 
supported by the Cantons of Switzerland, who 
naturally wished to see the imperial sceptre 
wielded by any one rather than a Duke of Austria. 

The first act of Louis after his election was to 
confirm, by an imperial edict, the independence of 
those Cantons of Switzerland which had been sub- 
ject to the House of Hapsburg. 

Notwithstanding the imperial decree, Leopold, 
Duke of Austria, determined to reduce to submis- 
sion the Cantons which had shaken off their 
allegiance. War had been fomenting in the Swiss 
mountains since 1313, when the Hapsburg vassals 
of Lucerne had undertaken an unsuccessful expe- 
dition against the Cantons of Uri, Schwytz, and 

The Duke of Austria, having assembled a large 
army, penetrated into Switzerland, and was 
joined at Stanzstadt, in Unterwalden, by Count 
Otho of Strasburg and the Lucerners. On reaching 
Morgarten, fifty men appeared in front of the lines 
of the Schwytzers. These men, who had during 
previous disturbances been banished, now resolved 
to join their countrymen in the struggle for free- 
dom, but, as the Cantons refused to admit them in 
the ranks of the combatants, they stationed them- 


selves on an eminence above Morgarten. Here 
they were subsequently joined by 1,300 of their 
countrymen. As the Austrian army was traversing 
the Engpass, between the ridge of Morgarten and 
the lake, the fifty Swiss exiles hurled down frag- 
ments of rocks and trunks of trees on their enemy, 
producing terrible confusion and disorder. 

The Swiss, taking advantage of the panic created, 
rushed down from the mountains, and a dreadful 
slaughter ensued. The confederates gained an 
easy victory, and Leopold escaped with difficulty 
from the scene of the disaster. 

The Duke now assisted his brother Frederick in 
liis struggle with Louis of Bavaria, whom he had 
already defeated in the summer of 1315 at Augs- 
burg. In consequence of Leopold's disastrous 
campaign in Switzerland, Louis was enabled to 
reorganize a large force in Bavaria, where he was 
joined by King John of Bohemia. A series of 
engagements ensued, with little or no result. 

In 1318 a great battle was fought at Esslingen, 
in Suabia, but both sides claimed the victory. At 
length, in 1321, Frederick having returned from an 
expedition into Italy, finding himself at the head of 
a large army, and being reinforced by a con- 
siderable number of Hungarians, entered Bavaria 
and laid waste the whole country. 

Louis thereupon advanced at the head of a large 
army, supported by his allies, the King of Bohemia, 
the Count of ZoUem^ and the Burgrave of Nurem- 

aa 2 


berg. By forced marches the Bayarian army over- 
took Frederick before the arrival of his brother, 
Duke Leopold, at Muhldorf, where, through a ruae 
de guerre employed by the Burgrave of Nuremberg, 
who had disguised his soldiers as imperialists, the 
army of Frederick was completely routed, and he 
himself taken prisoner and conveyed to the cajstle 
of Trausnitz, from which he was not released until 

For this victory Louis was also in great measure 
indebted to the skilful tactics of his commander-in- 
chief, the renowned Schweppermann. It is related 
that after the victory nothing could be found for 
the imperial table but a. basket full of eggs, which 
were distributed amongst the officers, the Emperor 
remarking, "To each of you one egg, to our 
gallant Schweppermann two!" These words are 
to be found inscribed on his tombstone at Castel, 
near Amberg. Schweppermann, though old, lame, 
and short of stature, was an experienced officer and 
an able tactician. 

Brandenburg was now partitioned as follows : — 
Budolf , Duke of Saxe-Wittenberg, lineal descendant 
of the youngest son of Albert the Bear, seized the 
Mittel and Alt Mark, as well as Upper Lusatia; 
Duke Henry of Brunswick took forcible possession 
of the Friegnitz, including the towns of Prenzlow 
and Pasewalk in the Uckermark; the Bohemians 
secured a part of Upper Lusatia ; Agnes, the widow 
of Waldemar, obtained as her widow's portion a 


part of the Altmark, and the widow of Henry 
the Landless acquired Landsberg, which she trans- 
ferred to her daughter on ntiarrying the Duke of 
Brunswick ; Poland seized a portion of the Neu- 
mark, and the Bishops of Magdeburg and Halber- 
stadt atteudpted to revive old claims on the territory 
of Brandenburg. 

The victory of Muhldorf, 1322, made Louis of 
Bavaria supreme in Germany, and ho at once 
availed himself of the distracted state of the 
coimtry to induce the Diet, wliich was assembled at 
Nuremberg, to acknowledge his son Louis as Mar- 
grave of Brandenburg, the House of Wittelsbach 
thus becoming rulers of the country. 

Louis L, 1324—1351. 

Louis was a youth of only twelve years when 
elected, so that in fact he was nothing but the 
instrument of his father. He commenced his rule 
under the most unfavourable conditions. The 
Emperor, in order to strengthen his son's position, 
married him to the Princess Margaret of Denmark, 
through whose influence he recovered Priegnitz 
from the Duke of Brunswick. By an arrangement 
with Waldemar's widow Agnes, who had re- 
married, the Altmark was to revert to the 
House of Brandenburg on the death of her hus- 
band. An agreement was also made with Duke 
Rudolf of Saxe-Wittenberg, who, fearing that the 
Margrave would obtain the armed assistance of the 


King of Denmark, offered to pay 16,000 marks for 
Lower Lusatia for the period of twelve years, but 
to renounce his claims to the rest on receiving a 
money payment. 

Louis, however, redeemed Lower Lusatia in 1328, 
and was now virtually ruler of the Neumark and 
the Middlemark, Priegnitz, and Lower Lusatia. 

Just as matters were improving a conflict arose 
with Pope John XXIL, who declared that the young 
Margrave had no right to Brandenburg. It appears 
that King John of Bohemia, being jealous of the 
young Elector of Brandenburg, now severed his 
connexion with the Emperor Louis and entered 
into an alliance with the House of Hapsburg, and, 
conjointly with France, Naples, and Hungary, pre- 
vailed upon Pope John XXII. to call the Emperor 
Louis to account. Accordingly the Pontiff sum- 
moned the Emperor to appear before him at Avignon, 
and on his refusing to obey the summons placed 
him under the interdict, 1324. The Pope then 
called on the Poles and Lithuanians to invade 
Brandenburg, which was at the mercy of the 
invaders, as the Emperor coidd at this critical 
moment afford no assistance to his son. As the 
Papacy now exercised so great an influence in the 
affairs of Europe, we may as well give some account 
of the transfer of the Chair of St. Peter from Rome 
to Avignon. 

The period during which the Popes fixed their 
residence at Avignon, and thus put themselves 


under the influence of the kings of France, was 
styled by the Italians " the seventy years' captivity 
in Babylon." It appears that on the death of Pope 
Benedict XI., in 1305, Rome was distracted by the 
Actions of the cardinals and nobles, as the members 
of the College of Cardinals consisted of an Italian 
and French party, and the latter were under the 
influence of Philip the Fair, King of France. As 
the French cardinals were in the majority, they 
succeeded in securing the election of Bertrand du 
Got, Archbishop of Bordeaux, who, although a sub- 
ject of the King of England, had entered into a 
secret compact binding himself to serve the interests 
of the King of France. The new Pope, who was 
a Q-ascon by birth and education, refused to repair 
to Rome, but invited the Italian cardinals to attend 
his coronation at Lyons, where he was solemnly 
enthroned under the title of Clement V. For five 
years Clement sojomned in various parts of France, 
until at length he fixed liis residence at Avignon, a 
city under the rule of the Count of Provence, who, 
as King of Naples, was a vassal of the Holy See. 

Though nominally beyond French territory, 
Clement showed Ids subservience to the King of 
France, to whom he owed his promotion. He 
created ten new cardinals, all Frenchmen and 
devoted to French interests, and granted to Philip 
the tenth of the ecclesiastical revenues of France 
for five years. Pope Clement did not, however, 
allow himself to be made a tool of the French 


King, the aggrandizement of whose power he had 
reason to dread. On the death of the Emperor 
Albert of Austria, Philip sought to secure the 
imperial sceptre for a member of his own family, 
and with that view visited Clement to obtain the 
Pope's interest for his brother, Charles of Valois. 

Clement nominally complied with Pliilip's request 
by writing a letter to the electors in favour of 
Charles's candidature, but at the same time adopted 
underhand means to thwart the Bang's policy by 
secretly recommending Duke Henry of Luxemburg 
as the fittest candidate, who, as we have already 
seen, was crowned Emperor imder the title of 
Henry VH. 

In the latter part of his pontificate Clement was 
embroiled with the Venetians as to the possession 
of Ferrara, which the Pope claimed as a dependency 
of the Roman 8ee. 

The Venetians, refusing to give up Ferrara, were 
placed under the Papal interdict, from which they 
were absolved in 1313 through the mediation of 
Francis Dandolo, afterwards Doge of Venice. 

In 1314 Clement, becoming infirm, proceeded to 
his native province, but death overtook him at 
Roquemaure, on the Rhone, in April, 1314. 

Philip, King of France, did not long survive the 
PontiflF, for he died some months after from the 
effects of an accident while hunting in the forest 
of Fontainebleau, and was succeeded by his son 
Louis X. 


Immediately on the death of Clement V., the 
cardinals, of whom six only were Italians, met to 
appoint a successor. As the French cardinals were 
in a large majority, the choice of the conclave fell 
upon Cardinal James Duese, who assumed the title 
of John XXII. 

To conciliate the Italian cardinals, the new Pope 
swore that he would never mount on horseback 
imless to return to Rome. It is said that, to evade 
his oath, the Pontiff proceeded to Avignon by boat 
along the Rhone, and walked from the landing 
place to the Papal palace, which he never quitted 
except to attend the services of the cathedral. 

As the new King of France did not possess the 
vigour and energy of his father Philip, and left the 
conduct of affairs in the hands of his uncle, Charles 
of Valois, Pope John soon began to take advantage 
of the altered state of things to assert the supremacy 
of the Papacy over the Empire. 

He redistributed the dioceses of France in disre- 
gard of the rights of the King, and put in force all 
the machinery of the Inquisition for the suppression 
of secret societies. Pope John soon became em- 
broiled with the Franciscans, who lived in luxury 
and splendour, although holding severe views as to 
the obligation of evangeHcal poverty. Pope John 
issued several Bulls, charging them with hypocrisy, 
and forbidding them to use the name of the Holy 
See in collecting money. In the struggle in 
Germany between the rival Emperors, Pope John 


at first took no part, and gave the title of King of 
the Romans to both claimants in turn. In fact, it 
appears that the crafty Pontiff regarded the struggle 
with no little satisfaction, inasmuch as he is said to 
have given expression to the sajing " that when 
kings and emperors quarrel, then the Pope is truly 
Pope." But as soon as the victory of Miihldorf 
made Louis of Bavaria supreme in Germany, Pope 
John resolved to assert his authority, and issued a 
manifesto in which he claimed for the Holy See the 
right to arbitrate in all cases of disputed elections, 
and even forbade the Emperor to use the title of 
King of Rome. Louis thereupon convoked an 
assembly at Nuremberg, where he read a protest 
against the Papal decree, and complained that, after 
having been acknowledged King of the Romans 
nearly ten years, his right to the title should now 
be called in question. 

Louis now appealed to a General Council, in which 
he accused the Pontiff of encroaching on the rights 
of the German electors and of stirring up rebellion 
in the Empire ; upon which Pope John placed the 
Emperor under the interdict, and declared the elec- 
tion of the Margrave Louis as Kurfurst of Branden- 
burg to be illegal In the meanwhile the Emperor 
Louis, finding his enemies increasing on all sides, 
resolved to come to a reconciliation with his rival 
Frederick, whom he visited at his prison at Traus- 
nitz and offered to liberate on condition of his taking 
the oath of allegiance. 


Duke Frederick on recovering his freedom re- 
mained faithful to his engagement, notwithstanding 
the instigations of the Pontiff, who released him 
from his oath. The two rivals now became 
friends, and secretly agreed to divide the imperial 

Louis, on becoming reconciled with the Haps- 
burgs, appointed Frederick of Meissen governor of 
Brandenburg, in the name of his son Louis, to free 
the territory from the depredations of the Poles, 
who committed acts of the grossest barbarity, and 
reduced a great portion of the country to a state of 

The Emperor now undertook an expedition to 
Italy to receive the imperial crown at the hands of 
the Anti-Pope Martin V., whom he had elected in 
opposition to Pope John at Avignon. 

Louis crossed the Alps, entered Milan and Pisa 
in triumph, and proceeded to Rome, where he 
caused himself to be proclaimed lord of the "Eternal 
City," and to be crowned at St. Peter's with his wife 
Margaret of Holland, who shortly after gave birth 
to a son, Louis, sumamed the Roman. Louis, how- 
ever, soon found that he could not prolong his stay 
in Rome. The King of Naples had despatched a 
large fleet, which advanced up the Tiber and 
threatened to take possession of the city. In the 
mean time the citizens had become discontented in 
consequence of the increase of taxes imposed by the 
Emperor, and the partisans of Pope John had ^uc- 


I ceeded in stirring up violent opposition to the Anti- 

. Pope. 

The Neapolitans having cut oflE all supplies, the 

^ citizens broke out in open revolt, and Louis found it 

prudent to withdraw his troops from the city and 

, hasten to Pisa, where he was joined by a great 

number of discontented Franciscans. After holding 
an assembly, in which Pope John was again publicly 
deposed and denounced as a heretic, the Emperor 

f resolved to return to Germany, and in January, 

1330, he recrossed the Alps, leaving behind at Pisa 
Martin V. under the protection of Count Boniface 
of Donoratico, who, however, after some time, 
treacherously delivered him into the hands of Pope 
John's partisans. To save his life, Martin was 
forced to abjure his errors in the cathedral of 
Pisa, and, on being conveyed in chains to 
Avignon, he appeared before his rival with a 
halter round his neck and humbly besought for* 
giveness. The unfortunate Anti-Pope spent the 

« remainder of his life in the Papal palace in strict 


Scarcely had Louis arrived in Germany than he 
received news of the death of his rival Frederick of 
Austria, whom the electoral princes had refused to 
acknowledge as the Emperor's colleague on the 
throne. During the absence of the Emperor in 
Italy, Brandenburg had been the scene of a religious 
intestine struggle, headed by the Archbishop of 

I Magdeburg and Bishop Stephen of Lebus, who 


Bought, through the Papal ban, to appropriate the 
dominions of the Elector. 

The inhabitants of Frankfort, enraged at the 
losses they had endured through Bishop Stephen, 
marched against him, defeating his army and 
taking him prisoner. The Pope in his turn placed 
all those who opposed the bishops under the inter- 
dict. The discomfiture of his opponents induced 
the Margrave to attempt to force the Duke of 
Pomerania to restore to him the Uckermark, but the 
Margrave was totally defeated near Kremmen, and 
agreed to renounce his feudal rights over Pome- 
rania. At the same time, however, he secured the 
right of inheritance to the duchy, in case of the 
extinction of the ducal line, and further, on the 
payment of 6,000 marks silver, he recovered the 

In 1334 the Margrave Louis concluded an im- 
portant arrangement with his brothers, Duke 
Stephen, Louis the Eoman, and William, according 
to which he and his successors, in the event of the 
extinction of their line, were to receive Bavaria and 
the hereditary property in Franconia and Suabia. 
Moreover, should the Margrave die without issue, 
his brothers were to receive the Mark Brandenburg. 

In 1342 Louis married Margaret, surnamcd 
" Maultasche" * (^gly mouth), the last and only 

* According to some liiBtorians, ^fargaret was so snmamed from 
the castle of Maoltasch, sitaated between Botzen and Meran, where 
she resided. 


heiress of Tyrol. She was the widow of John 
Henry, the second son of the King of Bohemia, 
and brother of Charles IV. 

In 1343 hostilities broke out between Louis and 
Otho, Duke of Brunswick, sumamed the Mild, 
arising from attempts on the part of the former 
to compel the Duke to cede the Altmark before the 
latter's demise. 

The Pope's rancour against the Emperor still 
continued. Notwithstanding the intercession of the 
Duke of Austria and the King of Bohemia, he 
again excommunicated the Emperor and threatened 
to Jay the whole of Germany imder an interdict, as 
long as the inhabitants regarded Louis as their 
sovereign. The Emperor now resolved to resign 
the crown as the j)rice of obtaining the Papal 
absolution, and even signed a formal act trans- 
ferring the sceptre to his cousin, the Duke of 

At this critical juncture Pope John died, and was 
succeeded by Benedict XII., who, with the advice 
of the cardinals and the French King, persevered 
in the policy of his predecessor. 

In 1342 Pope Benedict died, and was succeeded 
by Clement VI., who proved a more formidable 
opponent of the Emperor. Clement had been 
originally a Benedictine monk and Chancellor to 
King Philip of France. He was noted for his 
learning, eloquence, and agi-eeable manners, at the 
same time for his great firmness and decision of 


character. Even whikt Archbishop of Rouen he 
had displayed his hostility to the Emperor, who 
nevertheless despatched a mission to him imme- 
diately after his election, proposing terms of recon- 
ciliation with the Holy See. Pope Clement, 
convinced that he had the destiny of the German 
Empire in his hands, disdainfully rejected all over- 
tures, and demanded that Louis should abdicate, 
and penitently acknowledge all the errors of his 
past conduct. 

In 1343 Clement issued a Bull setting forth in 
detail all the offences of which the Emperor had 
been guilty, and calling upon the German princes 
to elect a new Emperor. Accordingly a number of 
electors met at Rhense, under the influence of King 
John of Bohemia, who was now opposed to the 
Emperor, who also appeared in person, and adroitly 
succeeded in averting the immediate danger by 
promising to be guided by the judgment of the 

The Emperor shortly after summoned a Diet 
at Frankfort, where, after exposing the Pope^s 
intrigues, he asked the advice of the assembly. 
As Louis expressed his willingness to resign, the 
electors seemed disposed to accept the offer in 
favour of Charles, Margrave of Moravia, son of King 
John of Bohemia. The latter then visited Pope 
Clement at Avignon, with his son Charles, who 
agreed to sign a document binding himself to a 
degrading submission to the Papal See. 


The Pontiff now ordered a new election, appoint- 
ing Count Gerlach of Nessau to superintend the 
proceedings, and decreeing that Louis of Branden- 
burg, son of the deposed Emperor, should be 
excluded from voting. 

Accordingly the electors met at Rhenso, July 10, 
1346, and Charles of Moravia was elected Emperor. 
The general feeling of the Germans was, however, 
in favour of the Emperor Louis, who summoned a 
Diet at Spires to protest against the outrageous 
attempts of the Pope to dominate over Germany. 
Moreover, the cities of Frankfort and Aix-la- 
Chapelle refused to receive the new Emperor, who, 
after being crowned at Bonn, was forced to betake 
himself to France with his father, the blind King 
John, who, as ally of the French King, took part 
in the battle of Crecy, in which he fell mortally 

Germany was now fast drifting into a civil war 
when the Emperor suddenly met with an accident 
in the hunting field, which terminated fatally, 
October, 1317. 



A.D. 1347-1416. 

Aceeaaion of CharleB IV. (1347)— The Pretender Waldemar— 
Inyaaion of Brandenburg — Rival Emperor Count Oiinther — 
The Margrave Louia abdicated (1351) — Louis IL, the 
Roman (1351— 1365)— Otho, the ''Blotched" (1365—1373) 
—Diet of Ouben (1374) — Brandenburg incorporated with 
Bohemia — Charles IV. Regent of Brandenburg — Death of 
Charles, 1378 — Wencealaus elected Emperor — Sigismund 
becomes Margrave of Brandenburg — Condition of the Mark 
under Jobst — Negotiations of Sigismund with the Burgrave 
of Nuremberg — Frederick VL of Zollem purchases the 
Mark — Council of Constance (1414) — Frederick publicly 
recognized Kurfurst of Brandenburg — Development of the 
Reformed Doctrinea in Germany — Career and Death of John 
Huss (1415). 

On the death of the Emperor Louis, Charles, 
Margrave of Moravia, son of the Bohemian King 
John, became undisputed Emperor of Germany, 
with the title of Charles IV. As we have already 
seen, he had signed a humiliating capitulation with 
Pope Clement VI., by which tjie German Empire 
VOL. n. 66 


was placed at the feet of the ambitious and haughty 
Pontiff. As the tool of the Papal policy, he had 
been compelled to serve under the French monarch 
in his wars with Edward III. of England. For this 
and other reasons the German princes were at first 
unwilling to confirm his election. Some of them 
even offered the imperial sceptre to Edward III., 
the conqueror at Crecy, who however prudently 
declined the doubtful honour. 

The new Emperor almost immediately after his 
election resolved on the destruction of the Wittels- 
bach family, and in conjunction with Duke Rudolf 
of Saxe- Wittenberg, the Archbishop of Magdeburg, 
and the Dukes of Mecklenbm'g and Pomerania, 
instigated a miller named Jacob Rehbock to 
personate the deceased Margrave Waldemar. Some 
mystery seems to have existed with reference to his 
death, and the enemies of the Wittelsbachers circu- 
lated rumours that Waldemar was still alive, and 
that in the garb of a pilgrim he had been visiting 
the holy places in Palestine. The pretender, Jacob 
Rehbock, had, it appears, been a confidential servant 
of the deceased Margrave, and was intimately 
acquainted with the affairs of his master, to 
whom he bore a striking resemblance. Accord- 
ingly in 1347 the pretender made his appeaxance 
in Brandenburg disguised as a pilgrim, and 
announced himself as Waldemar, the former ruler 
of Brandenburg, supposed to have been dead 
nearly thirty years. The pretender declared that 


he had wandered in Palestine to atone for his 
sins, and to expiate for the great offence of having 
married his own cousin Agnes, and that he himself 
circulated the report of his death. He also 
speciously pretended that it was not his intention 
to resume sovereign power, but simply to ask his 
subjects to remain faithful to his successor. 

In 1348 Rehbock, having gained many partisans, 
repaired to the Court of the Archbishop of Mag- 
deburg, by whose advice he assumed the title of 
Regent of Brandenburg, 

The position of Louis now became precarious, as 
both the Emperor Charles and the Pope espoused 
the cause of the impostor, who found himself suffi- 
ciently strong to take forcible possession of the 
Altmark and Priegnitz, whilst the Pomeranians 
occupied the Neumark and Uckermark. Three 
towns alone remained faithful to the Margrave, 
Brieuzen, Spandau, and Frankfort. 

The Emperor now advanced at the head of a 
large army into Brandenburg, and Louis was com- 
pelled to retire to the town of Frankfort. Mean- 
while the Emperor Charles bestowed Brandenburg 
on the false Waldemar as a fief of the empire, and 
issued an imperial edict calling upon the inhabitants 
of Brandenburg to acknowledge Waldemar as their 

But the Margrave Louis was not deserted by all 
his friends. The Kurfiirsts, who still cherished his 
father's memory, now resolved to set up a rival 

bb 2 


Emperor in the person of Giinther, Count of 
Schwartzenburg, a prince of great miKtary repu- 
tation and a staunch friend of the deceased Em-^ 

The energetic action of the Wittelsbachers soon 
brought about a reaction in favour of the Margrave. 
His brother, Louis the Roman, raised a large army 
in Bavaria and regained possession of the Alt 
Mark and Priegnitz, and many of the towns made 
a voluntary submission. 

Charles IV. now proposed terms of reconciliation 
with the Margrave, and accordingly the two parties 
came to a compromise, by which the Emperor 
agreed to renounce the cause of the false Walde* 
mar and restore Louis to all his possessions, whilst 
Count Giinther resigned his claim to the imperial 
crown on receiving the sum of 20,000 marks. 

At a meeting held shortly afterwards at Bautzen, 
the pretender was proved to have been the servant 
of the deceased Margrave, and the whole imposture 
was publicly exposed. 

The varying fortunes which the Margrave Louis 
had experienced now determined him to pass the 
remainder of his days in retirement, and at a 
meeting at Luckau, on the Spree, in 1351, he trans- 
ferred to his brothers Louis the Roman and Otho, 
sumamed the Blotched, all his lands and possessions 
in Brandenburg, after which he retired to his patri- 
monial territory in the Tyrol, where he was much 
respected. In 1359 he was remarried to Margaret 

LOUIS II. 373 

Maultasche, as the Emperor Charles had obtained 
the Papal sanction to his marriage. The Margrave 
died in 1361 at Mimich without issue. 


Louis 11. was bom at Rome in 1328. Although 
a generous and peace-loving ruler, he is accused of 
having persecuted the Jews, whom, on the advice 
of his councillors, he expelled from the country. 

Under the rule of Waldemar they had been 
greatly protected, as being loyal and peaceable sub- 
jects who had greatly increased the trade of the 
country. But their wealth had excited the jealousy 
of the priests and the poorer classes. On the pre- 
tence of having poisoned the wells they were ex- 
pelled from the coimtry, and all their property con- 
fiscated for the benefit of their oppressors. 

Prussian writers havo attempted to justify this 
act of inliumanity on the part of the Margrave, by 
insinuating that the false Waldemar had seci'etly 
excited the people against the Jews, with the hope 
that the Margrave would oppose their persecution, 
and so lose favour with his subjects. 

In 1356 Louis was summoned to attend tlie Im- 
perial Reichstag, at which the Emperor Charles IV. 
issued the celebrated " Golden Bull," so called from 
its being enclosed in a golden case. By this imperial 
decree the number of Kurfiirsts was definitively 
reduced to seven, viz., the four temporal electors of 
Bohemia, Brandenburg, Saxony, and the Palatinate, 


and the three spiritual electors of Mayence, Cologne, 
and Treves. 

The power of the Kurfiirsts was also considerably 
increased, for they were made almost independent 
sovereign princes, and exercised the "jus de non 
evocando," which deprived their subjects of the 
right of appeal to the Emperor. Further, the 
election of a new Emperor was to be decided by a 
majority of the Kurfiirsts, any one of whom could 
propose his own election. 

During the absence of the Margrave the peace of 
Brandenburg appears to have been greatly disturbed 
by the daring feats of banditti under the leadership 
of a certain celebrated robber, nicknamed the 
" Devil.^^ So great was the terror of his name that 
the important town of Salzwedel acknowledged him 
as ruler. 

This lawless state of things did not last long, 
for on the return of the Kurf iirst the brigands were 
one by one arrested and executed. 

In 1360 Otho, surnamed the Blotched, became 
joint ruler of Brandenburg, but Louis really retained 
the supremacy. Unfortunately for the Margravate, 
just at a time when a regular government was being 
introduced, dissensions arose in the Wittelsbach 
family. They originated as follows : — 

Louis I. died in 1361, and his son Meinhard in 
1363 without issue, and, in accordance with former 
arrangements still in force. Upper Bavaria was to 
return to the Kurfiirsts of Brandenburg, namely, to 

oTflo. 376 

Louis II. and Otho. Their brother Stephen, Duke 
of Lower Bavaria, however, now laid claim to and 
seized Upper Bavaria. 

Charles IV., ever ready to increase the power of 
his house, took advantage of this favourable oppor- 
tunity, and, after having done his utmost to widen 
the breach between the brothers, came forward as 
mediator, and induced them to come to a com- 
promise, wliich was eflfected in 1363, the Emperor 
skiUulIy managing to get himself and his son 
Wenceslaus and their issue included in the treaty 
of succession. 

By this arrangement they were to come into 
possession of Brandenburg in the event of Louis 
the Roman and Otho dying without legitimate heirs. 
In 1365 the former died without issue, and as Otho 
was not disposed to undertake the burden bf govern- 
ment, he appointed a Stadtholder. 

Otho the Blotched became sole Kurfttrst in 1365, 
and ruled until 1373. Total incapacity was per- 
sonified in this prince. He was by nature weak, 
indolent, extravagant, and immoral. It is not to be 
wondered at, therefore, that he left the government 
of the country to those who supplied him with the 
means of self-gratification. 

The once-flourishing territory of the Askanian 
family now became the scene of misery and oppres- 
sion. The Kurfiirst's unprincipled advisers enriched 
themselves at the expense of the country, and he in 
consequence was forced to sell Lower Lusatia to 

376 HISTORY OF Prussia. 

Charles IV., in 1368, for 21,000 marks and 22,886 
Bohemian groschen. 

The events which were taking place in Branden- 
burg gave Charles IV. the idea that he would 
shortly reap the fruit of his policy, by destroying 
the power of the Wittelsbach family. He had 
managed to obtain the most unbounded influence 
over the dissolute and weak Kurfiirst, and he went 
so far as to persuade Otho to acknowledge him as 
regent for six years. But Otho, like most men of 
his character, was naturally knavish, and the princes 
of Bavaria, by their emissaries, easily induced liim 
to declare the arrangement with reference to the 
right of succession to Brandenburg of the Emperor 
and his son null and void, securing it moreover for 
his brother Stephen and his sons. 

The Emperor was at this time unable to oppose 
the combination of the Wittelsbach family, being 
hampered by a war in which he was entangled with 
King Lewis of Hungary, whom, to add still more to 
his difficulties, the Dukes of Bavaria had joined ; 
but, luckily for him, a fresh war broke out 
between the Turks and the Hungarians. This 
enabled him to collect a sufficient number of troops 
to overpower his opponents, and in the year 1373 
he became possessed of the entire Mittelmark. 
Otho now becoming alarmed forsook his brothers 
and met the Emperor at Furstenwalde, a town 
situated near Frankfort, close to the right bank of 
the Spree. Here, on the 15th of August, 1373, he 


came to the following arrangement: — He was to 
abdicate in favour of Charles's three sons, Wences- 
laus, Sigismund, and John, the Emperor making 
him Grand Chamberlain and giving him some towns 
in the Palatinate. Besides this, Otho received a 
large smn of money in gold, and the Emperor pre- 
sented him with a year's income in advance. Otho 
now retired to Wolfstein, where he died in 1379. 


Wenceslaus was only twelve years of age when 
Otho died. The Emperor Charles, with a view to the 
aggrandisement of his family, declared himself 
guardian of his son and Regent of Brandenburg. His 
first object was the formation of a small regular force, 
composed of the mercenaries of Otho's army. He 
next proceeded by wise and enlightened reforms to 
gain the affection of his subjects. 

In a very short time he had acquired such popu- 
larity that the Brandenburgers were induced to 
allow themselves to be incorporated as a province of 
Bohemia. This took place in 1374, at the Diet of 
Guben, a town situated on the right bank of the 

The constant intestine struggles which had been 
going oif in Brandenburg had enabled many 
of its nobility to make themselves partly inde-* 
pendent. These Burgraves were in the habit of 
levying contributions on the inhabitants, and it 
was only after a scries of desperate struggles that 


Charles's small force was enabled to bring these 
robber-nobles to obedience. 

During the rule of Otho the judges and their 
subordinates had introduced a system of gross 
venality. To counteract this, Charles was in the 
habit of visiting all parts of Brandenburg to see 
justice administered under his own direction. He 
also constantly took his seat at the Supreme Court 
at Tangermiinde, where he heard in person the 
appeals of the most humble of his subjects. About 
this time he abolished ordeal by fire and water. 

One of his most important acts was rendering the 
Moldau navigable, by which Bohemian traffic could 
be introduced. He also established depots and 
markets at Tangermiinde and Frankfort for the 
collecting of produce and merchandise transported 
along the Elbe and Oder, and erected numerous 
public buildings to give an impetus to employ- 

Before the death of the Emperor, Wenceslaus was 
declared King of the Romans, and it was arranged 
that the second son Sigismund should succeed to 
the Margravate of Brandenburg. The Emperor 
Charles IV. died in November, 1378. Although of 
an ambitious character, he was yet a wise and great 
monarch, and when he expired Geribany was 
enjoying an amount of prosperity such as it had 
rarely before experienced. 

Wenceslaus now became Emperor, with the 
additional title of King of Bohemia; Sigismund 


obtained the Kurmark, and Johann received the 

Sigismund was only ten years of age when he 
succeeded his brother. He had been betrothed to 
Maria, daughter of the powerful King Louis of 
Hungary, with the ultimate object of acquiring that 
kingdom and Poland. 

On his marriage with the princess, Sigismund 
took up his residence in Hungary, and left Bran- 
denburg to be governed by a Stadtholder, a measure 
which soon reduced the unfortunate province to the 
same condition as under Otho. Added to this, 
the robber-nobles again became the terror of the 

Sigismund only visited the Kurmark twice. The 
disputes in which he was constantly engaged with 
the Hungarians, Poles, and Turks determined him 
to pledge Brandenburg to the Margraves of Moravia, 
Jobst and Procopius, these princes advancing 
the money only for the purpose of plundering its 
unfortunate inhabitants. 

Jobst proceeded in person to Brandenburg to 
superintend the levying of exactions on his miserable 
subjects, for his brother appears to have allowed 
him to assume the sole reins of government. After 
having acquired a considerable amount of money 
he retired, only to return when he required 
fresh funds. The country was regularly farmed 
out to a set of desperadoes, the Dukes of Bruns- 
wick-Liineburg in addition availing themselves 


of these disorders to invade the Mark and devas- 
tate it. 

Finding that no more money was to be obtained 
from his impoverished subjects, he returned to 
Bohemia, leaving Brandenburg to its fate, when 
the inhabitants, with those of Spandau and Berhn, 
took advantage of his absence to form an alliance 
for mutual protection against the exactions of the 

Jobst, who was now in great want of money, 
fearing to return to Brandenburg, pledged the 
Kurmark to his brother-in-law William, the one- 
eyed Margrave of Meissen, who immediately set to 
work to restore order, and in a very short time 
something like prosperity began to dawn. 

Jobst, however, perceiving a fresh chance of con- 
tinuing his exactions, raised a sufficient sum to 
redeem the Kurmark, and returned in 1398, reducing 
before long Brandenburg to such a condition that 
the Altmark formed an alliance with the Dukes 
of Liineburg and Saxe-Lauenburg for protection. 
About 1409 he left Brandenburg, and died two 
years after at Briinn, in Moravia, without issue, the 
Kurmark returning into the hands of Sigismund, 
who repaired to Berlin and received the oath of 
allegiance. Here he promised to reside as much as 
possible in the country, but as soon as he had 
raised a considerable sum of money he retired to 

Shortly after, his necessities forced him to enter 


into negotiations with the rich Burgrave of Nurem- 
berg, who had previously assisted him in his 
financial difficulties. 

The Emperor offered to pledge the whole of Bran- 
denburg if the Burgrave would make him a further 
advance on the amoimt due. The transaction was 
arranged, and the Emperor, in July, 1411, at Of en, 
pledged the Kurmark of Brandenburg to Frede- 
rick VI., Burgrave of Nuremberg. 

On the arrival of the latter in the Kurmark it 
became evident, from the imsettled state of the 
country, that unless the strong arm of military 
force was at once employed, order could never be 
restored. The Burgrave, who was a man of great 
energy, instituted without delay severe measures 
against the nobles. A revolt followed, headed by 
the leading members of the powerful families of 
Quitzow and Putlitz, who were joined by a con- 
siderable number of robber-nobles, and the in- 
surgents were assisted by the Dukes of Pomerania. 
Frederick, who had only a small force with him, 
marched against them, but was defeated in 1412 ; 
but being not long after reinforced by a considerable 
number of troops from Franconia, and with the 
assistance of the Kurfiirst of Saxony, the Dukes of 
Mecklenburg-Schwerin, and the Archbishop of 
Madgeburg, he again took the field. On the refusal 
of the insurgents and the Dukes of Pomerania to 
lay down their arms, Frederick and his allies 
attacked and totally routed them. 


The nobles fled to their strongholds, which 
Frederick successively reduced, we are told, by the 
aid of a 24-pound piece of artillery. The Emperor 
now requiring his presence, Frederick was obliged 
to leave his dominions, and, Dietrich von Quitzow 
returning, a fresh revolt broke out. The Burgrave, 
however, repairing to the scene of the revolt, 
defeated him and restored order. On the death, in 
exile, of this unruly noble, Frederick returned to 
his family all his domains. 

Sigismimd, who was always in want of money, 
had again been in negotiation with the Burgrave 
for fresh advances, and had received 50,000 gold 
gulden ; but as he still wanted 260,000, he offered 
to seU Brandenburg outright. 

To this Frederick agreed, and accordingly the 
Burgrave was publicly invested with the dignity of 
Kurftirst and appointed Grand Chamberlain at the 
Council of Constance (1414), which the Emperor 
Sigismund had summoned to put an end to the 
schism in the Papacy, and to settle the religious 
difficulties which had arisen in Bohemia in conse- 
quence of the adoption of the doctrines of Wycliffe 
by John Huss and his disciples. 

As the Reformed movement in Germany enabled 
the House of HohenzoUem to take a high rank 
among the rulers of Germany, we cannot conclude 
the chapter without giving some account of the 
causes which led to the spread of Protestant doctrines 
over a great part of the Continent. 

wycLiFFE. 383 

With the accession of Sigismund began a stormy 
period in the history of Germany, in consequence 
of the great progress which the Reformed movement 
had already made throughout Europe. 

In Bohemia the spirit of reform was represented 
by the renowned John Huss, who followed in the foot- 
steps of our own countryman, Wycliffe. In England 
there had long been a growing disaffection towards 
the Papacy, and this had continued to increase on 
the Popes taking up their seat at Avignon and 
becoming subservient to the Kings of France, 

The College of Cardinals consisted almost exclu- 
sively of Frenchmen, and vacant benefices in 
England -were often filled with foreigners, who 
intrigued in the interest of their own country. 
Moreover, the corruptions of the Church and the 
arrogant assumptions of the priests had begun to 
awaken men's minds to the necessity of a reforma- 
tion, not only in England, but in various parts of 
Europe, more especially in Bohemia, where the 
Waldenses had penetrated and disseminated their 

The first attempts at practical reform were 
commenced in Bohemia and England almost con- 
temporaneously — ^in the former country by Conrad 
von Waldhausen, Canon of the Cathedral of Prague, 
and in England by John Wycliffe, the father of the 
English Reformation. 

This great divine was at first Chaplain of 
Edward III., and was one of those who advised the 


King to refuse the demand of Pope Urban V. for 
thirty-three years' arrears of the tribute which King 
John had bound himself to pay to the Roman See. 

Wycliffe, moreover, vehemently attacked the men- 
dicant orders, and exposed the abuses which had 
grown up in the Church, 

In 1374 he was sent by King Edward to Bruges, 
together with several other divines, to confer with 
the Papal envoys with reference to certain grievances 
of the English Church. 

It appears that during his stay on the Continent 
Wycliffe made himself more intimately acquainted 
with the abuses of the Romish Church, for on his 
return he declaimed in the most vigorous, language 
against the Pope, whom he denounced as "Anti* 
Christ, the proud worldly priest of Rome." 

He further inveighed against the arrogance and 
luxury of the prelates, the ignorance of the priests, 
and the abuse of the privilege of sanctuary to 
shelter notorious criminals. But Wycliffe soon en- 
countered the opposition of the priestly party, 
who in July, 1377, drew up nineteen articles of 
accusation against him, which were submitted to 
Pope Gregory XI., who forthwith addressed Bulls 
to the King and the Primate of England, calling 
upon them to arrest the outspoken and intrepid 

Unfortunately just at this period King Ed- 
ward III. died, and was succeeded by his grand- 
son, Richard II., a mere boy, who had no idea of 

JOHN HUS6. 385 

tlio necessity of checking Papal ascendency^ so that 
the clergy began to acquire more power than ever. 

Early in 1378 WycliflFe was summoned to the 
Archbishops Chapel in Lambeth to answer the 
nineteen charges against him. It is said that a mob 
of Londoners favourable to the Reformer forcibly 
entered the chapel and broke up the meeting of 

After replying to the charges against him in three 
tracts, Wycliffe published a series of pamphlets, 
denouncing the system of indulgences and the 
abuses of the Romish Church. He exposed the 
folly of reliance upon the saints, denied the 
necessity of confession, and attacked the priests, 
more especially the monks, canons, and friars, for 
leading idle and luxurious lives. Wycliffe died 
suddenly towards the end of 1884, but his writings 
were disseminated far and wide, more especially in 
Bohemia, in consequence of the marriage of King 
Richard II. with Anne, daughter of Charles of 
Luxemburg, King of Bohemia. The result of this 
matrimonial alliance was that young English nobles 
visited the Bohemian capital, and the writings of 
Wycliffe found their way to the University of Prague, 
where they attracted the attention of a young divine 
named Huss, who became a disciple of the English 
Reformer, and succeeded in gathering around him a 
large body called, after him, the Hussites. 

John Huss was born in 1369, in the village of 
Hussinec2, on the frontiers of Bavaria. After a 

VOL. II. c 


successful career as a student at the University of 
Prague, he was appointed preacher of a chapel 
called Bethlehem, and subsequently confessor to the 
Queen of Wenceslaus. 

As a preacher John Huss distinguished himself 
by his vehemence against the vices of the clergy, 
whom he charged with avarice, luxury, selfishness, 
and ambition, and denounced for exacting bribes 
and holding pluralities. The vehement language 
of the Bohemian Reformer soon raised up a host of 
bitter enemies, especially at the University, where, 
in 1403, his opponents drew up forty-five proposi- 
tions ascribed to Wycliffe, which were publicly con- 
demned, and their condemnation was endorsed by 
Pope Innocent VII., who called upon the Arch- 
bishop of Prague to suppress the growing heresy. 
Accordingly the archbishop ordered all copies of 
WyclifEe's writings to be given up for examination 
and correction, forbidding any one to lecture on 
them. Notwithstanding the opposition of the 
priestly party, John Huss succeeded in getting 
himself chosen Rector of the Bohemian Univer- 
sity in October, 1409, through his influence with 
Wenceslaus, who had altered the constitution of that 
learned body by a decree that the Bohemian members 
of the University should in future have three votes, 
and the other nations collectively one vote only. 

The Bohemian students had all adopted the tenets 
of John Huss, whilst those from Saxony, Bavaria, 
and Poland were opposed to them. A violent contest 


soon arose, which ended in the sudden departure 
from the University of all the foreign professors 
and students to their own countries, where they 
established rival universities at Leipzig, Ingolstadt, 
and Cracow. 

On the news reaching Rome, Pope Alexander V. 
addressed a Bull to Archbishop Zbynko, calling 
upon him to publicly condemn the errors of the 
arch-heretic Wycliffe, and to forbid all preaching in 
private chapels, which prohibition was specially 
directed against John Huss. The archbishop acted 
up to his instructions with such zeal that he ordered 
all copies of WycliflFe's wi-itings to be delivered up, 
and, in utter disregard of the protest of the Univer- 
sity, caused them all to be committed to the flames 
within the precincts of his palace while the Te Deum 
was being chanted. A few days after Huss and his 
adherents were solemnly excommunicated. 

Prague now became the scene of great excite- 
ment. The cathedral services were interrupted by 
the partisans of John Huss, and the streets of the 
city became scenes of violence, ending sometimes in 

In 1410 Pope John XXIH,, on succeeding to the 
pontificate, sent commissioners to inquire into the 
disturbances in Bohemia, and summoned John Huss 
to appear before him at Bologna. 

Acting on the advice of his friends, Huss refused 
to appear in person, but despatched advocates to 
plead his cause. The Pontiff, however, would not 




receive his representatives, some of whom were 
even imprisoned. Meanwhile the discourses of 
Huss and his friends excited the greatest enthusiaisnn 
amongst the students of Prague, who manifested 
their sympathy with the rector by escorting him 
home. They also caused a Papal Bull to be paraded 
through the streets of Prague fixed to the breasts of 
a prostitute, who, seated in a cart was conducted 
through the town to the public gallows, under which 
the Bull was burnt amidst the jeers of the multitude* 

Li 1413 Huss was again excommunicated and 
anathematized for not having obeyed the citations 
to the Papal Court, 

The Archbishop was, moreover, ordered to pro- 
nounce an interdict against all Prague, and 
Bethlehem Chapel,' where John Huss preached, 
was condemned to be demolished. Huss protested 
against the condemnation, and caused the protest 
to be engraved on the walls of Bethlehem Chapel, 
but by the advice of the King he now withdrew 
from Prague, and lived for a time in retirement as 
the guest of Bohemian nobles who favoured his views. 
He still, however, continued preaching against the 
corruption and practices of the Papacy, and his 
pen was actively employed in the production of 
theological treatises, exposing the errors which had 
crept into the Church. 

In tlie mean time the Catholic Church was dis- 
tracted by a great schism, in consequence of the 
contentions of Pope Benedict XIII. and Gre- 


gory XII., the rival claimauts for the pontificate. 
The Council of Pisa, which met in 1409, declared 
both Popes to be deposed, and elected in their 
stead the Cardinal Archbishop of Milan, who 
assumed the title of Alexander V. Alexander V. 
died suddenly in the following year, and was 
succeeded by Baltliazar Cossa, who took the name 
of John XXIII. 

As the rival Popes, Grregory XII. and .Bene- 
dict XIII., still maintained their claims to the 
Papacy, there were now tliree rival claimants. 

Tlie empire was also similarly distracted, for on 
the death of Rupert, in 1410, some of the electors 
wished to restore the deposed Wenceslaus ; some 
were in favour of his brother, Sigismund, King of 
Hungary ; and a thiid party espoused the cause of 
Jobst, Marquis of Moravia. 

The latter, however, died soon after, and Wen- 
ceslaus having withdrawn his claim, Sigismund 
was elected Emperor who, for some time, was 
engaged in a war with the Venetians for the 
possession of Dalmatia, but having in 1413 con- 
cluded a truce of five years, began to direct his 
attention to the affitirs of the Church. 

At the suggestion of Pope John XXIII., Sigis- 
mund resolved to summon a General Council. 
Accordingly in November, 1413, the Empetor 
issued a citation for a Council to meet at Constance, 
and invited the rival Popes, Gregory XII. and 
Benedict XIII., to attend in person. 


In the following year the Council was opened 
with great solemnity, and consisted of the Patriarchs 
of Constantinople, Antioch, and Jerusalem, twenty- 
two cardinals, twenty archbishops, nearly a hundred 
bishops, two hundred and fifty doctors, and a great 
number of secular princes. 

Among other questions the religious strife in 
Bohemia engaged the attention of the Council, and, 
under the promise of a safe conduct from the 
Emperor, John Huss was induced to repair in person 
to Constance to plead his cause before the assembled 
prelates. Huss had no sooner arrived in Constance 
than he was decoyed into the Pope's residence, 
whence he was removed in custody and conveyed 
to a dungeon in a Dominican convent. After a 
trial of three days, at which he scarcely obtained 
a hearing, the bold Reformer was condemned to 
be burned. 

The martyr on being bound to the stake refused 
to recant, but remained firm and imshaken in his 
convictions, and breathed his last prajdng for the 
forgiveness of his enemies. 

His burnt ashes and clothes were thrown into the 
Rhine, but his martyrdom kindled the flame of 
patriotism in his countrymen, who continued the 
struggle during the next thirty years. 







, ^. 

«• « 


fiimcHARD and Wkzel of Zollem. 
Died about 1061. 

Emperors of Germany : Henry III. and Henry IV. 

AccoBDiNG to Berthold of Constance, who con- 
tinued the chronicles of the old annalist^ Hermann 
Contractus, the first representatives of the House of 
Hohenzollern were Burchard and Wezel of Zollern. 
Very little is handed dovni concerning these two 
princes, who, without doubt, were brothers, and 
probably descendants of the old Counts Berangar 
Everard, and Hesson, who ruled over Sulich and 
Zollem in the latter part of the tenth century. 

The Counts of Zollern appear to have taken a 
prominent part in the unfortunate struggles between 
the Emperor and his nobles. 


During the minority of Henry IV., Suabia was 
distracted by intestine dissensions, although the 
Em})ross Agnes ruled with firmness and discretion, 
and appointed men of experience to administer the 
affairs of the empire. Through the arbitrary con- 
duct of the Bishop of Augsburg, the nobles 
became disaffected, and conspired to seize the 
person of the young Emperor. Ultimately Heniy 
was crowned by Hauno, Archbishop of Cologne, 
who for some time retained the reins of government 
in his own hands. 

On attaining his majority Henry asserted his 
authority, and dismissed from the Court all the 
ecclesiastics who filled the high ofiices of state ; 
but in course of time he became embroiled 
in disputes with the Holy See as well as with 
his nobles. 

Pope Gregory VII. (Hildebrand) having sum- 
moned the Empei'or to Eome, Henry assembled 
a Diet at Worms, where it was decided to renounce 
obedience to the Pope, who thereupon placed the 
Empire under the ban. Dukes Rudolf, Berthold, 
and Guelph, who had for some time secretly sided 
with the Pontiff, now threw off their allegiance and 
resolved to convoke an assembly of all the lu'inces 
of the empire at Tribm- for the election of a new 

Henry on his part having tried all means to 
conciliate his opponents, at length repaired to the 
Pope at Canossa, and in the most humiliating 


manner did penance, on which Gregory revoked 
the excommunication. 

It is related !that on his journey to Italy to 
implore the Pope to withdraw the interdict, Henry 
was accompanied by his wife, infant son, and a 
solitary knight, who, according to a Suabian 
chronicler, was Frederick of Buren, the ancestor 
of the Hohenstauffen family. 

The Counts of Zollern seem to have remained 
faitliful to the cause of the Emperor, and it is 
conjectured that they lost a part of their estates 
in consequence of their fidelity to the unfortunate 

In course of time, however, the Zollern family 
absorbed the domains of the Counts of Sigmaringen, 
Veringen, and Gammertingen, besides making con- 
siderable acquisitions of territory in Suabia, either 
by mortgage, marriage^ or political intrigues. 

The principalities of Hohen2ollem-Sigmaringen 
and HohenzoUern-Hechingen, now united to Prussia, 
formed a continuous tract, enclosed between the 
states of Wurtemberg and Badeui 

Hechingen is situated on the river Starzel, a 
tributary of the Neckar. Near Hechingen is the 
ancient castle of Hohenzollem, the cradle of the 
HoheneoUern dynasty* 


Adalbkbt and Fbederick^ Counts of ZoUem. 

Died about 1120. 

Emperors of Germany : Henry IV. and Hemy V. 

Adalbert and Frederick are the first representa- 
tives of the family to whom the chroniclers assign 
the title of Counts of ZoUern, but it is not known 
in what way they were related to Burchard and 
Wezel, who lived about thirty years before. 

In the year 1095 we find tliat Count Adalbert 
of ZoUern founded the Benedictine monastery of 
Alpenbach, in the valley of Kiu'zig, situated in tibe 
Black Forest, where he spent the remainder of his 
life. It appears that this religious endowment 
subsequently passed from the ZoUern family, and 
in 1251 became the property of the Dukes of Teck. 
Count Frederick of ZoUern, probably the brother 
of the founder of the monastery of Alpenbach, died 
in 1125, about the same time au Henry V., Emperor 
of Germany. 

Frederick of ZoUem by his marriage with Udil- 
hilde had five children, Counts Egino, Godfrey, 
and Albert, and the Countesses Luitgarde and Udil- 
hilde. By a former marriage with the Countess of 


Urach ho had three sons, Frederick, Burchard, and 
Ulric of ZoUem. 

In 1103 Count Frederick gave the possession of 
Waldhausen to the convent of Hirschau in exchange 
for the estate of Deilingen, and in 1111 he visited 
Spires in the suite of the Emperor Henry V, The 
last time that we hear of him is in the year 1115, 
when he was engaged in a lawsuit concerning the 
domains of Grasenau, claimed by the convent of 
Reichenbach, in the Black Forest. 

According to the records of the Benedictine 
convent of Zweifaltcn, Count Frederick was sur- 
named ^^ Monte." From the same source we 
learn that he acquired considerable pr6perty by 
his marriage with the Countess d'Urach, part of 
which he bestowed on the monastic establishments 
of Zweifalten and Weissenau. 


Frederick, Count of ZoUem. 
Died about 1145, 

Emperors of Germany : Lothair and Conrad IH. 

Frederick, eldest son of Count Frederick of 
ZoUem, succeeded his father in the capacity of 
protector of the monastery of Alpenbach, and as 
head of the family. He first appears conjointly 
with his brothers Burchard, Egino, and Godfrey, in 
connexion with the founding of the monastery of 
Salem. The documents relating to this affair show that 
the Counts of ZoUern took precedence of the Counts 
of Wiirtemberg and Hapsburg, as well as of the 
Count Palatine of Tubingen. From henceforward 
the Zollem Counts appear to have had much in- 
fluence at the Imperial Court, and Count Frederick, 
we are told, accompanied King Lothair on his 
journey to Italy to receive the imperial diadem at 
the hands of Pope Anaclete II. 

In November, 1133, Coimt Frederick signed an 
imperial decree concerning the monastery of Inter- 
laken in Switzerland. 

We also find Frederick of Zollem in the suite of 
tlie Emperor Conrad III. In an imperial chMter 


of 1139, relating to the monastery of Denkendorf, 
Count Frederick figures as witness, and again takes 
precedence of the Counts of Wiirtemberg and several 
other illustrious princes. The names of Guelph and 
Ghibelline were first used about this time, during 
the siege of the castle of Weinsberg by the Emperor 
Conrad III, 

Very little is known concerning the brothers of 
Count Frederick. Count Ulric appears to have 
been Abbot of Reichenau. Count Godfrey is some- 
times spoken of as the Count of Zimbem, in con- 
sequence of having married the Countess of Zimbem. 
We find him, in 1153, in the sidte of the Emperor 
Barbarossa in his expedition against Lombardy. 

During the sojourn of Conrad III. at Constance, 
Frederick Count of ZoUern appears to have been 
in the Emperor's retinue, and to have acted as a 
witness to several imperial edicts and charters. 

As regards the precise date of his marriage, there 
is some disagreement among the chroniclers of the 
period. It is, however, generally admitted that he 
had several children, the eldest of whom, Count 
Berthold, succeeded to the title and family estates 
on the death of his father. 

The exact date of the death of Count Frederick 
is unknown, but no mention is made of him after 
the year 1145. 


Behthold, Count of Zollem. 
Died about 1188. 

Emperor of Germany : Frederick I. 

Count Berthold appears for the first time in 1160^ 
as a witness in an act of Frederick I. respecting 
the monastery of Salem. 

In 1162 the Emperor Frederick I. returned from 
his expedition into Italy, and presided at the Diet 
of Constance. He was about to undertake a fresh 
expedition into Lombardy wlion war broke out in 
the Duchy of Suabia, in which the Coimt of Zollem 
distinguished himself as an ally of Duke Frederick 
of Suabia against the Guelphs. 

In 1175 a petty war arose between Berthold 
of Zollem and Duke Berthold of Zaering^n, who 
had fought under the banner of the Dake of 
Guelph, and who had now invaded the district of 
Furstenburg, belonging to the Zollern family. 

During the intestine struggles in Germany the 
different members of the Zollem family were not 
always ranged under the same banner, nor did they 
remain faithful to the same cause. In fact, we find 
Berthold and Frederick, although at first steadfast 


adhoroiits of the Emperor, afterwards siding with 
Henry the Lion, Duke of Bavaria. Subsequently 
we hear of them again at Constance, in the suite 
of the Emperor, who had convoked an assembly 
of the princes of the empire in 1183. 

Count Berthold is also frequently mentioned in 
conjunction with Count Godfrey of Zollern. In 
one case as witnesses to an imperial charter con- 
firming the privileges of the monastery of Maul- 
bronn. On another occasion, during the visit of 
Frederick Barbarossa to Spires, they are spoken of 
as councillors of the Emperor. At this period the 
Dukes of Suabia were Frederick, Conrad, and 
Philip of HohenstaufFen. 

In an edict of Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony, 
concerning the monastery of Salem, we find the 
name of Count Berthold as witness together with 
that of Count Frederick, who succeeded to his title 
and estates. 

Count Berthold died probably in 1187 or 1188. 
The exact date is unknown. 




Count of ZoUem and First Burgrave of Nuremberg. 

Died about 1197. 
Emperors of Grermany : Frederick I. and Heniy VI. 

Frederick, Count of ZoUern, who subsequently 
became the first Burgrave of Nuremberg by his 
marriage with the Countess of Rackz, heiress of 
Conrad, Count of Rackz and Burgrave of Nurem- 
berg, has been already mentioned in connexion 
witli Count Berthold, with whom he was associated 
as a witness in an edict of Henry the Lion con- 
cerning the monastery of Salem, in 1171. In 
1188 we find him in the suite of the Emperor 
Frederick Barbarossa, whom he accompanied in his 
expedition to the Holy Land. 

With the marriage of Count Frederick with the 
heiress of tlie Burgrave of Nuremberg begins a new 
epoch in the history of the House of HohenzoUern, 
for from this period the Counts of ZoUem exercise 
considerable influence in the affairs of the empire, 
and gradually raise themselves to the first rank 
among the princes of Germany. By his mamage 
with the daughter of the Burgrave of Nuremberg, 
Frederick had two sons, who inherited his domains, 
with the title of Counts of Zollern and Burgraves of 


Frederick and Conrad, 
Counts of Zollem and Burgraves of Nuremberg. 

Died in 1218 and 1230. 
Emperors of Germany : Otho IV. and Frederick 11. 

Count Frederick of Zollem, Burgi-avo of Nurem- 
berg, figures among the nobles of the empire who 
repaired to Worms in 1198 to take the oath of 
allegiance to the Emperor. 

Wo hear nothing of his brother Conrad until 
1204, when he appears as a witness to a charter 
(•oncoming the monastery of St. Ulric. During 
the sanguinary stmggles which took place about 
this time, Count Frederick of Zollern continually 
took part in the councils of the Emperor. 

During Otlio's expedition into Italy, Count 
Frederick of Zollern remained in Germany, and 
in 1210 he affixed his signature to a contract 
between the Countess Matilda of Hohenburg and 
the Bishop of Ratisbon. However, his brother 
C(mrad accompanied Otho across the Alps. 

Count Frederick married the Countess of Aben- 
berg and had three children, viz., 



Frederick, who succeeded his father as Count 
Zollem ; 

Sophia, who married Count Urach-Fribonrg ; and 

Conrad, who succeeded his uncle Conrad as Bur- 
grave of Nuremberg. 

On the death of Frederick and Conrad there 
became two branches of the Zollem family : 

1. Zollern-Suabian ; 

2. Zollern-Nuremberg. 

The former was represented by Frederick, with 
tlie title of Count of Zollern ; tlie latter by Conrad, 
with the title of Burgrave of Nuremberg. 

According to an entry in the records of the 
monastery of Heilsbronn, Count Frederick died in 


Frederick, Count of ZoUern. 
Died about 1253. 

Emperor of Germany : Frederick II. 

Dm'ing Frederick's minority his uncle Conrad 
governed. The first mention of his name appears 
in a charter, dated 1226, in which Henr}' of 
Reichenau bestows his fief of Echterdingen on the 

Frederick married the Countess Elizabeth of 
Hapsburg, by whom he had two children — Count 
Frederick, surnamed the Illustrious, and the Countess 
Sophia, who married Conrad of Fribourg. 

There seems also to have existed another branch 
of the ZoUern family, who styled themselves Counts 
of Hohenburg. In a document of the year 1225, 
Albert of Hohenburg signs himself son of the late 
Count Burchard of Zollern, and uses the seal of his 
brother. Count Burchard of Hohenburg ; and it is 
presumed that he is the person referred to in a 
poem composed by John of Wiirtemberg, with the 
title of '' William, Duke of Austria," in which the 
poet eulogizes the Count of ZoUem-Hohenbm-g for his 
conduct during the Crusades under Frederick Bar- 


Frederick the Illustrious, Count of ZoUem. 

Died in 1289. 

Emperor of Germany : Rudolf of Hapsburg. 

Count Frederick of ZoUem surnamed the Illus- 
trious, appears in 1253, as protector of the old 
monastery of Beuron, and he is styled '^ Vir Ulustris 
Fredericus, Conies de ZoUern." 

In the Suabian war Count Frederick took an 
active part, and in 1256 we find him besieging the 
castle of Baldeg. Count Frederick the Illustrious, 
however, ultimately determined to withdraw from 
political life, and founded the monastery of Stettin, 
at the foot of the hill, and castle of Hohenzollem, 
which henceforth received the last remains of the 
members of the Hohenzollem family. 

Frederick appears to have been engaged in 
repeated hostilities with his cousins of the House 
of Hohenburg. At length the Emperor Rudolf of 
Hapsburg succeeded in bringing about a reconcilia- 
tion between the two families of ZoUem and 
Hohenburg, and the agreement was cemented by a 
marriage between the daughter of Count Albert of 
Hohenburg and the grandson of Count Frederick. 

Frederick the illustrious. 407 

Count Frederick the Illustrious died in 1289. 
He was the first whose ashes were deposited in the 
family vault in the monastery of Stettin. Frederick 
was much respected by his Hubjects, for he united 
the dignity of a prince with the clemency of a 
father. Notwithstanding his frequent hostilities 
with the House of Hohcnburg, he increased his 
domains and his power considerably. He left three 
sons, the eldest, 

Frederick, sumamed the Knight ; 

Frederick, Provost of the Chapter of Augsburg ; 

Frederick, Count of ZoUem-Schalksbourg, who 
died in 1377 from the effects of wounds 
received in the battle of Reutlingen. 


Frederick the Knight, Count of ZoUem. 

Died about 1298. 

Frederick, Count of Zollem-Schalksbom'g. 

Died about 1302. 

Emperors of Germany : Rudolf of Hapsburg and 

Adolf of Nassau. 

On the death of Frederick the Illustrious, 
Frederick the ELnight and Frederick of Zollern- 
Schalksbourg divided the territory of Zolleni 
between them. Frederick the Knight received 
ZoUem proper, consisting of the castle of Hohen- 
zollern and the surrounding territory; and his 
brother had for his share Schalksbourg and Muhl- 

Frederick the Knight appears to have devoted 
the greater part of his time to the improvement of 
his domains and the welfare of his subjects, and 
is said to have been a faithful adherent of the 

Frederick married the Princess Cunigunde, 
daughter of the Margrave Rudolf of Baden, by 


whom he had five children, three sons and two 
daughters. The latter both entered convents ; the 
one as abbess of the convent of Lichtenthal, the 
other as a nun in the monaster}' of Stettin. The 
tlu'ce sons were : 

Count Frederick, commonly called the son-in-law 
of the Count of Hohenburg ; 

Count Frederick Pascal; and 

Count Frederick, Provost of the Chapter of 

We do not think it necessary to trace the history 
of the younger branch of ZoUeni-Schalksbourg, 
which became extinct with the death of Count 
Frederick MuUi in 1408. 

The castle of Schalksbourg is a ruin, and the 
domains of the family now form a part of the 
kingdom of Wiirtcmberg. 

Frederick of Zollern-Schalksbourg, also called 
'* Frederick of Merckenberg," married the Countess 
Udilhilde of Merckenberg, by whom he had two 
children : 

1. Countess Udilhilde ; 

2. Count Frederick, surnamed ** Merckenberg, 

. . 


Frederick of Schalksbourg died about the year 


Frederick, Count of ZoUeni. 
Died in 1309. 

Emperor of Germany : Albert I. 

Count Frederick the Kniglit died about the year 
1298, and was succeeded by his eldest son Frederick, 
who married Euphemia, daughter of the Count of 
Hohenburg, and hence he is often mentioned as 
Frederick, " son-in-law of Count Albert of Hohen- 
burg." By his wife he had two sons. 

Count Frederick and 

Count Albert, whose names appear but once in 
the charters of the period. 

It would seem that these two young Coimts died 
before their father without issue, as their uncle, 
Frederick Pascal, inherited the title and estates. 

Count Frederick, son-in-law of the Count of 
Hohenbiu'g, died in 1309. 


Frederick Pascal, Count of ZoUem. 

Died in 1333. 

Emperors of Germany : Hemy VII., Frederick of 
Austria, and Louis of Bayaria. 

In the year 1309 Frederick Pascal became ruling 
Coimt of ZoUern, and after the death of his nephew. 
Count Frederick, we find him sole possessor of the 
castle of HohenzoUern. Count Frederick Pascal 
took part in the war between the Emperor 
Henry VII. and the Counts of Wiirtemberg, and 
distinguished himself by his militar}^ exploits. The 
war lasted three years, and terminated with the 
defeat of Comit Everard of Wiirtemberg. 

In 1313 Hemy VII. died, and as his son, John 
of Bohemia, was verj' young, the Luxemburg party 
supported Louis of Bavaria, while the Austrians 
brought forward Frederick of Austria as a rival 
candidate. A civil war ensued, in which the Counts 
of ZoUem, Count Frederick Pascal and Count of 
ZoUern-Schalksbourg, fought under the banner of 
Frederick of Austria. 

On the other liand, the younger branch of the 
ZoUern family, viz., the Burgraves of Nuremberg, 

412 iiistorV o^^ Prussia. 

sided witli Louis of Bavaria, and distinguished them- 
selves at the battle of Miihldorf, 1322, in which 
Frederick was defeated and taken prisoner. 
Frederick was afterwards conveyed to the castle 
of Trausnitz. 

On the death of his cousin of ZoUcm-Schalks- 
boui'g in 1319, Frederick Pascal assumed the title 
of chief representative of the illustrious family of 
ZoUern, and, notwithstanding the total defeat of 
Frederick of Austria, he remained faithful to the 
House of Hapsburg. Frederick Pascal died 1333, 
leaving tlu'ce sons — " 

Count FuEDERiCK, surnamed the Black Count, 
who succeeded his father ; 

Count Frederick Pascal, Canon of the Cliapter 
of Augsburg ; and 

Count Frederick, Canon of the Chapter of Stras- 
burg, who afterwards became a layman. 


Frederick the Black Count, and 
Frederick of Strasburg, Counts of HohenzoUern. 

Died about 1377 or 1378. 

Emperors of Germany : Louis of Bavaria and 

Charles IV. 

Frederick the Black Count appears for the 
first time in 1339, in a document concerning the 
cession of lands in Ofterdingen, although he suc- 
ceeded to the title on the death of his father in 

In 1341 Count Frederick married Adelaide, 
daughter of Count Burchard of Holienburg. This 
matrimonial alliance is another proof of the com- 
plete reconciliation between the once hostile Houses 
of Zollem and Hohenburg. 

On the death of Count Frederick Pascal a dispute 
arose between Frederick and Count Frederick of 
Zollem-Schalksbourg, who claimed the title of head 
of the House of ZoUern. The dispute was, how^ever, 
settled in 1342 by an amicable arrangement. 

In 1344 the Zollcrn territory was again divided. 
Count Frederick of ZoUern, Canon of the Chapter 
of Strasburg, having, as already mentioned, ([uitted 


priestly orders, married in 1343 the Countess 
Marguerite of Hohenburg, of the line of Wildenberg, 
and shared with his other brother the paternal 
estate, so that from this period we find two separate 
branches of the family, viz., 

Frederick the Black Count and 

Count Frederick of Strasburu. 

It is probable that the other brother, Count 
Frederick Pascal, was a party to this arrangement, 
as wc find that he subsequently entered the Order of 
the Knights of St. John, and received the revenues 
of the towns of Stettin, Ovingen, Grosselfingen, 
Weilheim, Hansen, and Hohen stein. 

During the first years of the rule of Frederick 
the Black Count, Zollem enjoyed tranquillity. In 
1346 eighteen Counts met in a solemn assembly at 
Oberndorf, the castle of the Duke of Teck, and 
solemnly swore to renounce their allegiance to the 
Emperor Louis, and to support the cause of Charles 
of Moravia, afterwards styled Charles IV. As the 
Black Count was one of the eighteen princes, 
his territory was invaded by Duke Stephen, son of 
the Emperor, who advanced against the town of 
Hechingen. Frederick, fearing that resistance 
would be fruitless, left his capital Hechingen in 
the hands of the enemy, and betook himself to 
Charles IV., who was crowned King of Bohemia, 
September 1, 1347. 


In 1350 Count Frederick and his brother, Count 
Frederick of Strasburg, raised an army to aid the 
House of Hapsburg against Switzerland, for which 
tlicy received a considerable sum of money. In 
the document referring to the matter, the name of 
HoHENZOLLEBN appears for the first time. 

In 1362 Count Frederick of Hohenzollern, the 
Black Count, appears with his brother, Count 
Frederick of Strasburg, on the occasion of the 
division of the inheritance of their uncle. Count 
Frederick of the Chapter of Augsburg. The castle 
of Homburg, with the villages of Grosselfingen, 
Ovingcn, and Stettin, became the property of 
Frederick the Black Count, and the remainder was 
left to Count Frederick of Strasburg, who died about 
tlie year 1365. By his marriage with the Countess 
of Hohenburg, Frederick had several children, viz., 

Frederick, surnamed the Young Black Count, 
who died in 1412; 

Count Pascal, surnamed Taegli ; 

Count Frederick, who was Grand Commander 
in the German Order ; and 

Three Daughters. 


Frederick the Young Black Count, and 

Frederick the Elder of Hohenzollerx, 

Counts of HolienzoUcrn. 

Died about 1412, 

Emperors of Gemiauy : Weuceslaus and Sigismund. 

On the death of Frederick the Black Count there 
were two representatives of the ZoUem family, 
viz., Frederick the Young Black Count and 
Frederick the Elder of Strasburg. 

Frederick the Young Black Count was a faithful 
adherent of the House of Hapsburg, and took an 
active part in the war which the latter waged 
against the Swiss. 

Hostilities were renewed at the commencement 
of the year 1388. The territory of HohenzoUern 
suffered very severely from the invasions of 
Bishop Frederick of Strasburg, who succeeded in 
making himself master of the town of Hechingen, 
which he sold to Count Everard of Wiirt^mberg. 
The Young Black Count and Count Frederick of 
HohenzoUern exerted all their efforts to i)revent 
their capital falling into the hands of their powerful 
neighl)ours, and in the end they succeeded in 


obtaining the redemption of the town for 1,300 
florins of gold. They undertook to furnish mili- 
tary aid, and to allow free entrance to the castle 
of HohenzoUem to the Counts of Wiirtemberg for 
military purposes, for the space of six years. The 
Counts of Zollern in redeeming their capital 
renewed the privileges of tlie inhabitants. The 
treaty was concluded at Kirch am by Frederick the 
Young Black Count and Count Frederick the Elder 
of Strasburg, Count Everard of Wiirtemberg, and 
Count Frederick (Ettinger. 

The success of the Swiss was taken advantage 
of by the confederate cities of Suabia and the 
Rhenish Provinces, whicli were now joined by 
several of the territorial nobles, who hoped by this 
means not only to avert the hostility of the cities, 
but to obtain protection against the encroachments 
even of their own order. The cities of the league 
soon became aggressors, and swore interminable 
war against the whole body of nobles. Wenceslaus 
favoured one or other, according to his interest at 
the moment ; but at length he formed a confederation 
consisting of various princes and cities, the object of 
which was to restore public peace, and he exacted 
an oath from both parties that no hostilities should 
be undertaken before the expiration of a certain 

Thus, in 1387, Stephen, Duke of Bavaria, Albert, 
Duke of Austria, and Frederick, Burgrave of Nu- 
remberg, on the part of the princes and nobles, and 

VOL. II. ee 


deputies from three imperial cities, Ulm, Augsburg, 
and Nuremberg, on the part of the cities, met at 
Nuremberg and agreed to prolong the peace to 
1890 ; and, for the more convenient attainment of 
this object, the country occupied by the members of 
the confederation was divided into four cantons : 

1. Saxony, Upper and Lower ; 

2. The Rhenish Provinces, from Basle to Holland ; 

3. Austria, Bavaria, and Suabia ; 

4. Thm'ingia and Franconia. 

Tho peace was soon broken by the Duke of 
Bavaria. To avenge this act Wenceslaus encouraged 
the cities to take up arms, and the war became 

The two brothers of Frederick of HohenzQllem 
were Count Pascal, surnamed Taegli, and Count 
Frederick, Knight of the Teutonic Order. The 
latter was at first attached to the person of the 
Grand Master of the Teutonic Order at Branden- 
burg, but in 1410 he became governor of Balga. 
He was present at the disastrous battle of Tannen- 
berg, when the Teutonic Knights were defeated by 
the Poles and Lithuanians ; and he was among the 
few nobles that escaped. Towards the end of the 
year 1412, he was afterwards raised to the dignity 
of Grand Comthur, and died at Engelsburg. 

As Frederick the Young Black Count died with- 
out issue, and his two brothers had never contracted 
a marriage, the Young Black Count was the last 
representative of his branch of the family, and on his 


death his cousin, Frederick the Elder of Strasburg, 
became the ruling Count of ZoUem. He married 
the Countess Adelaide of Furstemberg-Haslach, 
and had by her five sons : 

Frederick, surnamed CEttinsrer : 
EiTEL Frederick ; 
Frederick, sumamed -^ppli ; 
Frederick, sumamed Fritzli ; 

Frederick, sumamed Hugeli. 

The last three were in priestly orders, and 
occupied high ecclesiastical posts. Frederick 
Fritzli became Bishop of Constance. 

The two brothers of Count Frederick the Elder 
of HohenzoUem, Count Pascal the Elder and 
Count Frederick, Canon of the Chapter of Stras- 
burg, appear often together in the charters of this 
peiiod; for Count Frederick, Canon of Strasburg, 
seems to have taken a leading part in promoting 
the interests of his House, and was of great service 
to his brother, the reigning Count, on whoso death 
lie was the intimate adviser of his nephews, two of 
whom, through his influence, became Canons of the 
Chapter of Strasburg. He died in the year 1410, 

ee 2 


his nephews, Count Frederick (Ettinger and Count 
Eitel Frederick, being his heirs. 

Among the slain at the battle of Sempach in 
1386 was the Count of Furstemberg-Haslach, 
brother-in-law to Count Frederick the Elder of 
HohenzoUern. His death occasioned a series of 
disputes between Count Frederick and the repre- 
sentative of the Furstemberg family concerning the 
inheritance. It was not till after the death of 
Count Frederick the Elder of HohenzoUern that an 
arrangement was made, by which the Countess 
Adelaide and her sons, Count Frederick CEttinger 
and Count Eitel Frederick, renounced the fief of 
HasUich in favour of the Counts of Furstemberg. 

At this period tlie representative of the ZoUem- 
Schalksbourg branch was Count Frederick Mulli, 
second son of Frederick the Old Knight. In 
1391 Count Frederick Mulli sold Miihlheim to the 
Count of Weitingen, who soon after sold it to the 
Barons of Enyberg, in whose possession it remained 
until recently. Several years after Count Mulli 
sold the rest of the territory to the Counts of Wiir- 
temberg. In 1385 he married the Countess of 
Kyburg, daughter of Count Hartmann of Kyburg. 
His only son, named Frederick, a young man of 
great promise, died suddenly in the year 1403, in 
the prime of life. 

The following story is told regai'ding the sale* 
of the estates of Schalksbourg. Count Mulli led a 
retired and secluded life, and rarely communicated 

Frederick the elder. 421 

with his relations of the House of Hohenzollem. At 
the death of his only son he determined to accom- 
pany the remains to the family vaults at Stettin. 
The funeral cortege had to pass close by Hohen- 
zollem. The Counts of ZoUern, who were then 
residing in the castle, gave orders for the 
garrison to pay funeral honom^s to the deceased. 
Unfortunately the drummer forgot to muffle his 
drum. This so exasperated the bereaved father, 
who thought it was done for the purpose of mani- 
festing the joy of his relatives on the chance of 
succeeding to his proi)erty, that, on his return home, 
he sold the whole of the estates of Schalksbourg 
to the Counts of Wiirteniberg ; and thus his domains 
were alienated from the family of ZoUern. Count 
Frederick Mulli appears to have been a man of u 
melancholy and unsociable character, and did not 
care to cultivate the friendship or acquaintance of 
his illustrious relatives. 

About tliis period three leagues were formed in 
Suabia, viz., the union of the Lion, that of Saint 
George, and that of Saint William. The former, 
of which the Counts of ZoUem were members, was 
the most influential and the most powerful. 


Frederick (Ettinger and Eitel Frederick, 
Counts of Hohenzollern. 

Died in 1439 and 1443. 
Emperors of Germany : Sigismimd and Albert II. 

Counts Frederick (Ettinger and Eitel Frederick 
sided with Duke Frederick of Austria, and con- 
tracted an alliance with the Suabian towns. Count 
Frederick was for several years the leading spirit of 
the Suabian alliance. In 1408, he concluded a con- 
vention with the imperial towns, by which he 
promised to assist them for a period of three 
years, and oflFered them the right of entrance to 
the town of Hechingen and to the castle of Hohen- 

Count Frederick (Ettinger was so sumamed 
because he was educated at the Court of the Counts 
of (Ettinger, to whom his father had been much 
attached. In 1404 Count Frederick (Ettinger 
endowed the monastery of Stettin. Frederick 
(Ettinger married the Countess Anne of Seitz, but 
had no children. 

Count Eitel Frederick, who succeeded him, was 
a man of a serious disposition, but not less valiant 


than his brother ou the field of battle. lu the year 
1406, when peace had been restored, the two 
brothers renewed their fricndl}' connexions with the 
Counts of Furstemberg. The two Counts appear 
together October 15, 1410, when, with Upper and 
Lower Suabia, they concluded the treaty of Hohen- 
karpfen to preserve the public peace. 

This arrangement did not prevent the two brothers, 
Frederick CEttinger and Eitel Frederick, having 
constant disputes about the division of the family 
estates, and it was only through the mediation of 
their uncle, Count Frederick of Strasbiu'g, that 
they were prevented from commencing hostilities 
against each other. In 1402, conjointly with 
Frederick the Young Black Count and Count 
Pascal Taegli, Frederick CEttinger and Eitel 
Frederick attested the peace of Hohenzollern, which 
further united the bonds of the family. 

About the period of which we are speaking, we 
find among the vassals of the House of Zollem 
Henry of Killer, John of Staufenberg, Otho of 
Hansen, John of Hailfingen, Conrad of Weitingen, 
John of Weitingen, Heiu^y of Durwangeu, and 
John of Lichtenstein. 

During the early part of his reign, Sigismund 
was mainly assisted in all his enterprises by the 
Burgraves John and Frederick of Nuremberg, and 
by Count Everard of Wiirtemberg, the former 
having manned the sister of the King, and the 
latter the daughter of the Burgrave John. In the 


autumn of 1414 Sigismund visited Suabia, and 
promised to use his efforts at the Council of Constance 
for the consolidation of the public peace. 

At the Council of Constance, which was sum- 
moned about this period, Sigismund invested the 
Burgrave Frederick of Nuremberg with the Elec- 
torate of Brandenburg, in repayment of con- 
siderable smns advanced to him. By this accession 
of rank and territor}-, the House of HohenzoUem, 
which had acquired, even before the end of the 
twelfth century, extensive domains in Franconia, 
began to exercise considerable influence over a great 
part of the Continent, and from henceforth played 
an important part in the history of Germany. 
(See Appendix F.) 






Prior to the peace of Luneville, Gennany possessed 
133 free cities, called Reichstadte. A Reiclistadt 
(civitas imperii) was a towii under the immediate 
authority of the Emperor, who was represented by 
an imperial official called a Vogt or Schultheis. 

The first mention of the term civitas imperii 
(imperial city) occurs in an edict of the Emperor 
Frederick II., in which Lubeck was declared a 
civitas imperii in perpetuity. In a later edict, of the 
year 1287, we find that King Rudolf termed the 
following places civitates regal (royal cities), viz., 
Frankfort, Friedberg, Wetzlar, Oppenheim, Wesel, 
and Boppart. All these royal cities subsequently 
became imperial cities in consequence of the kings 
of Germany being again raised to the dignity of 

During the reign of Louis the Bavarian Latin 
ceased to be the official language^ and the imperial 


towns were designated in the vernacular " Riclis 

In course of time the imperial towns acquired, 
cither by jmrchase or conquest, their independence. 
Besides the Reichstadte, there were Freistadte, 
or free towTis, the principal being Cologne, Basle, 
Mayencc, Ratisbon, Spires, and Worms. 

The free towns appear to have enjoyed the 
following immunities : — 

1 . They were exempt from the oath of allegiance 
to the Emi)eror. 

2. They were not bomid to furnish a contingent 
for any expedition beyond the Alps. 

.3. They were free from all imperial taxes and 

4r. They could not be pledged. 

i"). They were distinguished from the impeiial 
towns ))y not having the imperial eagle emblazoned 
on the municipal escutcheon. 

In the l)eginning of the sixth century the fi'ce 
towns were placed on the same footing as the 
Reichstadte, and the term ^^Freistadt,'' or fi-ec 
town, was disused. 

The government of the imperial towns was in the 
hands of a military and a <*ivil governor. The 
former was styled either Graf, Burgrave, or Vogt 
[advocatus villicm\ who was captain of the garrison. 
He was, moreover, president of the imperial court of 
justice, which was held every six weeks, all the 
minor tribunals being under his jurisdiction. 


The Schultheis (scultetus or prcBfectus) was presi- 
dent of the municipal court and collector of the 
taxes, and a part of the fines formed the prin- 
cipal source of his salary. Tlieae head officials 
were assisted by a Burgimagister (Burgomaster) and 

On the imperial towns becoming independent, 
the administration of the town was entrusted to a 
college of from four to twenty-four persons, according 
to the population, and the members of this kind of 
town council were called either Rathsmann, Raths- 
fi'eund, or Rathsherr, which means councilman or 
advisor. The town councillors appear to have 
selected one or more of their number as presi- 
dents, witli the title of Rathsmeister, Burger- 
meiKster, or Stadtmeister, otherwise Proconsul, 
Magister Civitas, or Burgimagister. 

The town council had the direction of the finances, 
the collection of taxes, of the police, and public 
works. The members were generally elqcted for a 
period of one year, but frequently the greater 
number retained their posts for another year. 

Occasionally town councillors of repute were 
elected for life, and they formed a special coimcil, 
called the "retired council," to distinguish them 
from the newly elected members. 

Besides the above council, we find that the towns 
had a court of sheriffs consisting of five to eleven 
members, under the presidency of the Vogt. These 
sheriffs were generally elected for life, and the loss 


of one of their number was replaced by co-optation. 
At first the court of sheriffs was inferior to the town 
council, to which appeal could be made against their 
decision ; but in course of time, in consequence of 
their co-optative power, the sheriffs formed an 
exclusive body, in contrast to the town council, 
who were elected by the people, and naturally 
formed a democratic corporation. 

These two councils gradually came into collision, 
which resulted in civic contentions in which the 
populace supported the town council, and at 
length the citizens abolished the court of sheriffs 
altogether, and their functions were discharged by 
the corporation. 

We have already mentioned that many of the 
imperial towns gained their autonomy either by 
purchase or force of arms. In like manner we find 
that others either lost their privileges or voluntarily 
became subjects of some burgrave or ecclesiastical 
prince, e.^r., Cologne, Worms, and Spires placed 
themselves under the jurisdiction of their respec- 
tive archbishops, whereas Altenburg, Chemnitz, and 
Zwickau were seized by Frederick the Quarrelsome 
in his war with the Emperor; whilst others, like 
Hagenau, Colmar, Landau, and Strasburg, were 
annexed or torn fi'om the German Empire. 

As the imperial towns increased in wealth and 
power they extended the circle of their authority 
over the surrounding districts, and, in order to 
obtain a voice in the affairs of the empire, at length 


demanded that the country under their jurisdiction 
should be represented at the Reichstag (Imperial 
Diet). To accomplish this, they formed them- 
selves into Bunds or confederations to assert their 
claims, and succeeded in forcing the Emperor and the 
princes to allow their representatives to take part in 
the deliberations of the Diet. 

Tlio principal confederations brought into exist- 
ence by the struggles going on in Germany were 
the Rhenish and Suabian Bunds, and the Hansa. 
The latter consisted of upwards of eighty of the 
principal towns of North Germany, who joined the 
Hanseatic Confederation, not only for the protection 
of their commercial and industrial interests^ but 
also as a defence against the arbitrary acts of their 
own rulers. 

At the Diet held at Augsburg in 1474, it appears 
that almost all the imperial towns were represented^ 
and in 1 648, on the peace of Westphalia, when their 
presence in the Diet was formally recognized, they 
were formed into a separate college. 

As regards the internal administi*ation of affairs, 
there was little uniformity, but in most of them a 
privileged class gradually assumed the direction of 
affairs. The town council was, as we have before 
seen, of democratic origin, but, like the sheriffs' 
court, aristocratic. At first the members of the 
council were either citizens or landed gentry, who, 
on being elected, took up their residence in the 
towns. By degrees tlie municipal body consisted 


exclusively of the members of families of influence, 
and thus a patrician class was formed in all the 
chief towns. In the fourteenth century the Reich- 
st'adte were the scenes of constant conflicts between 
the patrician families and the lower orders, who 
sought to obtain their former influence in the council 
chamber. To efiect this, the industrial class formed 
themselves into guilds, which were presided over 
by a chief warden, and no artisan could follow a 
calling unless he had passed a prescribed examina- 
tion. These guilds gradually acquired so much 
influence that every citizen was obliged to belong 
to one or other of them. 

The Emperor Maximilian I. and his grandson 
Charles V. did their utmost to curb the growing 
power of the guilds, and succeeded in partially 
restoring the supremacy of the patrician families. 

By the peace of Luneville, four of the imperial 
towns, viz., Aix-la-Chapelle, Cologne, Spires, and 
Worms, were ceded to France. In 1803 all of the 
imperial towns lost their autonomy with the excej^tion 
of the following six : — Augsburg, Nuremberg, 
Frankfort, Lubeck, Hamburg, and Bremen ; and in 
1806 the first three, and in 1810 the others, shared 
the same fate, but in 1815, on the fall of Napoleon, 
Bremen, Hamburg, Lubeck, and Frankfort recovered 
their freedom, and were admitted as members of 
the German Bund, which they continued to be up 
to the year 1866. 

As the imperial cities were undoubtedly the cradles 


of arts, sciences, and religious liberty, we here give 
the early liistory of those to which Geimany is most 
indebted, reserving for a future chapter the principal 
events from the accession of the House of Hohen- 
zollem to the Electorate of Brandenburg. 

VOL. II. ff 



Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen) was called by the 
Romans Aquisgranum, on account of its mineral 
springs, which were sacred to Apollo Grannus. As 
far back as the year 514 Aix-la-Chapelle was the 
royal residence of Theodoric. 

This renowned cathedral city was the birth and 
burial place of the Emperor Cliarlemagne, who made 
it his capital, and his example was followed by most 
of his successors, fifty-three of whom were crowned 

The Emperor Frederick I. bestowed considerable 
privileges on the town to increase its trade. In the 
struggle between Philip of Suabia and Otho of 
Brunswick, Aix-la-Chapelle was besieged by the 
latter. In 1224 the town was nearly destroyed by 
fire. In 1370 there appeared two sects, the Beg- 
hards and the LoUhards, who maintained that 
mankind was only subject to spiritual influences, 
and that sensuality was not incompatible with reli- 


gion. They were, however, suppressed and their 
property confiscated by the Emperor Charles IV. 

In 1520 Charles V. was crowned m the cathedral 
with great soleninit}-. 

Aix-la-Cliapelle was one of those towns in which 
the doctrmes of Luther were first preached, hut, as 
the majority of the ruling party were staunch 
Catholics, three of the Lutheran preachers were 
executed, which brought about a reaction in favour 
of the Reformers, for we learn that in 1544 thirty 
emigrant Lutherans received the right of citizen- 

Although the Jesuits did their utmost to prevent 
tlie spread of the new doctrines, Aix-Ia-Cha2)elle 
became the place of refuge of the unfortunate Pro- 
testants who escaped from the sword of the Duke 
of Alba, and the town council were forced to admit 
in theii' midst members of the Reformed faith. 

The far-famed cathedral, which was built by 
Cliarlemagne, contains the most celebrated relics in 
Europe, of which may be mentioned the chemise of 
the Mrgin Mary, wliich slie wore at the birth of 
Christ ; the swaddling clothes and holy handkerchief 
of Clirist, and the sheet on which John the Baptist 
was executed. Among the minor relics is the 
celebrated picture of the Virgin painted by St. Lucas. 

ft 'i 



Augsburg, known by the Romans as Augusta 
Vindelicorum, was made a colony by the Emperor 
Augustus, from whom it derived its name. 
This town soon became known as the seat of a 
Christian population. It was destroyed by Attila 
in 481, and on being rebuilt received the name of 
Augustusburg, contracted into Augsburg. 

In 1276 it was declared an imperial town by 
Rudolf of Hapsburg. In 1368 the guilds seized 
the reins of the municipal government by a coup de 
main^ after which the patrician families lost their 
former influence. The Emperor Maximilian made 
Augsburg his favourite residence, and on his 
departure for the last time prophetically exclaimed, 
^ ' May God protect thee, my loyal Augsburg ! Thou 
hast ever possessed our confidence, but we shall 
never see thee again." 



Cologne (Colonia Agrippina) was founded b.c. 37 
by Vipsanius Agrippa, who made it his official 
residence. During the reign of Vespasian the town 
was seized by the Batavi, who were, however, soon 
expelled by the inhabitants, who remained faithful 
to the Romans. Cologne was ruled alternately by 
the Romans and Germans, and on the death of 
Lothair, in 868, was annexed to the German Empire. 
The citizens of Cologne soon became known as 
enterprising traders and skilled artisans, and the 
historian, Lambert of Ascliaffenburg, says of them : 
*^ Colonienses ab ineunte setate inter urbanas 
delicias educati, nuUam in bellicis rebus experien- 
tiam habebant, quidquid post venditas merces inter 
vinmn et epulas de re militari disputari solitas." 

In 957 they received from Otho I. the rights 
appertaining to an imperial town, which they ever 
after defended with the most stubborn pertinacity. 

In the campaign of the Emperor Frederick I. 
against the Lombards, in which he was accompanied 
by a Rhenish contingent under Reinold, Count of 


Dassel, the latter, on the capture of Milan, obtained 
possession of the relics of the tliree holy kings, 
which he presented to the city of Cologne, where 
they have been carefully preserved in the cathedral. 
In 1201 Cologne entered the Hanseatic Con- 
federation. In 12'i7 Conrad von Hochstettin 
became archbishop, a man of great wealth and 
reputation, at the same time of an imperious and 
haughty disposition. In 1248 he laid the foundation 
stone of the celebrated Dom of Cologne, on which 
he devoted a great part of his immense wealth, but 
the construction was interrupted by the constant 
struggles going on in Germany. Besides the Dom, 
Cologne contains upwards of twenty -six other 
Catholic churches ; the largest are St. Peter s, in 
which Rubens was l^aptized, and the church of 
St. Ursula, renowned for containing the bones of 
the eleven thousand British Vii'gins. (See Ap- 
pendix C.) 

SPIHBS. 4^9 


Spires (Speycr) known in ancient times by the 
names of Novioniagus, Nomidona, and Spira, situ- 
ated on the left bank of tlie Rhine, was founded 
about half a century Ijcfore Christ, contempora- 
neously with Worms, by a Celtic tribe. We find that 
Drusus built a fortress here for the protection of. 
the Roman settlement on the Rlxine. Moreover, it 
appears from tlie remains of Roman temples dis- 
covered, that Spires must have been a town of con- 
siderable importance at this early period. 

In the third century the town was destroyed by 
German invaders. After the victory of Constantius 
over the Franks, it was rebuilt and received its 
present name from the Greek word speira^ a cohort. 

In 624 Dagobert I. established here a mint and 
granted various privileges to the town. Charle- 
magne built a royal palace and raised it to the 
rank of a free town. His successors frequently 
resided here, and wo find that the Emperor Conrad 
considerably enlarged and improved it, and founded 
the celebrated cathedral in the year 1030. He and 


his wife Gisela were interred in the imperial cryjrt. 
Spires became the last resting place of several of his 
successors, and was considered the Persepolis of tlie 
German Empire. 

During the struggle between Lothair and his 
rival Conrad, Spires espoused the cause of the 
latter, and was several times besieged. On tlie 
death of Lothair, Conrad became undisputed Em- 
peror and held a Diet, where, through the eloquence 
of Bernard of Clairvaux, the Emperor was induced 
to organize a crusade. During the interregnum 
which ensued on the death of the Emperor Fre- 
derick II., Spires, together with most of the 
Rhenish towns, sided with Alphonso of Castile; 
but his rival Richard, Earl of Cornwall, by means 
of bribes, gained it over to his side. 

In 1289 the greater part of the city, including 
the Dom, was burnt down, and the destruction was 
so great that the Pope issued an unlimited number 
of indidgences to enable the citizens to restore the 

The Emperor Rudolf expired in the arms of his 
young wife at Spires. On finding his end approach- 
ing, while staying at Germersheim, he is said to 
have exclaimed, ^* Let me hasten to Spires, where 
my ancestors are interred. I will go to the crypt 
myself, so that no one need carry me thither." 

In the fourteenth century Spires was the scene of 
constant strife between the inhabitants and the 
bishops and chapter. In the following centuiy 

SPIRES. 44 1 

similar conflicts arose between the citizens and the 
town council, on account of arbitrary and excessive 

The Emperor Maximilian, in token of his attach- 
ment to Spires, removed .tliither in 1513 his recently 
created Supreme Court of Judicature, and in 1529 
the followers of Luther were there first called Pro- 
testants through the celebrated Protest which was 
laid before the Diet of Spires. 

Spires contains several remarkable buildings. 
The Cathedral, to which we have already referred, 
is an ancient structure, and the finest specimen in 
Europe of the Romanesque style of architecture. 
It is 446 feet long and 178 feet wide, and its two 
towers are 236 feet in height. 

It has recently been restored and decorated with 
beautiful fresco paintings. Opposite the dome 
stands the Altportel, a tower of great antiquity, 
which was formerly surmoimted with the imperial 



Ratisbon (Regensburg) was founded about 14 b.v. 
by tlie Romans, who established a fortified carap 
on the south side of the Danube, opposite to the 
mouth of the Rcgen, which they at first called 
Castra Regina, and subsequently Ratisbona, 
meaning "good shipping"; according to a Latin 
writer, " Quod bona sit ratibus, vel quod consuevit 
in ilia ponere nauta rates." 

In *J84 the Alcmanni took possession of Regens- 
bm'g and the surrounding country. In the year 
616 we find that St. Rupert dedicated a church 
to the Virgin Mary, and in 740 the celebrated 
missionary Bonifacius visited the town, and founded 
a monastery under the auspices of Duke Theodo, 
who appointed a certain Garibold or Gaubold the 
first Bishop of Regensburg. 

Charlemagne came here in 788 with liis entire 
Court, and erected on the spot now called the 
Konigshof, a magnificent palace and also a 
pontoon bridge. 


Charlemagne conceived the idea of uniting the 
Danube and the Rhine, and began the construction 
of a canal 300 feet wide, but unfortunately his 
death prevented the carrying out of this great 
enterprise. About tlie year 800 it became a free 
emporium, and was the centre of commercial inter- 
course between Franconia, Italy, Bohemia, and 

From a document of the year 898, containing the 
following phrase, " Reganesburg regie palatio," we 
learn that Regensburg was then considered a royal 
residence. The Emperor Arnulf , who built another 
palace here, divided it into the old and new town, 
and styled the one district Konigstadt and the other 
Pfaffenstadt (clerical town). 

In 907 the Hungarians, after having conquered 
l^annonia, and defeated Louis the Infant and 
Duke Luitpold of Bavaria near Presburg, invaded 
and overran Bavaria, and Regensburg was plun- 
dered by them. By the treaty of Verdun, Regens- 
burg became the capital of Bavaria under Duke Ar- 
nold. The bishops, although exercising considerable 
autliority, viz., the right of coining money, yet were 
subordinate to the Burgrave as regards the internal 
administraticm of the town, which had enjoyed all 
the privileges of a free city from the time of Charle- 

In 1135, the Danube becoming very shallow 
in consequence of an excessive drought, the 
citizens commenced to construct the first stone 


bridge across the river, which was completed 
in 1146. 

In 1180 Regensburg was raised to the rank of an 
imperial town. In the thirteenth century the town 
was greatly enlarged by numerous monastic estab- 
lishments for both sexes. From the loyalty which 
the citizens displayed towards the Emperor Fre- 
derick in his quarrel with the Pope, they were 
placed under the Papal interdict, and Bishop Albert 
instigated an attempt to assassinate the Emperor at 

Under the rule of Rudolf the wealth and pros- 
perity of the town increased considerably. During 
the general persecution of the Jews about this 
period the sturdy Burgomaster of Regensburg 
offered a refuge to the unhappy fugitives. 

In 1330 intestine struggles broke out between 
the artisans and the town council. Subsequently 
Regensbm'g took an active part in the struggle 
between the towns and nobles. In 1402 the streets 
of the town were first paved. Regensburg at this 
time contained many Reformers, but after the con- 
demnation of John Huss at the Council of Constance, 
the priestly party caused two of the principal, named 
Peter von Dresden and Heimlich von Gotha, to be 
publicly bm'ned. The violence of the clerical party 
led to constant disputes between the inhabitants and 
the bishops. 

In 1443 an extraordinary civil process took place 
\nth reference to a debt due from the estate of a 


deceased mercliant. The creditor, whose claim was 
disputed, was compelled to proceed to the grave of 
the defunct, accompanied by six witnesses and the 
whole of the tribunal. There, placing his right foot 
at the head of the corpse, and his three fingers over 
the grave, he made a solemn oath as to the truth- 
fulness of his claim, and liis six witnesses, placing 
their three fingers on the right arm of the creditor, 
attested the statement. 

During the wars with the Turks and Hungarians, 
the trade of Regensburg was greatly diminished, 
and, through the unjustifiable (conduct of the Em- 
peror, the town broke out into open revolt in 1485. 
In the same year the Regensburgers, to protect 
themselves from the Emperor, induced Duke 
Albrecht of Bavaria to undertake the protection 
of their town for fifteen years, in considcraticm of 
the annual payment of 300 gulden. But in 1498 
the Emperor Frederick III. forced the Bavarian 
Duke to restore Regensburg to its jjosition as an 
imperial city, and again in 1499 the Emperor Maxi- 
milian forced the inhabitants to receive into the 
town council an imperial officer, *^ Reichs-haupt- 
mann," who controlled the entire administration of 
the town. 

In 1512 Maximilian allowed the town to strike 
gold coins with the effigy of St. Wolfgang on one 
side and the arms on the town of the reverse. 

On the death of Maximilian in 1519, the artisans 
of Regensburg obtained the summary expulsion of 


the whole Jewish population, who were, however, 
allowed to take witli them the whole of their pro- 
perty. On leaving tlie town tlieir synagogues were 
levelled to the ground. 

Ratisbon contains several magnificent structures 
of great antiquity. The Cathedral, which has 
been recently restored, is a most ancient edifice. 
Besides which may be mentioned the Dominican 
Church, Jacob's Church, and the Abbey of St. 

The stone bridge which spans the Danube is 
1,091 feet long, and 32 feet wide, and was con- 
structed under the auspices of Henry the Proud. 

WORMS. 447 


Worms (Wormatia) (Borbetomagus), situated on 
the left bank of the Rhine, existed long before the 
Roman conquest, and is supposed to liave been 
founded by the Celts, under the name of Borbeto- 
magus. About a himdred years before the 
Christian era, the Vangiones, a Germanic tribe 
occupying the right bank of the Rhine, crossed 
the river and expelled the Celts. Tliey, in their 
turn, were subjugated by the Romans, who con- 
structed a fortified camp. This town does not 
appear to have shared the fate of the rest of the 
Roman settlements on the Rhine at the hands of 
the Franks and Vandals, and in the fourth and fifth 
centuries it was a flourishing town in the possession 
of the Burgundians. Under their King Gundahar, 
the vicinity of Worms was the scene of the popular 
legend handed down in the romantic poem known 
as the Nibelungen-lied. 

After the defeat and expulsion of the Burgundians 
bv Attila, Worms fell into the hands of the Ale- 
manni, and in 496, by the A-ictory of Tolbiacum, it 

448 HISTORY OF Prussia. 

formed a part of the empire of Clovis. On the 
division of the German Empire into districts (Gaue), 
the province around Worms received the name of 
Wormsgau, and the capital was called Wormatia, a 
contraction of the ancient name Borbetomagus. 
As Worms was the residence of the governor of the 
district (Gaugraf) and contained a palace, it was 
styled in the old documents civitas regia (royal 
town). We are told that as early as the year 
340 a bishop resided in it. In 622 Dagobert I. 
built a royal palace on the site of the modern 
Trinity Church, and converted the old palace into 
a religious establishment dedicated to St. Dionysius. 
Charlemagne solemnized his marriage in this im- 
portant town, and frequently held Diets here. The 
bishops appear to have (constantly induced the suc- 
cessors of Charlemagne to increase their privileges, 
so that at length the inhabitants, finding that they 
were in danger of becoming subject to the eccle- 
siastics, succeeded, after a protracted struggle, in 
recovering their independence. 

Under Frederick Barbarossa, Worms received 
many privileges on account of its constant loyalty 
to the Emperor in liis disputes with the Papacy. 

The town also enjoyed the right of striking 

Through the intrigues of Bishop Emmerich con- 
stant conflicts arose between the patricians and the 
lower classes, by which the bishop trusted to make 
himself eventually supreme ; but the patrician party 

woBMS. 449 

appealed to the Emperor Albreebt, who for a time 
restored peace. 

In 1315 the Jews were admitted as citizens by a 
decree of Louis of Bavaria, which was confirmed by 
liis successor, Charles IV. In 1386 the citizens rose 
against the bishop and asserted their entire inde* 
pendence, and demanded that the ecclesiastics 
should be no longer exempt from taxation. There- 
upon the priests left the town, and the inhabitants 
were placed under the interdict. The burghers 
now demolished the episcopal palace, and incar* 
cerated all the priests they could lay their hands 
upon ; but the priestly party, with the assistance of 
Ruprecht, Elector of the Palatinate, totally defeated 
the citizens, whom they compelled to indemnify 
the injured ecclesiastics. This feud continued with 
vaiying fortune until the time of Bishop Reinhard 
(1445-1482), who effected a compromise. No sooner 
had the bishop breathed his last than the strife was 
renewed, and contmued to the reign of the Emperor 
Maximilian I., who in the year 1501 guaranteed to 
Worms in perpetuity all the rights and privileges 
pertaining to an imperial town. 

From the above it may be seen that the citizens 
of Worms had fought for upwards of two hundred 
years to obtain their emancipation from priestly 

Here was held the celebrated assembly known as 
the Diet of Worms, convoked by Charles V. almost 
inunediately after his election. The newly elect3d 

VOL. n. yg 


Emperor, a youtli of twenty, had given promise of 
talent and capacity for government ; but as yet he 
had no policy of his own, and left the conduct of 
affairs in the hands of his prime minister, William 
of Croi, Lord of Chi{5vres, who possessed almost 
absolute authority. 

On the 23rd of October, 1520, Charles was 
crowned at Aix-la-Cliapelle with the title of Boman 
Emperor Elect, which his predecessor had adopted 
in the latter years of his life. In December he 
repaired to Worms, and at once convoked his first 
Diet to meet on the 6th of January, 1521. Nurem- 
berg, where, according to the Golden Bull, the Diet 
should have been held, had been recently desolated by 
a plague, which rendered it necessary to select some 
ofiier imperial city for the first general meeting of 
the empire, rendered imperatively necessary by the 
agitated state of affairs in Germany, in consequence 
of the Bull of excommunication of Pope Leo against 
Martin Luther, condemning his works to be burned 
as scandalous and hereticah The publication of 
the Bull had led to violent agitation, and in some 
cities the people not only prevented its promulgation, 
but even caused it to be torn in pieqes and trodden 
under foot. Such was the state of feeling in 
Germany when the young Emperor CSiarles V. 
opened the Diet at Worms on the 28th of Januai}*, 
152 J, the day sacred to Charlemagne. 

Never had so many princes assembled at an 
Imperial Diet. There are said to have been 

WORMS. 451 

upwards of sixty princes, one hundred counts, and 
sixty representatives of the free cities. The roads 
leading to Worms were covered with the brilliant 
trains of the various princes; one of them, the 
Landgrave Philip of Hesse, was accompanied by 
six hundred knights. The town of Worms is said 
to have r«ombl«l a feir. A conto»por.ry 
chronicler gives the following description of the 
state of Worms during this remarkable Diet : — 

^^ Es ist hie zu Worms, selten eine Nacht, es 
werden denn drei oder vier Menschen emiordet. 
Es hat der Kaiser, einen Profess, der hat schon 
iiber 100 Menschen ertrankt^ gehangen oder sonst 
abgethan. Es geht hier zu, wie in Rom, mit 
Morden und Stehlen, und von schonen Frauen 
sind alle Gassen voU.'' 

The first few months were occupied with settling 
the internal affairs of the empire, more especially 
the appointment of a Council of Regency for the 
government of the empire during the occasional 
absence of the Emperor, but public attention was 
chiefly directed to the appearance of Luther at the 
Diet to defend his doctrine. On the morning of the 
1 6th of April Luther arrived at Worms in a carriage 
lent him by the town council of Wittenberg. On 
entering the city he was greeted by his supporters 
with manifestations of sympathy, and forthwith 
was conducted to the Hotel of the Hospitallers of 
St. John, where the Saxon councillors, Frederick 
von Thunau and Philip von Feilitz, and other men 


of rank had their quarters. The following day he 
proceeded to the bishop's palace, where the Diet 
was sitting, accompanied by the imperial herald 
and marshal, and in the course of the morning 
appeared before the vast assembly of electors and 
the spiritual and temporal princes. On being 
asked whether he was prepared to stand by his 
writings, Luther replied, in a feeble and almost 
inaudible voice, that he desired time to consider 
his reply. 

It is said that Luther was somewhat disconcerted 
at the sight of so many princes and nobles, and that 
one of them went up to liim and encouraged him 
by saying, " Fear not them which kill the body, 
but arc not able to kill the soul." The great 
Reformer appears to have exhibited much self- 
command and composure under the circumstances. 
The young Emperor Charles scanned with the 
greatest attention the man w^ho had by his eloquence 
thrown the whole of Germany into commotion, 
and is said to have remarked to one of his 
courtiers, '' Surely such a man as that will never 
succeed in making me a heretic." 

The Emperor and his Ministers, having delibe- 
rated in the council-chamber, agreed to accede to 
Luther's request, and the Diet was adjourned to the 
following day. Meanwhile the greatest excitement 
prevailed amongst the citizens and strangers, who 
frequently came to blows in discussing the exciting 
topic of the day. Luther's enemies began to 

Worms. 453 

triumph bv6r what had taken place, and his friends 
to fear for his safety ; but he himself retained his 
calmness and self-possession, for on his retm'n to his 
hotel from the Diet, we find that he wrote to liis 
brother, *^ This vcrj' hour I have been in the pre- 
sence of the Emi)eror and the princes of the 
empire. I have acknowledged myself to be the 
author of my books, and I have declared that I 
shall give my reply to-morrow. I will not retract 
a single word of all my works." 

At this trying period Luther received much 
oncouragoment from his friends and sympathisers. 
It is related that on the way to his hotel, he was 
accosted bj' a distinguished military officer in the 
following words : — 

" You are engaged in a conflict far more dan- 
gerous than any that I have had to go tlirough. 
But be of good courage, for if you fight in Grod's 
name, you must be victorious." 

The next day came, and Luther was again con« 
ducted to the palace where the Diet held its sittings. 
During the morning the assembly was occupied in 
other business, and he had to wait for several 
hours in a court, surrounded by an immense crowd, 
which thronged to catch a glimpse of the distin- 
guished Reformer. Night was now drawing on, 
and the torches were lighted in the great halls, 
giving everything a solemn aspect. At length 
Luther was introduced to the assembly, which was 
even more numerous than the day before. 

454 tiisTokV oir tiiUsslA. 

On the princes taking their seats, Luther was 
asked by the Imperial Chancellor if he was ready 
to defend his works, or wished to retract anything 
that he had written. On which he replied iu 
an humble and subdued tone, yet without the least 
embarrassment, that he had already acknowledged 
the authorship of his works, and that he was pre- 
pared to abide by them. He confessed that he had 
attacked the false doctrines and abuses of the See 
of Rome, and would not revoke what he had 
wiitten; "for," said he, "the Papal doctrines 
martyrize the faitliful, and the never-ending extor- 
tions of Rome swallow up the wealth of Christen- 

Luther was interrupted in his address by the 
Imperial Chancellor, who asked for a clear and 
precise answer to the question, "Do you retract ?" 
Upon which the Reformer replied emphatically, "I 
neither can nor will retract anything, for it is un- 
safe for a Christian to say anything against his 
conscience." The Emperor and the princes were 
filled with amazement, and could scarcely conceal 
their admiration. The Emperor himself exclaimed, 
"The monk speaks fearlessly and with a con- 
fident spirit." 

On Luther withdrawing, the assembly proceeded 
to deliberate, when it was resolved to recall the 
Reformer- On being re-interrogated he calmly 
replied, " I have no other answer to make than what 
I have already made." He was then escorted to 

Worms. 465 


liis hotel by two imperial ushers, and the Diet was 

On the following day, April 19th, the Emperor 
caused a message to be read to the Diet, in which 
ho declared that he would send back the Augus- 
tinian monk, forbidding him meanwhile to cause 
the lea^it tumult among the people; and that he 
would proceed against him and liis adherents as 
against heretics, by excommimication, by interdict, 
and by every available means. 

After the Diet Luther received marks of sympathy, 
including various gifts from the Duke of Brunswick 
and the Kurfiirst of Saxony, and on the 26th of 
April he returned home ; and on the 281x1 of May 
the Emperor issued the well-known Edict of Worms, 
declaring Luther and his writings under the im< 
penal ban. 



NuREMBERQ (Niimberg) (Norimberga) is situated 
on the Regnitz, in the centre of Middle Franconia, 
about ninety miles north-west of Munich, to which 
it is second in size and importance, with a popula- 
tion of about 90,000. 

The name is said to be derived from the ancient 
inhabitants of Noricum, who migrated hither about 
the year 451, on being driven from their early 
settlements on the Danube by the Hims. Here 
they distinguished themselves by their skill in the 
working of metals, which abound in the neighbour- 
ing mountains. 

Before thiB eleventh century the history of Nurem- 
berg is enveloped in a mist of impenetrable obscurity, 
from which it does not emerge until the time of the 
Emperor Henry IH., who issued an edict, dated 
July 16, 1050, "ad castrum Noremberc," a proof that 

KtTREMBEftG. 457 

it was a place of considerable importance even at 
this early period, 

Nuremberg afterwards became the favourite resi- 
dence of the Emperor Henry IV., who unfortunately 
became involved in disputes with his nobles and 
with Pope Gregory VII. (Hildebrand). 

Although most of the cities of the Empire re- 
nounced their allegiance, Nuremberg distinguished 
itself by its fidelity to the Emperor, who here in 
1074 received the ambassadors of Gregory VII., 
and in 1077 he returned to Nuremberg after his 
visit to the Pope at Canossa. 

Under the Emperor Conrad III. the town enjoyed 
a period of uninterrupted repose, and increased in 
wealth and importance. In 1140 Conrad erected 
a cloister in honour of St. Egidius, of which 
Deocharius, the imperial confessor, was appointed 
abbot. Conrad also enlarged and improved the 
town considerably. He also commenced to surround 
Nuremberg witli walls, which were not completed 
until more than a century after, during the reign of 
the Emperor Rudolf I. On the death of Com'adlll., 
in 1152, liis nephew, Frederick of Suabia, was elected 
Emperor, and he restored the Dukedom of Bavaria 
to Henry the Lion. 

In 1156 Frederick I. held a Court at Nuremberg, 
and despatched a circular letter to all the German 
princes, ordering them to accompany him on his 
expedition to Italy against the Lombards.. In 1166 
he again visited Nuremberg, where he put under 


tlio ban his uncle, the Arclibishop of Salzburg, for 
having espoused the cause of Pope Alexander III. 
On the Emperor taking possession of Salzburg, the 
archbishop escaped to the cloister of Admout, 
where he died. 

In 1187 the Emperor summoned a Diet at 
Nuremberg, where it was resolved to organize a 
crusade to recover the Holy Sepulchre from the 
infidels. In 1189 Frederick proceeded to Asia at 
the head of a large army, and gained several vic- 
tories over the Greeks and Turks; but met with 
his death before reaching Jerusalem, and was buried 
at Antioch in 1190. 

On the death of Henry VI., in 1197, there were 
two competitors for the crown, and an internecine 
war arose between the Hohenstauffen and the 
Guelphs. The latter supported the candidature of 
Duke Otho of Bnmswick, and the former espoused 
the cause of Duke Philip of Sual)ia. The war lasted 
ten years. Most of the German princes sided wiiJi 
Philip of Suabia, whereas the large towns and the 
ecclesiastics supported Otho of Brunswick. 

On the murder of Philip, in 1208, by Count Otho 
of Wittelsbach, Otho IV. was universally acknow 
lodged Emperor; but in 1215, being placed under 
the Papal interdict, Frederick II. was elected in \m 
stead. Almost immediately after his coronation at 
Aix-la-Chapelle, Frederick proceeded to Nurembei^} 
which in 1219 he raised to the rank of an imperial 
city. Nuremberg received her most important 


privileges from the Emperor Frederick II., who 
renounced in her favour his imperial right to levy 
tolls and other duties. 

There is great uncertainty as to the origin of the 
Burgraviate of Nuremberg. In a document of the 
twelfth century mention is made of a certain 
'^ Godofredus, burgravius castcllanus." It is not 
known whether this Godfried was an hereditary 
noble or simply a nominee of the Emperor. It 
a])pears that the " burgravius " resided in the 
castle, and was entrusted with its defence. The 
earliest authentic information concerning the Bur- 
graviate dates from the time of Frederick of 
Zollem, who became, by marriage with the 
Countess of Rackz, Burgrave of Nuremberg, which 
title was from that period hereditaiy in the family. 

Nuremberg enjoyed the right of striking coins as 
early as the year 1219, and the circulation extended 
even as far as Donauwerth and Nordlingen. Some 
of these old coins still exist, viz., denarii solidi, 
1 and 4 pfenning pieces, kortliingen, batzen, 
groschen, kerzendreier, 1, 2, 3, 6, 10 and 20 kreuzer 
pieces, gulden, half-gulden, gold gulden, ducats, 
ii^ iy and i ducat pieces, as well aa several other 
small coins. 

There existed at an early period various 
churches, more especially the churches of St* 
Laurence and St« Sebald, St« James's Church 
(1228)5 convents of the Dominican and Franciscan 
Friars, and St. Maurice's Chapel (1250). 

460 HISTOttV 01? PRUSSIA. 

On the death of Frederick II. in 1250, Niirem- 
berg joined the Rhine Confederation. The town 
council was composed of patrician citizens, at the 
head of whom was the mayor or chief magistrate, 
who directed the internal affairs of the town. From 
the year 1180 the family of ZoUern appear to have 
directed all judicial affairs of the Burgraviate, but, 
as they ruled conjointly with the mayor, the town 
obtained a far greater amount of independence 
and influence. The council consisted of twenty-six 
members, who were elected every Easter. The 
Emperor Louis the Bavarian granted to Nuremberg 
several new rights and privileges — the freedom 
of the market, from which originated the annual 
Easter fair, and complete liberty of trade. 

The commerce of Nuremberg at this period 
extended over Franconia, Bavaria, Switzerland, 
the Rhine Provinces, Brabant, and Westphalia. 
With the exception of his Bavarian country resi- 
dence, there was no other town in his dominions to 
which Louis was more attached. Like the affable 
Emperor Maximilian in Augsburg, Louis generally 
lodged in the house of one of the citizens, either 
with Henry Weigel in the Milk Market, or with 
Albrecht Ebner in the Salt Market. The chroni- 
clers relate that no other town expressed so much 
grief at the death of the Emperor, in 1347, as the 
loyal town of Nuremberg. Louis shortly before his 
death enacted that artisans, who hitherto had no 
voice in the local government, should be allowed to 


ajssemble in public rooms to discuss politics, a 
privilege hitherto enjoyed only by the patrician 
citizens. But no sooner had the Emperor breathed 
his last than the leaders of this latter class 
attempted to regain their supremacy. 

The leading patrician families of Ebner, Gross, 
Haller, Imhof, Kress, Mendel, Stromer, Tucher, 
Weigel, and several others, formed themselves into 
an aristocratic clique to check the growing influence 
of the lower classes, but their attempts only fanned 
the smouldering discontent into open rebellion. 

The artisans, consisting of tailors, shoemakers, 
locksmiths, and other mechanics^ organized them- 
selves into a union, and, according to a precon- 
certed arrangement, made a sudden attack on the 
town-hall, and forced the councillors to a precipitate 
flight. The artisans proceeded to elect a new 
council, consisting chiefly of mechanics, although a 
few of the upper class were also elected. The 
fugitive patricians, who took refuge with the 
country nobility, revenged themselves by plunder- 
ing all those who passed to and from the city 
and were believed to favour their opponents. These 
outrages led to retaliation, and the Jews, who were 
known to be in close connexion with the patricians 
on account of money-lending transactions, were the 
imfortunate victims. The Jews had settled in 
Nuremberg from time immemorial, and were 
possessed of great wealth. 

On the 5th of December, 1348, the artisans com- 


menced a wholesale massacre, and those who could 
not effect their escape were put to the sword or 
burnt. On hearing of these outrages, Charles IV., 
who had already promised his aid to the fugitives, 
advanced at the head of a powerful army against 
Nuremberg, and in September, 1349, restored the 
old council, declared all the acts of the artisan 
council illegal, and sentenced the ringleaders to 
perpetual banishment. 

However, it soon became apparent to the patri- 
cians that, unless they conciliated the artisan classes 
by admitting them to a share of power, a second 
revolt was inevitable. In 1376 they consented to 
admit eight artisans into the common council. The 
patricians, however, continued to maintain the 
upper hand, and conferred special privileges on 
butchers and cutlers, who had sided with the patri- 
cians during the contentions. The inunediato 
consequence of the insurrection was the extension 
of the town to its present dimensions, by the con- 
struction of edifices in those quarters which had 
been burnt down during the struggle. 

A church, dedicated to Notre Dame, was erected 
on the fonner site of the Jewish synagogue. In 
1362 the Jews received permission to return. 

In 1356 the Golden Bull of Charles IV. led 
to fresh contentions in Nuremberg between the 
citizens and the Count of ZoUem, who, on receiving 
special charter from the Emperor, began to assert 
his supremacy over the city authorities. 


On tlie death of the Emperor Charles IV, fresh 
complications arose, and the territorial nobles 
assumed such authority that the towns for mutual 
protection united themselves into a confederation, 
and hence the Suabian Bund was called into ex« 
istence in 138L 

In 1383 the Emperor Wenceslaus restored order 
for a short time by the proclamation of a twelve 
years' peace at the Diet held at Nuremberg. Four 
years had scarce elapsed before a civil war broke 
out, in consequence of the imprisonment of Pil' 
grim II., Archbishop of Salzburg, by Frederick, 
Duke of Bavaria. 

The Nurembergers took an active part in the 
war, and, under the command of the Burgrave 
Frederick of Zollem, continued the struggle until 
1397, when the Emperor Wenceslaus brought about 
a compromise between the contending parties. 

In 1424 the Emperor Sigismund entrusted to the 
town of Nuremberg the custody of the crown jewels, 
and in 1427 the Burgrave Frederick VI. of Zollern, 
liaving been raised to the rank of Kurfiirst of Bran- 
denburg, sold all his rights, privileges, and private 
domains to the citizens of Nuremberg for the sum 
of 120,000 florins. 

With the fifteenth century began a new epoch in 
the history of Nuremberg, which now acquired 
much greater influence and importance, the natural 
result of the decrease of the imperial authority. 
Nuremberg had now become one of the greatest 


commercial emporiums of Europe, for merchants 
assembled here for the purchase of the produce of 
Italy and the East. The citizens enjoyed ease and 
affluence, as is attested by the well-known saying 
of w£neas Silvius, ^^ Scotch kings would be happy 
if they could but live like Nurembergers." 

Nuremberg contains several buildings of antiquity. 
The ancient castle, the residence of the Emperors 
in the Middle Ages, and afterwards of the mayors 
of the town, is one of the most attractive of its 
public edifices. 

The Church of St. Sebald is built in the Gothic 
style, and has a most romantic appearance as seen 
from the river. 



Frankfort, which until very recently retained 
the privileges of a free city, is situated on the right 
bank of the river Main, about twenty miles above 
its confluence with the Rhine, and is connected by 
a stone bridge with Saclisenhausen, a suburb on the 
opposite bank of the river. 

The earliest inhabitants on the banks of the 
Main, in the neighbourhood of Frankfort, appear 
to have been the Celts, who settled here in their 
migrations westwards, but were subsequently dis- 
placed by the Suevi, a powerful German tribe, 
which overran Europe shortly before the commence- 
ment of the Christian era.* 

* From the remftins of old Roman inscriptioiiB and funereal nms 
found in the Tidnity, there can be little doubt that Frankfort was 
the seat of a Roman colony at a veiy early period. The surmiBe is 
further confirmed by the fact that there existed a Roman viDage, 
NoTus Yicus, within a few miles of the river Main, midway between 
the towns of Heddemheim and Praunheim. 

VOL. II. hh 


In the course of the next two centuries the banks 
of the Main and Middle Rhine were inhabited 
successively by the Alemanni and Burgundians, of 
whom mention is made in the traditional popular 
songs, the Nibelungen. 

During the fifth century the Franks gradually 
extended their conquests on both sides of the Rhine, 
and at the battle of Tolbiacum, in 496, their King 
Clovis gained a signal victory over the Alemanni, 
whom he reduced under I lis sway. Towards the 
beginning of the sixth century the Franks obtained 
complete possession of the whole country on both 
sides of the river, previously occupied by the 
Alemanni, and gave their name to the town of 
Frankfort. In com'se of time their empire was 
divided into two portions. That on the east of the 
Rhine was known by the name Austrasia or Ost- 
franken (East Franconia), and included the country 
situated between the Rhine, the Lahn, and the 

The district around the site of modem Frankfort 
was also called Rheinfranken (Rhenish Franconia). 
This province was never raised to a dukedom, but 
we find that the German King Conrad I. assumed 
the title of " Duke in Franconia," not of Fran- 

After the treaty of Verdun, in 843, when the 
empire of the Franks was again divided, the west 
portion received its present name, France or Frank- 
ishland. Even during the rule of the Hohenstauften 


dynasty, the terms '^ Francia" and ^^ Franks" were 
sjTionynious with Germany and the Germans. This 
is, moreover, confirmed by tlie fact that in the time 
of Charlemagne the German dialect was designated 
the " Frankish language," whereas early French 
was known as Romance. Moreover, the Archbishop 
of Mayence was regarded as the primate of Germany, 
and afterwards became one of the seven Kurfiirsts. 

From all these circumstances it would appear that 
the Rhine province, especially the country extending 
from Basle to Mayence, was then regarded as the most 
important part of Germany, or, as it is expressed 
by Bishop Otho von Freisingen, a chronicler of the 
twelfth century, ^' Maxima vis imperii." Hence the 
Gennaii kings were constantly elected in some city 
of Rhenish Franconia, and in the fourteenth (century 
the city of Frankfort was selected as the " Wahlstadt," 
as being the most convenient place for the election 
of the German sovereigns. There are several popular 
legends connected with the foundation of the modem 
city of Frankfort. . 

According to one story, Charlemagne, when 
retreating with his army before the Saxons, advanced 
to the banks of the river Main, and discovered a 
ford through a stag which happened at the time to 
be crossing the stream. Having halted here, he 
laid the foundations of a city which he called 
" Frankford," or the ford of the Franks. There is 
another version of the legend to the effect that 
Charlemagne, on defeating the Saxons, made a 

hh 2 


great number of prisoners, whom he settled on the 
opposite side of the Main, hence denominated 

Tlie earliest authentic historical fact connected 
with Frankfort is mentioned by an old annalist 
named Eginhard, who relates that in the years 793, 
794, tlie Emperor (yluirlemagne erected a royal 
palace at Frankfort and summoned an ecclesiastical 
synod. He says, *^ In concilio divino nuto habito 
in suburbanis Moguntiae metropolitanse civitatis, 
regione Germaniae, in loco celehrij qui dicitur Fran- 
conofurd,^^ from which we may infer that even at 
this early period Frankfort was a place of con- 
siderable importance. The probability is, notwith- 
standing the legend, that Frankfort was built long 
before the time of Charlemagne, and that it was 
the principal town among upwards of thirty others 
which are known to have existed at this period. 

The original town of Frankfort was most con- 
veniently situated on an island in the river Main, 
and offered facilities for commercial intercoui'se 
between North and South Germany and between 
East and West Franconia. 

In 822 and 823 Louis the Pious held two great 
Diets, at which envoys were received from the 
Sclaves and Normans. On the death of the Emperor 
Louis the empire was divided between his two sons, 
the younger, Louis, sumamed the German, becom- 
ing ruler of East Franconia or Germany. Louis the 
German appears to have made Frankfort his 


favourite city, inasmuch as he is said to have 
visited it nearly every year of his reign. 

In 874 the church of St. Salvator was erected 
and richly endowed by a lady named Routlint. 

Louis the German died at Frankfort in 876. 

Between the years 918 and 1187 Frankfort was 
seldom favoured by royal visits, and for a time lost 
its importance. During the reigns of the Emperors 
Lothair and Frederick Barbarossa it again emerges 
from obscurity and begins to rank among the chief 
imperial cities, being governed by two officials, 
Vogt (Advocatus) and Schultlieis (Scultetus). 

The first mention of a Frankfort coinage occurs 
in the year 1219, when tlie city had become well 
known as a mart for corn and other agricultural 
produce. Frankfort was, moreover, famous for its 
annual fairs, which were frequented by merchants 
from all parts, and an edict of the Emperor 
Frederick II. in 1240 dcchiros that all traders 
attending the Frankfort fair should l)e under imperial 

A document of 1246 speaks of Frankfort as nobilis 
imperii civitas. In the thirteenth century the 
monastic Orders possessed numerous religious 
establishments. The Cistercian cloister was built 
in 1220; the Dominican, 1240; the Carmelite, 
1260; the chapel of St. Catherine, 1262; and the 
Hospital ziun heiligen Geist, 1270. 

The old town of Frankfort was entered by three 
gates, but on the extension of tlie bomidaries two 


alone remained — tlie Bomlieim Gate and tlie 
Bockenlieim Gate. 

By a compact concluded with the Archbishop of 
Mayence in 1265, it appears that the inhabitants of 
Frankfort were divided into four classes: — 1. 
Nobility ; 2. Clergy ; 3. Burghers ; 4. Villagers. 
The nobility included counts, knights, and citizens ; 
the clergy consisted of prelates and priests ; the 
burghers were for the most part merchants and 
traders ; tlie hnvest class comprised labourers and 

The Jewish population fonned a distinct com- 
nmnity, and appears to have settled in Frankfort iu 
the first half of the thirteenth century. 

In the year 1246 the vicinity of Frankfort was 
the scene of a sanguinary battle betw^een King 
Conrad IV. and the Papal army, under the command 
of Heinricli Easpe. Although the latter gained a 
signal victory arid entered Frankfort in trimnph, 
yet the Frankforters remained loyal to the King, 
and in 1251 refused to open their gates to his x'ival, 
WilHam of Holland, who, however, was subsequently 
acknowledged King on the death of Conrad in 1254. 

Fraidifort possesses an original copy of the 
celebrated Goklen Bull, issued by the Emperor 
Charles IV. in 1356. There are several other copies 
preserved in the archives of the chief capitals of the 
German empire, but the one preserved in Frankfort 
issued from the Imperial Chancery, and bears the 
seal of the Emi)eror Charles IV. 


111 the year 1423 the town council allowed the 
Margrave of Brandenburg to take a copy of it. A 
similar privilege was accorded to Adolf of Nassau 
in 1494. Towards the sixteenth century the council 
refused to allow the document even to be seen. This 
restriction, however, has been since relaxed. 

The citizens of Frankfort have always been dis- 
tinguished by their independence of character, 
industry, and hospitality, and it is but too natural 
that they should still cling to the glories of the past. 



Matthias Corvikus, son of the great patriot, John Hunyady, 
was elected King of Hungary in 1458. On the death of 
Ladislaus, who is said to have been poisoned at the instiga- 
tion of George von Podicbrad, a Diet was summoned 
by the principal nobles and ecclesiastics for the election of a 
new king, and Michael Szilagyi, who had resolved to support 
the candidature of his young relative, Matthias Hunyady, 
made his appearance in Pesth at the head of 20,000 men. 
On the other hand, the opposition party, with Garay at 
their head, dreading the power of the Hunyady family, 
resolved to oppose the election of young Matthias to the 
utmost, and accordingly withdrew to Ofen, with the determi- 
nation of seeking the mediation of the sovereigns of France, 
Poland, and Saxony. 

To avoid foreign intervention, the old soldier Szilagyi 
proposed a compromise, and made a solemn oath that he 
would not avail himself of his army to influence the election* 

As a severe winter had set in, and the Danube was frozen 
over, the malcontents under Garay were not unwilling to 
enter into negotiations, which continued for some time, but 
without any definite result. At length the party of Hunyady, 
growing impatient of delay, organized a body of men to 
proclaim, "Long live King Matthias!" in the streets of the 


t 474 APPENDIX. 

napital. The cry, being soon taken up by the multitude, 
was echoed from street to street until it reached the pre- 
cincts of the town-hall, where, amidst the general enthu- 
siasm, young Hunyady, a youth of fifteen years, was pro- 
claimed king without opposition. 

In the mean time Szilagyi was appointed Stadtholder 
during the minority of the young King, who being de- 
spatched on an embassy to George Podiebrad, Regent of 
Bohemia, the latter detained Matthias until he consented to 
espouse his daughter Catherine. 

The alliance was forthwith arranged, and the young King 
returned to Ofen with great pomp and amidst the universal 
rejoicings of his people. The beginning of his reign, how- 
ever, was chequered by a series of troubles. His opponents 
still continued their intrigues in favour of his rivals. Garay 
and Ujlaky were secretly negotiating with the Emperor 
Frederick, who also aspired to the crown of Hungary, whilst 
Giskra^ a partisan of King Casimir of Poland, openly refused 
allegiance, and, at the head of a body of Bohemians, com- 
mitted depredations in various parts of the countr}-. Moreover, 
the Turks, thirsting to avenge their disastrous defeat before 
Belgrade, made constant incursions, and plundered and sacked 
all the towns on the frontiers. 

On his twentieth birthday young Matthias, having assumed 
the reins of government, soon restored order and compelled 
the rebel Giskra to an unconditional submission. 


. (B.) 

Ill Brandenburg, Lusatia, Silesia^ and the north and west of 
Poland^ remains have been found of the ancient inhabitants 
in the shape of burnt bones, burial urns, bronze and iron 
weapons. In some parts of Brandenburg inscriptions have 
been disinterred, in which occur the names . of the ancient 
German deities, from their age leading to the belief that a 
large portion of the German race remained in the country 
after its having been overrun by the Sclavonic race. 

There exist but a few places in Brandenburg of Sclavic 
origin besides the town itself, formerly called Brannibor. In 
Pomerania we can trace Stettin, Stargard, Wolin, and others. 

In those parts where the Wends settled are still to be found 
the remains of large stockades, composed of wood, earth, and 
stones. They are called in Geiman " Burgwalle/' These 
Burgwalle were generally surrounded by a ditch and rampart. 
From the appearance of the woodwork there can be but little 
doubt that the Wends had acquired considerable skill in 
the art of building. 

The principal Wendish towns arc Bautzen and Cottbus, 
situated in Lusatia, where the inhabitants are distinguished 
by their peculiar national costume, especially the head-dress, 
and call themselves Sorbes. 

The above is taken from an interesting paper, read at the 
Imperial Ethnological Society of Berlin, by Professor 

476 a^peKdH. 


The legend is tliat Ursula was the daughter of a Christian 
King of Britain, whose hand had been sought by the son of a 
heathen German King, whose territory lay near Cologne. 
The princess gave her consent on condition that the prince 
should introduce Christianity amongst his subjects. To effect 
this, 11,000 British virgins were to accompany her to her new 
home, where they were to be betrothed to 11,000 heathens. 
The marriage was not to take place before the period of two 
years, to enable the prince to acquire a thorough knowledge 
of the Christian religion. 

On the expiration of this time, eleven vessels conveyed the 
bride and her foUowei's to Basle, whence they proceeded 
to Rome. After visiting the tomb of the Apostles, they 
returned to Cologne, accompanied by several of the Church 
Fathers. Here it appears that the heathens declined to em- 
brace Christianity, and the virgins refused to marry thera. 
Enraged at the obstinacy of the Princess Ursula and her 
companions, the heathens massacred all except one maiden, 
named Cordula, who had concealed herself, but who, on the 
following day, gave herself up and shared the martyrdom. 

For a long time the name of this virgin was unknown ; but 
towards the twelfth century it is related that a certain nun, 
named Halentrud, in a convent of Westphalia, beheld au 
apparition of the murdered virgin, who bore on her forehead 
the name " Cordula." 

On aiiothcr occasion the same virghi appeared to a monk, 
Ingebrand de Rurke, and informed him that her body was 
interred in the garden of the monastery under a hazel tree. 


Albertus von Regensburg, sumamed Magnus, on account of his 
reputation as a magician, had the bones disinterred and placed 
in the church. St. Otho presented the remains to the cathedral 
of Camin in Pomerania, which was then the seat of a bishopric, 
and had it placed in a remarkable casket made of the bones of 
some huge animal. 

The skull has been closely inspected by Professor Virchow, 
— from whom we are now quoting, — who found a large wound 
in the forehead, and is of opinion that it is the identical skull 
of Cordula, and that she was a middle-aged person : this would 
lead to the presumption that she was the confidant of the 
Princess Ursula, and hence the reason for her not being 
massacred with the other virgins. 

The casket is supposed to be of Danish origin, as the 
ornamental work on the outside resembles one recently 
found in Jutland. St. Otho probably obtained it as a 
present during his missionary labours in the North. 



According to Latham, the chief Sclavonic tribes were : — 

The Waqrians. — Occupants of the country between the 
Trave and the upper portion of the southern branch of the 

The Polabi. — Conterminal with the Wagrians and the 
Saxons of Sturmar> from whom they were separated by tlie 
river Bille. 

The Obotbiti. — This is a generic rather than a specific 
term. It means, however, the tribes between the Trave 
and the Warnow, chiefly along the coast. Zeuss makes 
Schwerin their most inland locality. 

Varnahi. — This is the form which the name takes in Adam 
of Bremen. It is also that of the Varni, Varini, and Veruni 
of the classical writers, as well as the Werini of the Intro- 
duction to the "Leges Anglorum et Werinorum, hoc est 

LiNONES LuNEBURG. — Language spoken during the last 
century, known through a Paternoster. Sclavonic, modified by 



George von Podiebrad, born in 1420, was a descendant of a 
noble German family that had settled in Bohemia. The 
government of the country was about 1440 in the hands 
of the chiefs of two factions, viz., Meinhard von Neuhaus 
and Ptaczek, who acted as guardians of the young King 

On the death of Ptaczek in 1444, George von Podiebrad 
was chosen by the Calix tines to act as regent during the 
minority of Ladislaus, in conjunction with Meinhai^d von 
Neuhaus. The co-regents, however, soon disagreed on 
matters connected with the Church, and became bitter 
opponents. George Podiebrad, relying on his popularity, 
and having a large force at his command, now determined by a 
bold stroke to get rid of his colleague. Accordingly lie took 
possession of the capital by surprise, and imprisoned his rival 
Meinhard, who died shortly after (1448). 

Podiebrad, on being declared sole regent, adopted energetic 
measures to strengthen the influence of his own adherents. 
He restored the Hussite Archbishop of Prague, John Roky- 
czana, who had been expelled b}' the Catholic party. He 
next marched against the sons of Meinhard von Neuhaus, 
who had collected an army to avenge their father^s death. 
Podiebrad defeated his opponents in several pitched battles, 
and advanced with his victorious forces into the heart of 

Meanwhile Pope Nicholas V. had sent into Bohemia John 
Capistrano, an Italian monk, for the purpose of preaching 


against the Hussites. His eloquence is said to have had an 
extraordinary effect in exciting the people against the 
Bohemian "heretics." He even challenged the Archbishop 
Rokyczana to a disputation. His excess of zeal, however, 
soon led to disturbances, which necessitated the intervention 
of the Regent, who appears to have governed with consummate 
ability, and by his great tact succeeded in reconciling the rival 
parties. Meanwhile the young King Ladislaus, who had taken 
little part in state affau*s, fell a victim to dissipation at the 
early age of eighteen. 

There were now several candidates for the vacant throne, 
but George Podiebrad succeeded in getting himself elected) 
mainly through the support of the Archbishop Rokyczana, 
who strained every nerve to bring about the election of the 
Regent. The new King was crowned by two Hungarian 
bishops, and at his coronation bound himself by oath to 
endeavour to recall his people " from all errors and heresies, 
and from other articles contrary to the Roman Church and 
the Catholic faith, and to bring them to obedience, conformity, 
and union, and to the rite and worship of the holy Roman 

At Rome, Podiebrad was at once recognized by Pope 
Calixtus, whose successor, Pius II., invited him to a congress 
at Mantua, in the hope of enlisting him as an ally in a crusade 
against the Turks. To secure his position, Podiebrad con- 
tracted an alliance with the young King of Hungary, Matthias 
Corvinus, to whom he gave his daughter Catherine in marriagei 
and renewed the friendly relations which had formerly existed 
between Silesia and Bohemia. He also espoused the cause of 
the Emperor Frederick, and was instrumental in raising the 
siege of Vienna. 

Notwithstanding the readiness with which the Pope had 
confirmed his election, Podiebrad was soon embroiled in dis- 
putes with the Papacy. The Pontiff had taken umbrage at the 



refusal of the King to attend the Congrcjis of Mautua, and as 
the uoniinatioQ of Rokyczana to the Archbishopric of Prague 
had never received the Papal sanction, Pope Pius nominated 
the Dean of Prague as rival archbishop. Thereupon Podie- 
brad despatched an embassy to Rome, in 1462, to protest 
against this act of the Pontiff. 

The ambassadors returned home, accompanied by the Papal 
legate, Fantino della Valle, who accused the King of breaking 
bis coronation oath, threatened to anathematize him as a 
heretic, and behaved with such insolence that the King com« 
mitted him to prison. 

On the news of the arrest of the legate reaching Rome, the 
Pontiff at once issued a citation, summoning *' George von 
Podiebrad, who styles himself Eang of Bohemia, to appear at 
Rome within a hundred and eighty days, to answer for heresy, 
perjury, sacrilege, and blasphemy.*' 

In the following year an alliance was formed among the 
nobles to depose the King and elect in his stead Casimir of 
Poland, who, however, refused to accept the offer. 

In 1465 Pope Pius died, and was succeeded by Paul IL, 
who displayed even greater zeal against the Hussite King. 
He not only caused Podiebrad's ambassadors to be driven out 
of Rome, but also despatched his legate, Rudolf of Lavant, to 
Saxony and Hungary to preach a crusade against the 
" heretic." 

The ambitious and unscrupulous Matthias Corvinus now 
abandoned his father-in-law, and caused himself to be pro« 
claimed King of Bohemia. In the war which ensued George 
Podiebrad succeeded in entrapping into the forest of Wyle- 
mon his son-in-law, who thereupon agreed to make peace and 
pay the expenses of the war. On finding himself in safety 
the crafty Corvinus resumed hostilities, and sent a chest full of 
sand instead of the war indemnity. The struggle continued 
for several years without any decisive result. 

VOL. n. it 


Early iii the year 1471 George Fodiebrad received news 
of the capture of his soil Victorin by the Hungarians, and 
9hortIy after fell ill and died^ March the TZnd, 1471. 


Fbbdbeick (Ettikoxb and Eitbl Fbbbbbiok^ 
Counts of Hohenzollem. 

About the year 1420 Frederick (Ettinger mortgaged a great 
part of Hechingen to the Margrave of Baden, and hereupon 
became involved in a dispute with his brother Eitel Frederick. 
Having violated his engagements at the treaty of Eilwangen, 
Frederick CEttinger was condemned by the Imperial Court of 
Justice at Rothweil to the forfeiture of his domains in favour 
of his brother Eitel Frederick. (Ettinger, however, in 
defiance of the Supreme Court, sold his estates, and, aided by 
the Counts of Geroldseck, collected an army, with which he 
overran Suabia, especially the district of Rothweil. He 
seized eight citizens of Rothweil and thirty-six burgesses of 
Rotenburg, upon which the inhabitants sought help from the 
towns of the Suabian alliance. 

In May, 1422, the town of Rothweil declared war against 
Frederick CEttinger, who, finding the greater part of Suabia 
opposed to him, retired to the castle of Hohenzollem, which was 
considered impregnable. The allied towns and the auxiliaries 
of Wiirtembergnow surrounded the castle, which they resolved 
to destroy. Count Frederick succeeded in effecting his escape 
from the castle on New Year's Day, 1423, and solicited aid 
from the Margrave of Baden and Duke Charles of Lorraine, 
who, however, refused to give him assistance. In the mean time 
news came that Count Frederick, while wandering in Alsace, 
had been taken prisoner by Count Louis of Lichtenberg, upon 
which an honourable capitulation was proposed to the garrison 

a 3 


of Hohenzollern. Reduced to the last extremity^ the brave 
defenders of the fort accepted the terms offered^ and, after 
baviug successfully and courageously held out nearly a year, 
left the castle with all the honours of war. 

The confederates, having planted their banners on the 
towers and bulwarks of the captured fort, carried out the 
original resolution and destroyed the castle, which was regarded 
as the cradle of the ancestors of the HohenzoUem family. 
This event took place in May, 1423. Eitel Frederick 
also took part in the siege, but it is not certain that he 
consented to the destruction of the castle. 

Count Frederick (Ettinger was liberated in the year 1424. In 
January, 1426, a reconciliation took place between the Count 
and the Suabian alliance, and Eitel Frederick became Regent 
of ZoUern. Eitel Frederick now did his utmost to gain the 
affection of the vassals of Zollern, and also sought to establish 
his possession by a reconciliation with his brother, Count 
Fritzli, Canon of Strasburg, who had up to this period sided 
with Q^ttinger and had taken part in the defence of the castle 
of HohenzoUem. To protect his dominions, it was necessary 
for Eitel Frederick of Zollern to be on good terms with his 
powerful neighbours. Counts Louis and Ulric of Wiirteniberg. 
This arose &om the fiict that many of his vassals still cherished 
a feeling of devotion and attachment to the cause of Frederick 
QBttinger, his elder brother. In 1429 he concluded the treaty 
of Markt-Groeningen, by which it was agreed that Zollern 
should relapse to the family of Wiirtemberg in case of the 
extinction of the male line, which was very probable, as neither 
Eitel Frederick nor Frederick CEttinger had children. Eitel 
Frederick now sought to rebuild the castle of HohenzoUem ; 
but the towns of the Suabian alliance opposed this project, 
still retaining a lively recollection of the stubborn resistance 
they had encountered before its walls. About this period the 
Emperor Sigismund determined to suppress the Hussite revolt 

At'PENDtX. 485 

in Bohemia^ and, as hereditary King of Bohemia) ordered the 

estates of Suabia to make preparations for war. But the 

inhabitants of Suabia were little inclined to support the 

Emperor, who in 1422, and again in 1426, was obliged to give 

up the expedition, as the imperial army was not sufficiently 

large. War, however, continued for several years, until at 

length Procop, at the head of a deputation, waited upon 

Sigismund, and agreed to acknowledge him as Xing of Bohemia 

on condition of the Bohemians being allowed the firee exercise 

of their religion. In the mean time the old animosity 

revived, and the Taborites and Waisen obstinately refused to 

agree to the arrangement, as they formed a strong party of 

ultra-republicans. On the negotiations being broken off the 

war was renewed in 1431. The imperial army, commanded 

by Frederick of Brandenburg, entered Bohemia, burnt 200 

villages, and committed the most horrid excesses. The two 

armies met on the 14th of August, 14.31 ; but the Germans, 

notwithstanding their superiority ifi number, were seized with 

a panic and took to flight, followed by the rest of the army. 

This and other disasters led to the Council of Basle* 

After the Bohemian war serious disputes arose between the 
Counts of Wiirtemberg and the Counts of Shauenburg* Eitel 
Frederick commanded the troops of the Count of Wiirtemberg. 
A peace, however, was brought about by the mediation of the 
Bishop of Strasburg and the Margrave of Baden. This closed 
the military career of Eitel Frederick, who now devoted him- 
self exclusively to the government of his territory and the 
improvement of his estates. Among other acts he rebuilt the 
walls of the castle of Hechingen. In 1436 he entered into 
an arrangement with the Suabian alliance, which agreed to all 
his proposals except to the rebuilding of his castle of Hohen- 
zoUem. In his efforts to secure the attachment of his 
brother's adherents, he was strongly supported by the Prior 
of Hechingen. Eitel Frederick was a worthy successor of 

486 AtPEKDii. 

Frederick the Illustrious. He died in September, 1437, ani 
his ashes were buried in the family vaults of Stettin. 

On the death of the Emperor Sigismund, in 1437, the 
electors determined to choose as Emperor some prince of great 
energy and resolution, and their choice lay between Albert, 
Archduke of Austria, and Frederick the Elder of Brandenburg. 
For various reasons Frederick declined the offer of the imperial 
sceptre, and after some hesitation Albert of Austria consented 
to ascend a throne so dangerous and precarious.. The can- 
didature of the Archduke of Austria and the Elector of 
Brandenburg is a noteworthy event in the history of Germany, 
as it is the first signal instance of rivalry between the House 
of Hohenzollem and the House of Hapsburg. 

Eitel Frederick left two sons: 1. Count Josse Nicolas, 
who succeeded his father in 1440 ; 2. Frederick^ Canon of 

About this period we learn that Frederick OBttinger 
undertook a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. In a document 
signed at Rhodes, bearing date June 13> 1443, Count Frederick 
makes a grant to John of Weissenberg. The Count never 
returned home, but died and was buried in Palestine in 
September, 1443. 

A»PE3iDiX, i^T 

J088B NiooLASi Count of Zollern. 
Died in 1488. 

Josse Nicolas, who succeeded his father Eitel Frederick, 
was for many years the only representative of the elder branch 
of the House of ZoUenii and he devoted all his energies to 
increase the power and influence of the family. The Count 
of Wiirtemberg, who held in pledge several of the Zollem 
estates, acted as guardian to the young Count during his 

The Emperor Frederick III., wishing to restore the influence 
of Austria in Switzerland, now solicited the assistance of the 
French King, who sent the Dauphin Louis with a large force 
to aid the Emperor. 

The French mer S naries were called Armagnacs, after the 
name of the man who raised them. 

In a battle fought at Spital, near Basle, the French being 
completely worsted and compelled to retreat along the banks 
of the Rhine, were attacked by the garrison of Strasburg, 
who sallied forth and regained the banner taken from the 
Swiss at St Jacob Spital. The Dauphin, seeing the folly of 
attempting to fight against a country of which the borders 
were defended with such obstinacy, promised not to march 
with his army through any part of the territory of the con- 
federates, and ofiered his mediation bet^veen the hostile 

Count Joese Nicolas with his contingent, the Knights of 
St. George, took an active part in this war. The Margrave 
Albert Achilles of Brandenburg, of the House of Zollern, was 
also personally interested in these disputes on account of his 

4S8 APP1SHt)t%. 

large domaiiis in Suabia. The Margrave was distinguishetl 
by his great physical strength and wonderful gift of eloquence. 
His diplomatic talents also secured him great influence in the 
aflbirs of the empire. Albert Achilles took a lively interest 
in the prosperity of Zollem^ and was on affectionate terms 
with the young Count Josse Nicolas. 

Towards the end of the year 1445 Count Josse Nicolas 
married the Countess Agnes, daughter of the Count of 
Werdenberg-Heiligenberg. The happy union took place at 
Constance, under the auspices of Albert Achilles. Soon after, 
war again broke out between the nobles and the new alliance 
of the Suabian and Franconian cities. The Margrave Albert 
Achilles of Brandenburg took an active part in the contest, 
particularly against the town of Niuremberg. The Margrave 
assembled a large army, and ravaged the territory adjoining 
the hostile towns. At length the imperial cities were forced 
to yield to the superior force of their adversaries, and their 
alliance was accordingly dissolved in the year 1454. 

About this period Count Josse Nicolas determined to rebuild 
the castle of Hohenzollern, which for thirty years had remained 
a mass of ruins. Its reconstruction, begun by Eitel Frederick, 
had been hitherto prevented by the towns, which were now 
humbled and could offer no opposition. The attachment of 
Josse Nicolas to the Emperor, his relations with the Counts 
of Wiirtemberg, and the high influence of the Margrave 
Albert Achilles, favoured the execution of the long*projected 
scheme. Before undertaking the reconstruction of the castle, 
it was necessary to obtain the revocation of Uie edict by which 
the Emperor Sigismund had condemned it to remain a per- 
petual ruin. The Margrave Albert Achilles arranged the 
matter, and obtained the revocation of the edict. On the 
occasion of the foundation stone being laid, the princes present 
at the ceremony worked with their own hands, prepared the 
mortar, and used hammers and trowels of silver. Albert 

Achilles of Brandenburg is said to have carried ou his shoulders 
the foundation stone from the quarry. When the stone was 
being placed, two eagles were seen perched on the top of a 
rock in the vicinity. Under such favourable circumstances 
the castle rapidly rose from its ruins, and was finished 
about the year 1460. Four years before the completion of 
the castle of HohenzoUern, Josse Nicolas entered into an 
agreement with the Counts of Wiirtemberg to recover the 
possessions pledged to them by his father. 

The Counts of Wurtemberg agreed to accept a considerable 
sum of money on the Count undertaking to remain ever faith- 
ful to the House of Wurtemberg. In these negotiations he 
was supported by the Margrave Albert Achilles. He under- 
took to pay half of the money to Count Louis and a half to 
Count Ulric of Wiirtemberg, and also to place his military 
force at the disposal of Count Ulric for three years. 

During the time that Josse Nicolas was engaged in restor- 
ing the former influence of his house, Suabia was distracted by 
hostile factions, particularly during the absence of the Em- 
peror Frederick III. at Rome, whither he had proceeded to 
be crowned Emperor, and to celebrate his nuptials with 
Eleanor of Portugal. 

A still more serious conflict now arose in consequence of 
the ambitious and aggressive policy of the princes. 

Frederick, Count of the Palatinate, sumamed by his 
enemies Fritz the Bad, a man of great firmness and decision 
of character, sided with the Princes of Upper Germany against 
the Emperor and Pope. Ulric of Wurtemberg and Charles 
of Baden, the allies of the Emperor thereupon invaded the 
Palatinate, which they devastated by fire and sword. 

Frederick collected an army and defeated his opponents at 
the battle of Bockenheim, in 1460, where Ulric, Count of 
Wiirtembexg, and George, Bishop of Metz, fell into his 
hands, and Albert Achilles was defeated. Louis of Bavaria 

496 Al>t>EKDlX. 

on this occasion captured the imperial banner. Peace was 
afterwards concluded between the contending parties. We 
are told that Frederick sumptuously entertained the captive 
princes, but refused to supply them with bread, as they had 
wantonly destroyed all tlie corn-fields. On their refusing to 
pay the ransom demanded, they were placed in the stocks, 
lightly clad, in a bitterly cold room. He demanded 100,000 
florins for the ransom of Counts Ulric and Charles, and 45,000 
for the Bishop of Metz. 

Count Josse Nicolas, who took an active part in this war, 
also supported his father-in-law, Count Werdenbeig, in his 
quarrel with Count John of Rechberg. 

In 1467, the Emperor undertook a pilgrimage to Rome, in 
performance of a pious vow. On his return he found general 
discontent throughout the country, as the mercenaries engaged 
in his service had not been paid, and were committing violent 
excesses. The mercenaries solicited the intervention of 
Andreas Baum Richner, a confidential adviser of the Em- 
peror, who, having attended a conference, was seized and 
beheaded by order of the Emperor. 

During the Emperor's visit to Ratisbon, Josse Nicolas 
obtained an imperial edict, on the 15th of May, 147 1« empower^ 
ing him to coin money and to work the mines on his estates. 
About the same time he made a contract with the Arch^ 
Duchess of Austria, by which several fiefs passed into the 
hands of the Counts of Zollem. 

In the year 1474, after an absence of thirty years, the 
Emperor Frederick revisited Suabia, chiefly on account of the 
Diet he had summoned at Augsburg. The Emperor and his 
wife, Eleanor of Portugal, honoured the castle of Hohen- 
zollern with their presence. In conunemoration of this visit, 
the apartments occupied by the royal party received the name 
" Imperial apartments,*' and one of the towers of the castle 
was called the Emperor's Tower. The united arms of Haps- 

API*ENDlii 49 i 

burg and Portugal iVere placed over the choir of the church of 
Hechingen by order of the Emperor. The marriage ceremony 
between the Princess Stephanie of Hohenzollem and Don 
Pedro of Portugal was celebrated in the chapel. 

During Frederick III.'s visit to the south-west of Germany, 
Josse Nicolas was present in the Emperor's train. He had 
four sons, Eitel Frederick, Frederick Eitel, Frederick Albert, 
and Frederick John. His eldest son. Count Frederick, who 
had entered the Church, became Canon of Strasburg. The 
Emperor Frederick III., having lost a great part of his 
territory in Bohemia and Hungary, had now become un- 
popular ; the country was threatened by an invasion of the 
Turks, and he sought to recover his lost influence by a 
matrimonial alliance. 

Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, was now at the zenith 
of his power, and demanded the title of King at the hands of 
the Emperor. Frederick proposed to give his daughter, the 
Princess Mary, in marriage to Duke Charles, and with this 
object proceeded to Treves, accompanied by a large retinue. 
The Duke of Burgundy was, however, averse to the match, 
and the Emperor quitted Treves in disgust. Count Josse 
Nicolas, with the Margraves Charles and Christopher of 
Baden, and Counts Hugh and Ulric of Wurtemberg, and 
many other knights of Suabia, accompanied Frederick in this 
journey to Treves. 

The tyrannical conduct of Peter von Hagenbach, governor 
of Alsace, had made the Burgundian rule detested by the 
Alsacians. This circumstance afforded the Emperor a 
good opportunity for taking up arms against Charles the 
Bold, who was at that time besieging Neuss. The Emperor 
was encamped before the town, and the two camps lay so close 
that balls fell into the Emperor's tent and carriage. The 
Duke of Burgundy agreed to a truce, which was negotiated in 
the name of the Duke by the Margrave of Baden, and in the 


name of Frederick by Albert Achilles, Elector of Branden- 

This treaty, however, did not entirely end the Burgundian 
war, for Charles, upon quitting the Rhine Province, occu- 
pied the estates of the Duke Rene of Lorraine, and made 
war upon the confederate Swiss ; but, while attempting to 
reduce Nancy by famine, he was attacked by the Swiss and 
Austrians, who had joined their former confederates, and was 
completely routed. His horse fell with him into a morass^ 
where he was suffocated, and his frozen corpse was cut up with 
a hatchet, 1477. 

Albert Achilles, accompanied by Eitel Frederick, put him- 
self at the head of his Franconian troops and led them into the 
March, where a contest had arisen between John of Priebus 
and the Margrave John, son of Albert Achilles, relating to the 
inheritance of the duchy of Qlogau. Before returning to his 
estates in Franconia, the Elector recompensed the services of 
the Counts of ZoUern in a manner which showed his friendship 
for that house, and he gave in marriage the hand of the 
Princess Maud of Brandenburg to the young Count Eitel 
Frederick, the 28th of November, 1479. Thus were again 
united the two families of Zollem and ZoUern-Nuremberg- 
Brandenburg. Louis XL attempted* to seize the duchy of 
Burgundy on the death of Charles the Bold, but was prevented 
by the Swiss. 

Mary of Burgundy now sought to unite herself in marriage 
with Maximilian, the handsomest youth of the day, of 
whom she is supposed to have become enamoured. The 
marriage, after some consideration, was resolved upon. Maxi- 
milian hastened to Ghent mounted on a brown steed, clothed 
in silver-gilt armour, his long fair hair crowned with a bride- 
groom's wreath, shining with pearls and precious stones: on 
his entering the city, he was met by his bride. The youthful 
pair, on beholding each other, knelt in the public street and 


sank into each other's anns. " Welcome art thou, thou 
noble German," said the young Duchess, '' whom I have so 
long desired and now behold with delight ! " 

This event greatly enraged the French monarch, who per- 
suaded the Swiss to enter into an alliance with him. Maxi- 
milian defended in person Burgundy and the Low Countries, 
which rightly belonged to him after the death of Charles the 
Bold, by virtue of his marriage with his daughter, and suc- 
ceeded in totally expelling the French troops from the 

The campaign in the Low Countries was the cause of the 
death of two sons of Josse Nicolas : Count Frederick Albert 
and Count Frederick John fell victims to their courage and 
devotion to the imperial cause. The death of his two brave 
sons was a terrible blow to Josse Nicolas, and appears to have 
hastened the end of his career. 

In the hopes of settling some of the disputes in his kingdom, 
Frederick III. summoned a Diet at Frankfort, in March, 1486. 
Public peace was proclaimed for the space of six years, and at 
the same time Frederick had the gratification of seeing his son 
elected King of the Romans. 

At this Diet the Count Werdenberg, Count Josse Nicolas, 
and Count Eitel Frederick actively supported the Emperor in 
all his projects. In recompense for his fidelity Frederick 
conferred on Josse Nicolas the seigniory of Hohenburg. The 
episcopal see of Augsburg becoming vacant by the death of 
Bishop John, the Emperor conferred this dignity upon 
Count Frederick of ZoUem, the eldest son of Josse Nicolas, 
who was Dean of the Chapter at Strasburg. The Sovereign 
Pontiff willingly gave his consent to the nomination of 
Count Frederick, who for twenty years governed his diocese 
like a true apostle. His body reposes in the chapel of St. 
Oertrude, which forms part of the choir in the cathedral of 
Augsburg. Towards the close of his life Josse Nicolas 


endeavoured to found a new Suabian alliance, formed by 
the estates of the country, who had the will and strength 
to defend the people, respect their rights, and have the 
interests of the public peace at heart. This new alliance 
would also put an end to all preceding leagues between 
the nobility and the free cities. In the spring of the year 
1487| at the Diet of Nuremberg, the Emperor sanctioned the 
project, and the Suabian estates, with the nobility and the 
cities, declared themselves willing to accede to this new 

The House of Hohenzollern was represented on this occasion 
not only by Josse Nicolas, but also by his sons, Fredericki 
Bishop of Augsburg, and Eitel Frederick. The latter 
appeared in the retinue of the Elector John Cicero of Bran- 
denburg, which shows that, even after the death of Albert 
Achilles, in 1486, friendly intercourse still continued between 
the two Zollem branches. 

Josse Nicolas did not long survive his excellent friend and 
cousin, Albert Achilles. His presence at the Diet of Nurem- 
berg was his last appearance in the councils of the Emperor. 
.Profoundly regretted by the Emperor Frederick III. and by 
his subjects. Count Josse Nicolas breathed his last the 9th of 
February, 14«8. 



Eitel Frederick 11., who succeeded, was also distin- 
guished by the high place he held near the Emperor,* 
and by the inde&tigable zeal with which he followed in the 
footsteps of his illustrious father, and opened the glorious 
path to the ofispring of the House of Hohenzollern now 
belonging to the present period. 

The Flemish refused submission to the Hapsburgs, by 
whom their ancient liberties were neither understood nor 
respected. They seized the person of the young Duke 
Philip, whom they recognized as successor of the Princess 
Mary, who died in 1482. A revolt breaking out at Bruges, 
Maximilian was takenprisoner, and the councillors were put 
to the torture. 

The Emperor summoned all the vassals of the empire in 
order to liberate his son, and the Pope sent a threatening 
message to the rebels. The first burgher of Ohent who fell 
into the Emperor's hands was nailed to a door and sent floating 
down the stream to Ohent, with the inscription, " Thus will 
be treated all who have imprisoned the Roman King." The 
defeat of the citizens of Bruges struck the rebels with dismay, 
and they set their royal prisoner at liberty on condition of his 
promising not to take revenge. Maximilian took the oath 
and retired into the Tyrol. 

Frederick III. expired in the year I4d3, no Emperor having 
reigned such a long period. Maximilian was declared his 
successor, and ascended the imperial throne. 


In the twelfth century the Zollerns were allied with several 
powerful families; in the thirteenth, with the Imperial House 
of Hapsburg, the Ducal House of Saxony, the Margraves of 
Baden, Urachi Fribourg, Tubingen, Dettingen, Aichelberg, and 
Merckenberg. In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries the 
members of the House of HohenzoUem entered into matri- 
monial alliances with the most influential families of the 
German Empire, and thereby further increased their territory, 
wealth, and influence. 



Conrad von Wallenrod made Stadtholder (1390J — Invadon of 
Lithuania — Siege of Wilna — Wallenrod elected Grand Master 
(1391) — Second Invasion of Lithuania — Border Warfare — 
Intrigues of Vitold — His Reconciliation with Jagello — The 
Reformed Movement in Prussia under Doctor Leander — 
Wallenrod sides with the Priests — Death -of Leander — Per- 
secution of his Disciples — Dobrin and the Neumark offered 
to the Order by Sigismund (1392) — Another Invasion of 
Lithuania — Defeat and Retreat of the Knights — Untimely 
Death of the Grand Master (1393) . . Page 1 


Election of Conrad von Jnngingen (1393) — Increased Taxation — 
Resistance of the Guilds — ^Affairs of Denmark and Sweden — 
Battle of Falkoping— Capture of Gothhind by Pirates (1397) 
— ^The Grand Master undertakes to protect the Neumark for 
Sigismund — Peace with Vitold — Samogitia Subjugated — ^Visit 
of the Grand Duchess Vitold to Marienburg (1400) — Second 
Marriage of Jagello (1401) — Invasion of Prussia — Vitold 
Defeated — Purchase of the Neumark (1403) — Expedition to 
Gothland (1404) — ^Trade with England — ^English Deputation 
at Marienburg — Treaty of Reciprocity — Interview of the 
Grand Master with Jagello— Death of Von Jungingen (1407) 

Page 15 


Election of Uirich vou Jungingen (1410) — Purchase of Driesen — 
Sale of Gothland to Denmark — Treaty with England — Sump- 
tuary Laws — Negotiations with Jagello — Revolt in Samogitia 

VOL. 11. k k 


— Outbreak of Hostilities — Victorious Advance of the Knights 
into Poland — Armistice Concluded — Decision of Wenceshtiis 
and Sigismund — Protest of Jagello — The Polish Army ad- 
vances into Prussia — Battle of Tannenberg (1410) — Defeat 
and Death of the Grand Master — Heinrich von Plauen 
appointed Stadtholder — Siege of Marienburg — Vigorous De- 
fence of the Castle — ^Intrigues of Vitold — Jagello retires to 
Poland Page 38 


Intrigues of Vitold — Von Plauen elected Grand Master (1410)— 
Jagello's friendlj^ Overtures — Armistice — Peace of Thorn 
(1411) — Financial Difficulties of the Order — Expedients for 
raising Money — Discontent in the large Towns — Revolt of 
Dantzic — The Dantzigers forced to Submit — Claims of the 
Mercenaries — ^Further Taxation — The Knights invade Masovia 
(1413) — Internal Dissensions of the Order — Kuchmeister 
Leader of the Opposition — Abdication and Arrest of the 
Grand Master (1414) — Character and Policy of Heinrich von 
Plauen i'o^^ 63 


Michael Kuchmeister elected Grand Master (1414) — Intrigues of 
Jagello — ^Von Plauen arrested and conveyed to Lochstadt— 
Invasion of Prussia by the Poles — Advance on Elbing — Siege 
of Culm raised by Vitold — Jagello and Kuchmeister agree to refer 
the Dispute to the Council of Constance (1415) — Oppressive 
Measures against the Hussites — Outbreak at Dantzio— Two 
Years' Truce with Poland (1417) — Economic Regulations — 
Decision of the Council of Constance in Favour of the Order — 
Dispute referred to Sigismund (1420) — Sigismund's Decision 
— Prolongation of the Truce — Unpopularity of Kuchmeister — 
His Resignation (1422) — General Condition of Prussia 

Page 80 



Election of Von llusdorf — Release and Death of Von Plauen — 
Jagello invades Prussia — Capture of Culm — Peace with 
Poland — Opposition of the Deutschmaster — Concessions to 
English ^[erchants — Vitold seeks to be crowned King of 
Lithuania — The Coronation prevented by Jagello — Vitold's 
Death (U 30)— Formation of tlie "Landesrath"— High Court 
of Justice at Elbing— Poll-Tax Imposed (1433)— Truce of 
Lensitz— Death of Jagello (M34)— Peace of Brzesc (1436)— 
Alliance with the Hansa — Disputes with the Deutschmaster — 
Defection of the Dantzigers — Formation of the " Bund " or 
** League " by the chief Towns of Prussia — Early Career of 
Hans von Bay sen — Meeting of the Grand Master with the two 
Masters at Dantzic (1440)— Death of Von Rusdorf (1441) 

Page 97 

Conference of the Bund — Conrad von Erlichshausen elected (1441) 
— Financial Difficulties of the Order — Disputes with Branden- 
burg — The Grand Master attempts to break up the League — 
Relations with Holland and Sweden — Negotiations with the 
Deutschmaster — Death of Conrad you Erlichshausen (1449) — 
Election of Ludwig von Erlichshausen (1450)-^Negotiations 
with the Pope — Convocation of the High Court of Justice — 
Success of the Grand Master's Policy — The Dissolution of the 
League — Von Bay sen's Intrigues — Action of the Members of 
the Bund — Mediation of the Emperor (1452) — Imperial Edict 
— The Bund raises Troops — Elnvoys of the League proceed to 
Vienna — Intercepted and made Prisoners — Evasive Policy of 
the Bund — Revolutionary Proclamation at Thorn (1454) — 
Envoys sent by the Bund to Casimir offering their Allegiance 
— The King of Poland accepts the Offer . Page 137 


Hans von Baysen appointed Gubernator (1454) — The Members of 
the Bund take Oath of AU^a&ce to Caaimir — Casimir de- 


mands War ContributioDS from Dantzic and other Towns— 
Von Erlichshausen solicits Aid from German Princes — The 
Poles and Dantzigers besiege Marienburg — Siege of Konitz— 
The Poles raise the Siege of Marienburg — Casimir again 
invades Prussia — Konigsberg withdraws from the Bund and 
joins the Order — The Margrave of Brandenburg ofifers to 
Mediate — Siege of Lessen — The Neumark pledged to the 
Margrave of Brandenburg (U5G)— The Knights evacuate 
Marienburg — The Grand Master retires to Konigsberg (U57) 
— Marienburg seized by Von Zinnenberg — Arrival of Polish 
Keinforcements — Armistice — Death of Hans von Baysen 
(1461) — Stibor von Baysen made Gubernatur — Struggle 
within Marienburg — Negotiations with the Dutch — Naval 
Engagements between the Danes and the Dantzigers — The 
Grand Master treats with the Bund and the King of Poland- 
Peace of Thorn (14G6) — Prussia becomes a Fief of I'oland — 
Total Losses on both Sides during the War — Conference at 
Elbing — New Coinage — Death of Von Erlichshausen (1467) 

Page 165 


Reus von Plauen appointed Stadtholder (1467) — ^The Stadtholder 
visits Casimir at Wilna — ^Von Plauen elected Grand Master 
(1468)— TWwes the Oath of Allegiance at Petrikau— Death of 
Von Plauen (1470) — ^\''on lUchtenberg elected Grand Master 
— Exorbitant Demands of the Mercenaries — Bishop Dietrich 
von Cuba raises Money by the Sale of Indulgences and other 
Means — Von Cuba Arrested and Imprisoned— His Death — 
Death of Von Richt^nberg (1477) — Martin Truchses von 
Wetzhausen elected — Refuses to take the Oath of Allegiance — 
Casimir invades Prussia — Reconciliation — The Grand Master 
swears Fealty (1479) — Disputes with the Bishop;; — Death of 
Truchses (1489) — Johann von Tiefen elected — Death of 
Casimir (1492) — Succeeded by John Albert — Wars in Hun- 
gary and Bohemia — Death of Von Tiefen (1407) — Duke 
Frederick von Meissen elected Grand Master— Refuses to 


swear Fealty to the King of Poland — Rdichstag at Cdogne 
(1504)*— The Emperor Maximilian offers to mediate between 
the Grand Master and the King of Poland — Conference at 
Posen — Sndden Death of Duke Frederick von Meissen (1510) 

Page 211 


The Margrave Albrecht of Brandenburg elected Grand Master 
(1511) — Refuses to take the Oath of Allegiance to his Uucle 
Sigismund — ^Diet of Posen (1515) — Death of the Emperor 
Maximilian — Sigismund summons the Grand Master to 
Thorn (1519) — Sigismund invades Prussia — Devastates Pome- 
sania — Armistice — Negotiations for Peace (1520) — Siege of 
Heilsberg — Discontent of the Mercenaries — Equivocal Policy 
of the Grand Master — Mediation of the Emperor Charles V. — 
Four Years' Truce (1521)— Conditions— Siege of Belgrade- 
Condition of Prussia — Debasement of Coinage — Expedients 
for raising Money — The Grand Master assumes Sovereign 
Power — His Underhand Policy — The Grand Master repairs 
to Prague (1522)— George, Bishop of Samland, Regent 

Page 233 


The Margrave Albrecht repairs to Nuremberg (1522) — ^Ambitious 
Designs of the Deutschmaster — ^The Ten Conditions — Con- 
ference at Graudenz (1523) — ^The Grand Master enlists Mer- 
cenaries to assist — ^The Fugitive King Christian of Denmark — 
Negotiations of the Margrave to change the Constitution of the 
Order — Consults Martin Luther for Advice (1523) — Letter of 
Luther on the Subject — Double Dealing of the Grand Master 
— First Evangelical Sermon preached at Konigsberg — Secret 
Instructions of the Margrave to the Regent— Bishop Polenz 
(1524)'^Increasing Agitation for Religious Reform — Protest of 
the Deutschmaster — Discontent at the Grand Master's pro- 
longed Absence from Prussia — Secret Overtures of the Mar- 
grave to Sigismund — Duplicity of the Grand Master — Papal 


Remonstrances — Conference of Presburg postponed — Thd 
Margrave arrives at Vienna (January, 1525) — Sends Envoys to 
Sigismnnd at Cracow — Conditions proposed by the King of 
Poland — ^The Final Treaty — ^The Margrave enters Cracow 
(April 2, 1525) — ^Swears Fealty to Sigismund— Betums to 
Konigsberg (May 9, 1525) .... Pagt 252 



History of the German Race from B.C. 120 until a.d. 600— The 
first Inhabitants of Brandenburg — The Wends and Sclaves— 
Conquests of Charlemagne — Trasiko, King of the Obotrites-- 
Death of Charlemagne (814) — Division of the Empire — Revolt 
of the Wends — Henry the Fowler subdues the Wends 
— Gero first Margrave of the " Nordmark " (940) — Conquest 
of Brandenburg by Lothair (994) — Lothair made Hereditazy 
Margrave — History of Brandenburg from Werner (1003) to 
Udo IV. (1130)— Battle of Aschersleben— Death of Udo— 
Conrad von Plotzkau (1130) — Conrad killed at the Siege of 
Monza (1132) Fagt 279 


Albert the '^Bear" becomes Margrave of the Nordmark (1133): 
Annexes Brandenburg; Death of Albert (1170) — Otho I. 
(1170 — 1184): Internal Condition of Brandenburg; Cam- 
paign of Barbarossa in Italy — Otho II. (1184—1204)— 
Albert IL (1205—1220): Sides with PhiUp of Suabia— 
Otho III. (1220—1268): Henry von Meissen invades the 
Mittelmark; Otho taken Prisoner; Otho ransomed and 
renews Hostilities; Assists the Teutonic Knights; Division 
of Brandenburg; The Stendal and Salzwedel Families— 
Otho IV. (1280— 1308)— Albert III. (1272—1301): His 
Court Life; Purchases Soldin — Hermann the Long (1301 — 



1308): Assumes the Title << Regent of Silesia"; Religious 
Eadowments ; Parchases Lower Lusatia; iDCorporation of 
Berlin and Kollu; Campaign in Mecklenburg; Death of 
Hermann (1308) Page 305 


Waldemar the Great (1308— 1319)— Waldemar declares himself 
Guardian of the Margrave Johann, Son of Hermann the Long — 
Death of Otho IV. (1308)— Betrothal of Waldemar to Agnes, 
Sister of the young Margrave Johann — Transfer of Pomerania 
to the Teutonic Knights (1309)— Grand Fete near Rostock— 
Waldemar knighted by King Eric of Denmark (1311) — Siege 
of Rostock by the Allies (1312) — Waldemar severs Alliance 
with Eric — Reconciliation (1314) — Death of the Emperor 
Henry VII. (1313) — Candidates for the Imperial Sceptre — 
Coalition against Waldemar — Defeat of the Maigrave near 
Strelitz (131G) — Siege of Stralsund — Negotiations for Peace 
— Treaty of Templin (1317) — Death of the Margrave Johann 
— Waldemar adopts the Son of Heniy the Landless — Death of 
Waldemar (1319)— Death of Henry IIL (1320)— Condition of 
Brandenburg Page 329 


Interregnum (1320 — 1323) — Condition of Brandenburg — State of 
Europe — Struggle between Frederick of Austria and Louis of 
Bavaria— Battle of Morgarten— Battle of Miihldorf (1322)— 
Diet of Nuremberg (1323) — Louis elected Margrave of 
Brandenburg — Expedition of the Emperor Louis into Italy — 
Transfer of the Papal See from Rome to Avignon — ^Pope 
John XXII.— The AntiPope Martin V.— Pope Clement VL— 
The Margrave Louis invades Pomerania — ^Battle of Kremmen 
(1331)— Diet of Frankfort (1344)— Diet of Rhense— Charles 
of Moravia elected Emperor (1346) — Death of the Emperor 
Louis (1347) Page 363 




Accession of Charles IV. (1347)— The Pretender Waldemar— 
Invasion of Brandenburg — ^Rival Emperor Count Qiinther— 
The Margrave Louis abdicates (1351) — Louis IL, the 
Roman (1351— 1365)— Otho the "Blotched" (1365—1373) 
—Diet of Guben (1374)— Brandenburg incorporated with 
Bohemia— Charles TV. Regent of Brandenburg— Death of 
Charles (1378) — Wenceslaus elected Emperor — Sigismund 
becomes Margrave of Brandenburg — Condition of the Mark 
under Jobst— Negotiations of Sigismund with the Burgrave 
of Nuremberg — Frederick VI. of ZoUem purchases the 
Mark — Council of Constance (UU) — Frederick publicly 
recognized Kurfiirst of Brandenburg — Development of the 
Reformed Doctrines in Germany — Career and Death of John 
Huss (1415) Page 369 

Pedigree of the House of HohenzoUem, till the Accession of 
Frederick VT., Burgrave of Nuremberg, to the rank of Kur- 
fiirst of Brandenburg P<i9^ 391 


Imperial Cities ^^9^ ^27 

Aix-la-Chapelle » ^^^ 

Augsburg » ^^^ 

Cologne >» 43i 

Spires >» ^^^ 

Ratisbon » 442 

Worms » 44' 

Nuremberg >» 456 

Frankfort » 465 

Appendix »> 473 


LOyCOS : r J. FRANCIS ANC CO, TOOK's court A>D WI5E opfiob cov&t, e.c. 

39 Paternoster Roitf( E.C. 
London, August 1875. 



Messrs. Longmans. Green, and Co. 


Arts, Manufactures, &c. . . . 26 

Astronomy & Meteorology . . 16 

Biographical Works 7 

Chemistry & Physiology ... 24 
Dictionaries & other Books of 

Reference 14 

Fine Arts & Illustrated Edi- 
tions 24 

History, Politics, Historical 

Memoirs, &c i 

Index 401043 


Mental & Political Philosophy 8 

Miscellaneous & Criticai. Works is 
Natural History & Physical 

Science 18 

Poetry & the Drama 35 

Religious & Moral Works . . 28 
Rural Sports, Horse & Cattle 

Management, &c. 36 

Travels, Voyages, &c .... 32 

Works of Fiction 34 

Works of Utility & General 

Information 37 



youmal of the Reigns of 

King George the Fourth 
and King William the 

By the late Charles Caven- 
dish Fulke Gremlle, Esq. 

Edited by Henry Reeve^ 

Fifth Edition. 3 vols, Zvc. price 36/. 

The Life of Napoleon III. 

derived from State Records^ 
Unpublished Family Cor- 
respondence, and Personal 

By Blanchard Jerrold. 

Four Vols, f^vo. with numerous Portraits 
and Facsimiles, Vols. I. and 11. 
price i8j. each, 

V y<fl'' ^^/. ^nd IV, are in pre- 



Recollections andSugges-- 

tionSy i8 1 3-1 873. 
ByJohnEarlRussell.K. G. 

NewEdiHon^ ransed and enlarged, Svo. i6x. 

Introductory Lectures on 

Modem History delivered 
in Lent Term 1842 ; with 
the Inaugural Lecture de- 
livered in December 1841. 

By the late Rev, Thomas 
Arnold, D.D. 

Sz/0, price *Js. 6d. 

On Parliamentary Go- 
vernment in England: its 
Origin, Development, and 
Practical Operation. 

By Alpheus Todd. 

2 vols, ^vo.£i, 17J. 

The Constitutional His- 
tory of England since the 
Accession of George III, 
1 760-1 870. 

By Sir Thomas Erskine 
May, K.C.B. 

Fourth Edition, 3 vols, crown ^o. iSr. 

Democracy in Europe; 

a History. 

By Sir Thomas Erskine 
May, K.C.B. 

2 vols. Zvo, [In the press. 

The History of England 

from the Fall of Wolsey to 
the Defeat of the Spanish 

By y. A. Froude, M.A. 

Cabinet Edition, 12 vols, cr.Svo, £3^ i^j. 
Library Edition, 12 vols, Svo, £S, iSs, 

The English in Ireland 

in the Eighteenth Century, 
By y. A. Froude, M.A. 

3 vols, Sivo. £2, 8j. 

The History of England 

from the Accession of 

y antes II 

By Lord Macaulay. 

Student's Edition, 2 vols. cr. 8iv. \2s. 
People's Edition, 4 vols, cr, 8?v. idr. 
Cabinet Edition, 8 vols, post 8?/^. 4&r. 
Library Edition, 5 vols. 8tv. £^ 

Critical and Historical 

Essays contributed to the 
Edinburgh Review. 
By the Right Hon. Lord 

Cheap Edition^ authorised and camptete^ 
crown 8zv. 31. 6</. 

Student's Edition, croim %vo, 6s. 
People's Edition, a vols, crown 8sw. 81. 
Cabinet Edition, 4 volt. 2^. 
Library Edition, 3 vols. Svo. 36X. 

Lord Mdcaulay' s Works. 

Complete and uniform Li- 
brary Edition. 
Edited by his Sister^ Lculy 

8 vols, $vo, with Portrait^ £^ $/. 

Lectures on the History 

of England from the Ear- 
liest Times to the Death of 
King Edward II 
By JV. Longman, F.S.A. 

Maps and Illustrations, Scv. 15/. 

The History of the Life 

and Times of Edward III 
By W. Longman, ES.A. 

With 9 Maps^ 8 Plates, and 16 WoodaOt. 

2 vols, hvO, 2Ss. 



History of England 

under the Duke of Bucking- 
ham and Charles the First, 

By S. Rawson Gardiner, 
late Student of Ch. Ch, 

2 vols. ^0. with two Maps, 24s, 

History of Civilization in 

England and Frajice, Spain 

and Scotland. 

By Henry Thomas Buckle. 

3 vols, crown 9fuo. 24s. 

A Student's Manual of 

the History of India from 
the Earliest Period to the 

By Col. Meadows Taylor, 

Second Thousand. Cr. t^o, Maps^ yj. dd. 

Studies from Genoese 


By Colonel G. B. Malleson, 
C.S.I. Guardian to His 
Highness the Mahardjd 
of Mysore. 

Crown ^o. los. 6d. 

The Native States of 

India in Subsidiary Al- 
liance with the British 
Government; an Historical 
Sketch. With a Notice of 
the Mediatized and Minor 

By Colonel G. B. Malleson, 
C.S.I. Guardian to His 
Highness the Mahardjd 
of Mysore. 

With 6 Coloured Maps^ $vo. price 15/. 

The History of India 

from the Earliest Period 
to the close of Lord Dal- 
housie's Administration. 
By John Clark Marshman. 

3 vols, crown Svo. 22s. 6d. 

Indian Polity; a View of 

the System of Administra- 
tion in India. 
By Lieut. 'Colonel George 

Second Edition^ revised^ with Map. Svo. 2ls. 

IVaterloo Lectures ; a 

Study of the Campaign of 

By Colonel Charles C. 
Chesney, R.E. 

Third Edition, Svo, with Map, los. 6d. 

Essays in Modern Mili- 
tary Biography. 
By Colonel Charles C. 
Chesney, R.E. 

^o. I2s, 6d, 

The Imperial and Colo- 
nial Constitutions of the 
Britannic Empire, includ- 
ing Indian Institutions. 
By Sir E. Creasy, M.A. 

With 6 Maps. %vo, 15J. 

The Oxford Reformers — 

John Colet, Erasmus, and 
Thomas More; being a 
History of their Fellow- 
By Frederic Seebohm. 

Second Edition. 8tw. 14/. 


The New Reformation, 

a Narrative of the Old 
Catholic Movement^ from 
1S70 to the Present Time ; 
with an Historical Intro- 
By Theodorus. 

^o, prke I2J, 

The Mythology of the 

Aryan Nations. 

By Geo. W. Cox, M.A. late 
Scholar of Trinity Col- 
lege, Oxford. 

2 vols, $vo. 2&r. 

^ History of Greece. 

By the Rev. Geo. W. Cox, 
M.A. late Scholar of 
Trinity College, Oxford. 

Vols, I, and II, %vo. Maps, 36f. 

A School History of 

Greece to the Death of 
Alexander the Great. 

By the Rev. George W. Cox, 
M.A. late Scholar of 
Trinity College, Oxford; 
Author of' The Aryan 
Mythology' &c. 

I vol, crown ^0, [In tJu press. 

The History of the Pelo- 

ponnesian War, by Thu- 


Translated byRichd. Craw- 
ley, Fellow of Worcester 
College, Oxford. 

2iuo, 2is. 

The Tale of the Great 

Persian War, from the 
Histories of Herodotus. 

By Rev. G. W. Cox, M.A. 

Fcp, ^0, 3J. 6d. 

Greek History from The- 

mistocles to Alexander, in 
a Series of Lives from 

Revised and arranged by 
A. H. C lough. 

Fcp, %vo. Woodcuts^ dr. 

General History of Rome 

from the Foundation of the 
City to the Fall of Au- 

gustuluSf B.C. 753 A.D. 


By the Very Rev. C. Meri- 
vale, D.D. Dean of Ely. 

With 5 Maps^ crown ^. 7^ . 6^. 

History of the Romans 

under the Empire. 

By Dean Merivale, D.D. 

8 vols, post Svo, 48X. 

The Fall of the Roman 

Republic; a Short History 
of the Last Century of the 

By Dean Merivale^ D.D. 

i2mo. is. 6d. 


The Sixth Oriental Mo-- 

narchy ; or the Geography, 
History, and Antiquities 
of Parthia. Collected and 
Illustrated from Ancient 
and Modern sources. 

By Geo. Rawlinson, M.A, 

WUh Maps and Illustrations, 8zv. I dr. 

The Seventh Great Ori- 
ental Monarchy; or, a 
History of the Sassanians : 
with Notices Geographical 
and Antiquarian. 

By Geo. Rawlinson, M.A. 

Zuo. Ttrith Maps and Illustrations, 

[In the press, 

Encyclopcedia of Chro- 
nology, Historical and 
Biographical; comprising 
the DcUes of all the Great 
Events of History, includ- 
ing Treaties, Alliances, 
Wars, Battles, &c. hici- 
dents in the Lives of Emi- 
nent Men, Scientific and 
Geographical Discoveries, 
Mechanifal Ini/entions, and 
Social, Domestic, and Eco- 
nomical Improvements. 

By B. B. Woodward, B.A. 
and W. L. R. Gates. 

Svc, 42X. 


The History of Rome. 

By Wilhelm Ihne. 

Vols, I, and II, Svo, 30*. Vols, III. and 
IV, in preparation. 

History of European 

Morals from Augustus to 

By W. E. H. Lecky, M.A. 

2 vols, 9ivo, 28/. 

History of the Rise and 

Influence of the Spirit of 
Rationalism in Europe. 

By W. E. H. Lecky, M.A. 

Cabinet Edition, 2 vols, crown ^0, I dr. 

Introduction to the 

Science of Religion : Four 
Lectures delivered at the 
Royal Institution ; with 
two Essays on False Ana- 
logies and the Philosophy 
of Mythology. 
By F. Max Muller, M.A. 

Crown 9fuo. los, 6d, 

The Stoics, Epicureans^ 

and Sceptics. 

Translated from the Ger- 
man of Dr. E. Zeller^ 
by Oswald J. Reichel^ 

Crown ^0, I4f. 

Socrates and the Socratic 


Translated from the Ger- 
man of Dr. E. ZellcTy 
by t/ie Rev. O. y. Reichel, 

Crown 8tv. 8> . dt/. 



Sketch of the History of 

the Church of England to 
the Revolution of 1688. 
By T. V. Short, D.D. some- 
time Bishop of St. Asaph, 

New Edition, Crown Suo. p. 6d, 

The Historical Geogra-- 

phy of Europe. 

By E. A. Freeman, D.C.L. 

$vo. Maps. [In the press. 

Essays on the History of 

the Christian Religion. 
ByJohnEarlRussell.K. G. 

Fcp. 8v<7. 3J. dd. 

The Student's Manual 

of Ancient History : con- 
taining the Political His- 
tory , Geographical Posi- 
tion, and Social State of 
the Principal Nations of 
By W. CookeTaylor.LL.D. 

Crown &/<?. 7j. dd. 

The Student's Manual of 

Modern History : contain- 
ing the Rise and Progress 
of the Principal European 
Nations, their Political 
History, and the Changes 
in their Social Condition. 
By W. CookeTaylor, LL.D. 

Crown Svo. Js, 6d. 

The History of Philoso- 
phy, from T hales to Comte, 
By George Henry Lewes. 

Fourth Edition, 2 vols, Sivo. 32/. 

The Crusades. 

By the Rev. G. W. Cox, 

Fcp, Svo, with Map, 2s, 6d. 

The Era of the Pro- 
testant Revolution. 

By F. Seebohm, Author of 
' The Oxford Reformers' 

With 4 Maps and 1 2 Diagrams. Fcp. &v. 
2J. 6</. 

The Thirty Years' War, 

By Samuel Rawson Gar- 

Fcp, ^o, with Maps, 2s. 6k/. 

The Houses of Lancaster 

and York; with the Con- 
quest and Loss of France. 

By yatnes Gairdner. 

Fcp. Sfvo. with Map, 2s. 6d. 

Edward the Third. 

By the Rev. W. Warburton, 

Fcp, $vo. with Maps, 2s. 6dL 





By yokn Stuart Mill. 

The Life and Letters of 

Lord Macaulay. 

By his Nephew, G, Otto 
Trevelyan, M.P. for the 
Hawick District of 

2 vols, SfVC, 

[In the press. 

Admiral Sir Edward 

CodringtoUy a Memoir of 

his Life; with Selections 
from his Private and 

Official Correspondence. 

Abridged from the larger 
work, and edited by his 
Daughter, Lady Bour- 

With Pnirait, Maps, 6fc, crown ^o. 
price 7x. 6^. 

Life and Letters of Gil-- 

bert Elliot, First Earl of 
Minto, from 1751 to 1 806, 
when his Public Life in 
Europe was closed by his 
Appointment to the Vice- 
Royalty of India. 
Edited by the Countess of 

3 vols, post %nfo. 3 IX. 6^. 

Recollections of Past 


By Sir Henry Holland^ 
Bart. M.D. F.R.S. 

Third Edition. Post %vo. los. 6d. 

Isaac Casaubon, 1559- 

By Mark Pattison, Rector 
of Lincoln College, Oxford. 

%vo, price i&r. 

The Memoirs of Sir 

John Reresby, of Thry- 
berghy Bart. M.P. for 
York, &c. 1 634-1 689. 
Written by Himself Edit- 
ed from the Origiftal 
Manuscript by James 
7. Cartwright, M.A. 
Cantab, of H.M. Public 
Record Office. 

Sivo, price 2IJ. 

Biographical and Criti- 
cal Essays, reprinted from 
Reviews, with Additions 
and Corrections. 
By A. Hay ward, Q.C. 

Second Series, a vols. Svo. 2Ss, Third 
Series, i vo/. Svo. 14s. 

The Life of Isambard 

Kingdom Brunei, Civil 


By I Brunei, B.C.L. 

WUh Portrait, Plates, and Woodcuts. 
%vo, 2lx. 

Lord George Bentinck; 

a Political Biography. 
By the Right Hon. B. 
Disraeli, M.P. 

New Edition. Crown 9tfo, &t. 



The Life and Letters of 

the Rev. Sydney Smith. 
Edited by his Daughter, 

Lady Holland, and 

Mrs. Austin. 

Crovon %vo, 2s. 6d. sewed; y, 6d, cloth. 

Essays in Ecclesiastical 


By the Right Hon. Sir y. 
Stephen, LL.D. 

Cabinet Edition, Crown %uo, *js, 6d, 

Leaders of Public Opi-- 

nion in Ireland; Swift, 
Flood, Grattan, GConnell. 
By W. E. H. Lecky, M.A. 

Crown dvo, 'js, 6d. 

Dictionary of General 

Biography ; containing 
Concise Memoirs and No- 
tices of the most Eminent 
Persons of all Ages and 
By W. L. R. Gates. 

New Edition, %fvo. 25^. Supplement^ 4r. 6^. 

Life of the Duke of 


By the Rev. G. R. Gleig, 

Crown 9vo, with Portrait^ 5/. 

Felix Mendelssohn's 

Letters from Italy and 
Switzerland, and Letters 
from. 1833 /^ 1847. Trafis- 
lated by Lady Wallace. 

With Portrait, 2 vols, crown Svo. 5/ . eaei. 

The Rise of Great Fanu- 

lies ; other Essays atid 

By Sir Bernard Burke, 
C.B. LL.D. 

Crown Svo. I2f. 6d. 

Memoirs of Sir Henry 

Havelock, K.C.B. 
Byjohn Clark Marshvian. 

Crown B/vo. 3^. 6d. 

Vicissitudes of Families. 

By Sir Bernard Burke, 

2 vols, crown Ssv. 2.\s. 


Comte's System of Posi- 
tive Polity, or Treatise upon 

Translated from the Pans 
Edition of 1 851 -1854, 
and furnished with Ana- 
lytical Tables of Contents. 
In Four Volumes, each 
forming in som£ degree an 
independent Treatise: — 

Vol, /. General Vtan of Positivism and 
Introductory Principles, Translated by 

J. H. Bndigt&,lll.^. formerly Felhw of Ond 
College, Oxford, wo, price 2is. 

Vol, II, The Social Statics^ or the Ab- 
stract Laws 0/ Human Order, Transhud 
by Frederic Harrison, M.A. [In Oct, 

Vol, III, The Social Dynamics, or iht 
General Laws of Human Progress {iJke Phi- 
losophy of History), Translated ^^ E. S^ 
Bcesly, M.A. Professor of History in Cat- 
versity College^ London, Zoo, [In Ik:, 

Vol, IV. The Synthesis of the IhUmrt ^ 
Mankind, Translated by '^itiaxAOxm^x^ 
M.D., and an Appendix^ containiug iht 
Author^ s Minor Treatises, transiatai if 
H. D. Hutton, M.A. Barrister-at-Lss. 
Zvo. [Eariv in 187a 



Order and Progress : 

Part /. Thoughts on Go- 
vernment; Part II. Stu- 
dies of Political Crises. 
By Frederic Harrison, 
M.A. of Lincoln s Inn. 

^o, 14/. 

Essays, Political, Social, 

and Religious. 

By Richd. Congreve, M.A. 

Essays, Critical and 

Biographical, contributed 
to the Edinburgh Review. 

By Henry Rogers. 

New Edition, 2 vols, crovrn Svo, I2s, 

Essays on some Theolo- 
gical Controversies of the 
Time, contributed chiefly 
to tlie Edinburgh Review. 
By Henry Rogers. 

New Edition, Crown Svo. 6x. 

Democracy in America. 

By Alexis cU Tocqueville. 
Translated by Henry 
Reeve, Esq. 

New Edition, 2 vols, crown $vo. i6s. 

On Representative Go- 

By John Stuart Mill. 

Fourth Edition^ crown ^0. 2s. 

On Liberty. 

By John Stuart Mill. 

Post %vo, 7/. (id. crown %vo. is, 4//. 

Principles of Political 


By John Stuart Mill. 

2 vols, Stv. 30r. or I vol, crown 9afo. ^. 

Assays on some Unsettled 

Questions of Political Eco- 
By John Stuart Mill. 

Second Edition, B/vo, dr. 6d. 


By John Stuart Mill. 

Fourth Edition. 8tv. 5^. 

A System of Logic^ 

Ratiocinative and Indtu- 
tive. By John Stuart Mill. 

Eighth Edition, 2 vols, $vo, 25J. 

TheSubjection oflVomen. 

By John Stuart Mill. 

New Edition, Post 9>vo, 5x. 

Examination of Sir 

William Hamilton s Phi- 
losophy, and of the princi- 
pal Philosophical Questions 
discussed in his Writings. 

By John Stuart Mill 

Fourth Edition, %vo, l6r. 

Dissertations and Dis^ 


By John Stuart Mill. 

Second Edition, ivols, 8w. 36J. VOL. IV. 
{completion) price los, 6d. 




Analysis of the Pheno- 
mena of the Human Mind. 

By Jafnes Mill. New 
Edition^ with Notes, 
Illustrative and Critical. 

2 vols, $Z/0, 28j. 

A Systematic View of 

the Science of Jurispru- 


By Shelcbn Amos, M.A. 

8zv. i8j. 

A Primer of the English 

Constitution and Govern- 
By Sheldon Amos, M.A. 

Second Edition. Crown 8z^. dr. 

Principles of Economical 


By H. D. Macleod, M.A. 

Second Edition^ in 2 vols. Vol, I, %fw, X^, 
Vol, II. Part I, price I2s, 

The Institutes of yus- 

tinian ; with English In- 
troduction, Tratislation^ 
and Notes. 
By T. C. SandarSy M.A. 

Fifth Edition. Zvo, i%s. 

Lord Bacon's IVorks, 

Collected and Edited by R. 
L. Ellis, M.A. y. Sped- 
ding, M.A. and D. D. 

New and Cheaper Edition, J volt, &/». 
£S. ly, 6d. 

Letters and Life of 

Francis Bacon, including 
all his Occasional Works. 
Collected and edited, with 

a Commentary, by J. 


7 vols, B/vo, £^ 4f. 

The Nicomachean Ethics 

of A ristotle. Newly trans- 
lated into English. 
By R. Williams, B.A. 

%V0, 12S. 

The Politics of Aristotle; 

Greek Text, with English 


By Richard Congreve, M.A . 

New Edition, revised, 8zv. i8x. 

The Ethics of A ristotle ; 

with Essays and Notes. 
By Sir A. Grant, Bart. 
M.A. LL.D. 

Third Edition, 2 vols, Ssw. /rir^ 32r. 

Bacon's Essays, with 


By R. Whately, D.D. 

New Edition. &v. lar. 6c/. 

Picture Logic ; an At- 

tempt to Popularise the 

Science of Reasoning by the 

combincUion of Humorous 

Pictures with Examples of 

Reasoning taken from, Daily 


By A. Swinbourne, B.A. 

with Woodcut lUustratiom from Drawings 
by the Author. Fcp. itfo. friu ys. 



Elements of Logic. 

By R. Whately, D.D. 

New Edition, ^o. I or. dd, cr. 9iz/o. 4s. 6d, 

Elements of Rhetoric. 

By R. Whately, D.D. 

New Edition. Sz/o. lor. 6d. cr, Sua, 4s. 6d. 

An Outline of the Neces- 
sary Laws of Thought : a 
Treatise on Pure and 
Applied Logic. 
By the Most Rev. W. 
Thomson, D.D. Arch- 
bishop of York. 

Ninth Thousand. Crown ^0. ^. 6d. 

An Introduction to Men- 
tal Philosophy, on the In- 
ductive Method. 
By J. D. Morell, LL.D. 

Elements of Psychology ^ 

containing the Analysis of 
the Intellectual Powers. 
By y. D. Morell, LL.D. 

Post %vo, *is. 6</, 

The Secret of Hegel: 

beifig the Hegelian System 
in Origin, Principle, Form, 
and Matter. 
By 7. H. Stirling LL.D. 

2 vols. Svo. 2&r. 

Sir IVilliam Hamilton ; 

being the Philosophy of 
Perception : an Analysis. 
By 7. H. Stirling, LL.D. 

oifo, ^s. 

Ueberwe^s System of 

Logic, and History of 
Logical Doctrines. 
Translated, with Notes and 

Appendices, by T. M. 

Lindsay, M. A. F.R.S.E. 

%ZH>. i6r. 

The Senses and the 


By A. Bain, LL.D. Prof 
of Logic, Univ. Aberdeen. 

Zvo. 15X. 

Mental and Moral 

Science; a Compendium of 
Psychology and Ethics. 
By A. Bain, LL.D. 

Third Edition. Crown Sivo. los, 6d. Or 
separately: Part I. Mental Science, 6s, 6d, 
Part 11. Moral Science^ 4J. 6d. 

The Philosophy of Ne- 
cessity; or. Natural Law 
as applicable to Mental, 
Moral, and Social Science. 
By Charles Bray. 

Second Edition. Svo, gs. 

Hume's Treatise on Hu- 
man Nature. 

Edited, with Notes, &c. by 
T. H. Green, M.A. and 
the Rev. T. H. Grose, 

2 vols. ^0. 2&r. 

Hume's Essays Moral, 

Political, and Literary. 
By the same Editors. 

2 vols. %rvo. 2&r. 

*^* The above form a complete and uniform 
Edition of HUME^S Philosophical 




Miscellaneous and Post- 

humous Works of the late 
Henry Thomas Buckle. 
Edited,with a Biographical 
Notice, by Helen Taylor. 

3 vols, %vo. £2, i2s. 6d, 

Short Studies on Great 

' By y. A. Froude^M.A. 
formerly Fellow of 
Exeter College, Oxford. 

Cabinet Edition, 2 vols, crown Svo. 12s. 
Library Edition, 2 vols. Svc. 24s. 

Lord Macaulay's Mis- 
cellaneous Writings. 

Library Edition, 2 vols. Svo. Portrait^ 2 \s. 
People's Edition, i vol. cr. %vo. 41. W. 

Lord Macaulay's Mis- 
cellaneous Writings and 

Students* Edition. Croton $vc, 6s. 

Speeches of the Right 

Hon. Lord Macaulay^ cor- 
rected by Himself 

PeofUs Edition. Crown Svo. 3^. 6d. 


on Parliamentary Reform 
in 1 83 1 and 1832. 

i6mc, IS. 

Manual of English Lite- 

raturCy Historical and 


By Thomas Arnold^ M.A. 

New Edition, Crown %vo. is. 6d. 

The Rev. Sydney Smith's 

Essays contributed to the 
Edinburgh Review. 

Authorised Edition^ complete in On€ Volume. 
Crown Sivo. 2s. 6d. sewed, or jx. 6^. cldk. 

The Rev. Sydney Smiths 

Miscellaneous Works. 

Crown 8zv. 6x. 

The IVit and IVisdont of 

the Rev. Sydney Smith. 

Crown 8tv. 3^. (id. 

The Miscellaneous 

Works of Thomas Arnold, 
D.D. Late Head Master of 
Rugby School and Regius 
Professor of Modern His- 
tory in the Univ. of Ox- 

Sivo. ys. 6d. 

Realities of Irish Life. 

By W. Steuart Trench. 

Cr. $vo. 2s. 6d. sewed, or 3^. 6d. clotk. 

Lectures on the Science 

of Language. 
By F. MaX'Muller, M.A. 

Eighth Edition. 2 vob. crown 8zr<?. 161. 

Chips from a German 

Workshop; being Essays 
on the Science of Religion^ 
and on Mythology y Tradi- 
tionSy and Customs. 
By F. Max Muller, M.A. 

3 voh. Zvo. j^2. 



Southey's Doctor, com^ 

plete in One Volume. 
Edited by Rev. J. W. 
Warier, B.D. 

Square crown Zfvo. I2s, 6d. 

Families of Speech. 

Four Lectures delivered at 
the Royal Institution. 
By F. W. Farrar, D.D. 

New Edition. Crown 8zv. 3/. ()d. 

Chapters on Language. 

By F. W. Farrar, D.D. 

New Edition, Crown Svo, 5j. 

^ Budget of Paradoxes. 

By Augustus De Morgan^ 

Reprinted^ with Author^ s Additions^ from 
the Athenseum. ^o. 15^. 

Apparitions ; a Narra-- 

tive of Facts. 

By the Rev. B. W. Savile^ 
M.A. Author of ' The 
Truth ofihe Bible' &c. 

Crffion %vo, price 41. 6</. 

Miscellaneous Writings 

of John Conington, M.A. 

Edited by y. A. SymoncU, 
M.A. With a Memoir 
by H. y. S. Smith, M.A. 

2 vols. ^0. 2%S. 

Recreations of a Country 


By A. K. H. B. 

Two Scries^ y. 6d, each. 

Landscapes, Churches^ 

and Moralities. 
By A. K. H. B. 

Crown 2fvo. y. 6d. 

Seaside Musings on Sun- 

days and Weekdays. 
By A. K. H. B. 

Crown Svo, 31. 6d. 

Changed A spects of Un- 
changed Truths. 
By A. K. H. B. 

Crown Svo. y. 6d. 

Counsel and Comfort 

from a City Pulpit. 
By A. K. H. B. 

Crown Svo. y, dd. 

Lessons of Middle Age. 

By A. K. H. B. 

Crown Svo. ys. 6d. 

Leisure Hours in Town 

By A. K. H. B. 

Crown Svo. 3/. dd. 

The Autumn Holidays 

of a Country Parson. 
By A. K. H. B. 

Crown Svo, 3/. 6d. 

Sunday Afternoons at 

the Parish Church of a 
Scottish University City. 
By A. K. H. B. 

Crown Svo. y, dd. 



The Commonplace Phi^ 

losopher in Town and 

By A. K. H, B. 

Crown %vo, y, 6d, 

Present-Day Thoughts. 

By A. K. H. B. 

Crown $vo, y, 6d. 

Critical Essays 

Country Parson. 
By A. K. H. B. 

Crown Svo. y, 6d. 

of a 

The Graver Thoughts of 

a Country Parson. 
By A. K. H. B. 

Two Series^ y . bd, each. 



A Dictionary of the 

English Language. 

By R. G. Latham, M.A. 
M.D. Founded on the 
Dictionary of Dr. S. 
Johnson, as edited by 
the Rev. H. J. Todd, 
with numerous Emenda- 
tions and Additions. 

4 vols, 4/17. £*j. 

Thesaurus of English 

Words and Phrases, classi- 
fied and arranged so as to 
facilitate the expressiot of 

Ideas, and assist in Literary 


By P. M. Roget, MJD.^ 

Crown Svo. I ox. 6d. 

English Synonymes. 

By E. y. Whately. Edited 
by Archbishop Whately. 

Fifth Edition, Ftp, Svo. y. 

Handbook of the English 

Language. For the use of 
Students of the Universities 
and the Higher Classes in 

By R. G. Latham, M.A. 
M.D. &c. late Fellow of 
King's College, Cam- 
bridge; late Professor of 
English in Univ. ColL 

77ie Ninth Edition, Crown &«. ts. 

A Practical Dictionary 

of the French and English 


By L^on Contanseau^ many 
years French Examiner 
for Military and Civil 
Appointments, &c. 

Post Bw, los, 6d. 

Contanseau's Pocket Dic- 
tionary, French and Eng- 
lish, abridged from the 
Practical Dictionary, by 
the Author. 

Square iBmo, 3/. 6(/. 



New Practical Diction^ 

ary of the German Lan- 
guage ; German - English 
and English-German. 
By Rev. W. L. Blackley, 

M.A. and Dr. C. M. 


Past %vo, *is, 6d. 

A Dictionary of Roman 

and Greek Antiquities. 
With 2,o(X> Woodcuts 
from Ancient Originals^ 
illustrative of the Arts 
and Life of the Greeks aftd 
By Anthony Rich, B^. 

TAird Edition. Crown Svc. yj. 6d, 

The Mastery of Lan- 
guages; or, the Art of 
Speaking Foreign Tongues 
By Thomas Prendergast. 

Second Edition, %vo, 6j. 

A Practical English Dic- 

By John T. White, D.D. 
Oxon. and T C. Vonkin, 

I voL post %tfo, unt/orm wiik Contanseot^s 
Practical French Dictionary. 

[In the press. 

A Latin-English Dic- 

By John T. White, D.D. 
Oxon. and J. E. Riddle, 
M.A. Oxon. 

TMrd Edition^ ransuL a vols. ^/o. 421. 

IVhite's College Latin-- 

English Dictionary ; 
Tbrtdged from the Parent 
Work for the use of Uni- 
versity Students. 

Medium 8zv. i8j. 

A Latin -English Die- 

tionary adapted for tfu use 
of Middle-Class Schools, 
By John T. White, D.D. 

Square fcp, ^vo. '31. 

IVhit^syunior Student's 

Complete Latin - English 
and English-Latin Dic- 

Square l2mo. I2s, 

A Greek-English Lexi- 

By H. G. Liddell, D.D. 
Dean of Christchurch, 
and R. Scott, D.D^ 
Dean of Rochester. 

SixUi Edition, Crown 4/^. 36/. 

A Lexicon^ Greek ancT 

English, abridged for 
Schools from Liddell and 
Scott's Greek - English 

Fourteenth Edition, Square i2mo. 71. 6</^ 

An English'-Greek Lext-^ 

con, containing all the Greek 
Words used by Writers of 
good authority . 

By C. D. Yonge, B.A. 

NewEdiH^n. 4to. 2ls. 


C. D. Yonge's New Lexi- 
con, English and Greek, 
abridged from his larger 

Square iitno, 8j. 6^. 

M'Cullochs Dictionary, 

Practical, Theoretical, and 
Historical, of Commerce 
and Commercial Naviga- 
Edited by H. G. Reid. 

Svo. 6y. 

A General Dictionary 

of Geography, Descriptive, 
Physical, Statistical, and 
Historical; forming a com- 
plete Gazetteer of the World. 

By A. Keith Johnston, 

New Edition^ thoroughly revised, 

[In the press. 

The Public Schools Ma- 
nual of Modern Geography. 
Forming a Companion to 
' The Public Schools Atlas 
of Modern Geography ' 
By Rev. G. Btitler, M.A. 

[In the press. 

The Public Schools Atlas 

of Modern Geography. In 
3 1 Maps J exhibiting clearly 
the more important Physi- 
cal Features of the Coun- 
tries delifieated. 
Edited, with Introduction, 
by Rev. G. Butler, M.A. 

Imperial quarto, 3j. 6d. sewed', 5x. cloik. 

The Public Schools Alias 

of Ancient Geography. 

Edited, with an Introduc- 
tion Oft the Study of An- 
cient Geography, by the 
Rev. G. Butler, M.A. 

Imperial Quarto. \In ike press. 


The Universe and the 

Coming Transits ; Re- 
searches into and New 
Views respecting the Con- 
stitution of the Heavens. 
By R. A. Proctor, B.A. 

l^ith 22 Charts and 22 Diagrams, dvo, xdr. 

Saturn and its System. 

By R. A. Proctor, B.A. 

^o. with 14 Plates^ i^. 

The Transits of Venus: 

,A Popular Account of Past 
and Coming Transits ^ from 
the first observed by Hot- 
rocks A,D. 1639 to the 
Transit of a.d, 2012. 

By R. A. Proctor, B.A. 

With 20 Plates (I2 Coloured) and 27 IVisfd 
cuts. Crown 8zv. Ss, 6d, 


Essays on Astronomy. 

A Series of Papers on 

Planets and Meteors^ the 

Sun and Sun-surrounding 

Spacey Stars and Star 


By R. A. Proctor, B.A. 

WUh ioPlaUsand2^ IVoodcuts, 9fvo, I2s, 

The Moon ; her Motions, 

Aspect, Scenery y and Phy- 
sical Condition. 
By R. A. Proctor, B.A. 

IFi/A PlaUs, Charts, Woodcuts, and Lunar 
Photographs. Crown Svo, 15J. 

The Sun ; Ruler, Light, 

Fire, and Life of the Pla- 
netary System. 
By R. A. Proctor, B.A. 

Second Edition, Plates and Woodcuts, Cr. 
%vo, 14/. 

The Orbs Around Us; a 

Series of Familiar Essays 

on the Moon and Planets, 

Meteors and Comets, the 

Sun and Coloured Pairs of 


By R. A. Proctor, B.A. 

Second Edition, with Chart and ^Diagrams, 
Crown ^0, Js. 6d. 

Other IVorlds than Ours; 

The Plurality of Worlds 
Studied under the Light 
of Recent Scientific Re- 
By R. A. ProctoTy B.A. 

Third Edition, with 1 4 Illustrations. Cr. 
$vo. ios.6d. 

Brifikley's Astronomy. 

Revised and partly re-writ- 
ten, with Additional Chap- 
ters, and an Appendix of 
Questions for Examination. 
By John W. Stubbs, D.D. 
and F. Brunnow, Ph.D. 

With 49 Diagrams. Crown %vo. 6s. 

Outlines of Astronomy. 

By Sir J. F. W. Herschel, 
Bart. M.A. 

Latest Edition, with Plates and Diagrams. 
Square crown ^0, I2J. 

A New Star Atlas, for 

the Library, the School, and 
the Observatory, in 1 2 Cir- 
cular Maps {with 2 Index 

By R. A. Proctor, B.A. 

Crown SfZfo. $s» 

Celestial Objects forCom- 

man Telescopes. 
By T. W. Webb, M.A. 

New Edition, with Map of the Moon and 
Woodcuts, Crown 9ivo. js, 6d. 

LargerStarA tlasjorthe 

Library^ in Twelve Cir- 
cular MapSy photolitho- 
graphed by A. Brothers y 
F.R.A.S. With 2 Index 
Plates and a Letterpress 

By R. A. Proctory BA. 

Second Edition. Stnaii folio, 25/. 




Dove's Law of Storms, 

considered in connexion with 
the ordinary Movements of 
the Atmosphere. 
Translated by R. H. Scott ^ 

Air and Rain ; the Be- 

ij^nnings of a Chemical 


By R. A. Smith, F.R.S. 

Air and its Relations to 

Life, 1774-1874. Being, 
with some Additions, a 
Course of Lectures deliver- 
ed at the Royal Institution 
of Great Britain in the 
Summer of 1874. 

By Walter Noel Hartley, 
F.CS. Demonstrator of 
Chemistry at King 's 
College, London. 

I vol, small 8w. xr/M Illustratratiom. 

[Nearly ready. 

Magnetism and Devich 

tion of the Compass. For 
the use of Students in Navi- 
gation and Science Schools. 

By y. Merrifield, LL.D. 

iZmo. is, 6d. 

Nautical Surveying, an 

Introduction to the Practi- 
cal and Theoretical Study 

By y. K. Laughton, M.A. 

Small ^c. dr. 

Schellen' s Spectrum Ana- 
lysis, in its Application to 
Terrestrial Substances and 
the Physical Constitution of 
the Heavenly Bodies. 

Translated by yane and 
C. Lassell ; edited, with 
Notes, by W. Huggins, 
LL.D. F.R.S. 

Wilh II Plates and 22'^ Woodcuts. 8ev. 2&. 



The Correlation of Phy- 
sical Forces. 

By the Hon. Sir W. R. 
Grove, F.R.S. &c. 

Sixth Edition, with other Contributions to 
Science, 9vo, 151. 

Professor Helmholtz 

Popular Lectures on Scien- 
tific Subjects. 
Translated by E. Atkinson, 

With many Illustrative Wood JEn^gfwvii^ 
8zv. I2s. 6d. 


Ganofs Natural Philo- 
sophy for General Readers 
and Young Persons; a 
Course of Physics divested 
of Mathematical Formula 
and expressed in the lan- 
guage of daily life. 
Translated by E. Atkinson, 

second Edition, wiih 2 Plates and 429 
Woodcuts, Crown Siv. 7^. 6d, 

Ganofs Elementary 

Treatise on Physics, Ex- 
perimental and Applied^ 
for the use of Colleges and 


Translated and edited by E. 
Atkinson^ F.C.S. 

New Edition^ with a Coloured Plate and 
726 Woodcuts, Post %evo, 15J. 

IVeinholcts Introduction 

to Experimental Physics^ 
Theoretical and Practical ; 
including Directions for 
Constructing Physical Ap- 
paratus and for Making 

Translated by B. Loewy^ 
F.R.A.S. With a Pre- 
face by G. C. Foster^ 

With 3 Coloured Plates and 404 Woodcuts, 
%vo, price 3IJ. td. 

Principles of Animal 


By the Rev. S. Haughton^ 

Second Edition. 8tv. 21s, 

Text-Books of Science, 

Mechanical and Physical^ 
adapted for the use of Arti- 
sans and of Students in 
Public and other Schools. 
{The first Ten edited by 
T. M. Goodeve, M.A. Lec- 
turer on Applied Science at 
the Royal School of Mines; 
the remainder edited by 
C. W. MerrifUld, F.R.S. 
an Examiner in the De- 
partment of Public Educa- 

Small ^0, Woodcuts, 

Edited by T. M. Goodevc, M. A. 

Anderson's Strength of Materials^ y. 6d. 
Bloxam's MeialSy y. dd. 
Goodeve's Mechanics ^ 3J. (>d, 
— Mechanism^ y, dd. 
Griffin's Algebra 6* Trigononuhy^ y, 6d, 

Notes on the samty with Solutions^ y, 6d. 
Tenkin's Electricity &> Magnetism, y. 6d, 
Maxwell's Theory of Heat, y. 6d. 
Merrifield's Technical Arithmetic, y, 6d. 

Key, y. 6d. 
Miller's Inorganic Chemistry, y, 6d. 
Shelley's Workshop Appliances, y, 6d. 
Watson's Plane dr* Solid Geometry, y. 6d. 

Edited by C. W. Merrifield, F.R.S. 

Armstrong's Organic Chemistry, y, 6d, 
Thorpe's Quantitative Analysis, 4s. 6d. 
Thorpe and Muir's Qualitatri'e Analysis, 
y. 6d. 

Fragments of Science. 

By John Tyndall, F.R.S. 

Nrof Edition, in the press. 

Address delivered before 

the British Association 
assembled at Belfast. 
By Johi Tyndally F.R.S. 

Sth Thousand, xc/M A\w Preface and the 
Manchester Aduress, Svo. price 4r. (id. 



Heat a Mode of Motion. 

By John Tyndall, jF.JR.S. 

Fifth EdiHon, Plate and Woodcuts. 
Crnvn %vo, los, 6d, 


By yohn Tyndally F.R.S. 

Third Edition^ including Recent Researches 
on Fog-SignaJling ; Portrait and Wood- 
cuts, Crown ^o, los, 6d. 

Researches on Diamag- 

netism and Magne-Crystal- 
lie Action ; including Dia- 
magnetic Polarity. 
By John Tyndall, F.R.S. 

With 6 Plates and many Woodcuts, Svo, 14s, 

Contributions to Mole-- 

cular Physics in the do- 
main of Radiant Heat. 
By yohn Tyndall^ P.R.S. 

With 2 Plates and SI Woodcuts, %vo, its. 

Six Lectures on Lights 

delivered in America in 

1872 and 1873. 

By John Tyndall, F.RS. 

Second Edition f with Portrait^ Plate^ and 
59 Diagrams, Crown Svo, *js, 6d. 

Notes of a Course of Nine 

Lectures on Light, delivered 
at the Royal Institution. 
By John Tyndall, F.R.S. 

Crown %vo, is, seioed, or is. 6d, cloth. 

Notes of a Course of 

Seven Lectures on Electri- 
cal Phenomena and Theo- 
ries, delivered at the Royal 
By John Tyndall, F.R.S. 

Crown ^o, is, sewed, or is, 6d. cloth. 

A Treatise on Magne- 
tism, General and Terres- 
By H. Lloyd, D.D. D.CL. 

%vo, price I Of. dd. 

Elementary Treatise on 

the Wave- Theory of Light. 
By H. Lloyd, D.D. D.CL. 

Third Edition, Sivo. los. 6d. 

An Elementary Exposi- 
tion of the Doctrine of 
By D. D. Heath, M.A. 

Post ^0, 4s, 6d. 

The Comparative Ana-- 

tomy and Physiology of the 

Vertebrate Animals. 

By Richard Owen, F.R.S. 

With 1,472 Woodcuts, ^vols, %vo. £^. iy,6d. 

Sir H. Holland* s Frag- 
mentary Papers on Science 
and other subjects. 
Edited by the Rev. y. Hol- 

Svo. price 14J. 

Light Science for Lei- 
sure Hours ; Familiar Es- 
says on Scientific Siibjecfs, 
Natural Phenomena, &c. 
By R. A. Proctor, B.A. 

First and Second Series. 2 zfols, crvipn 8cv. 
*ls, dd, each, 

Kirby and Spence's In-- 

troduction to Entomology, 
or Elements of t/ie Natural 
History of Insects. 

Crown %vo, 5/, 


Strange Dwellings ; a De- 
scription of the Habitations 
of AnimalSy abridged from 
* Homes without Hands^ 

By Rev. J. G. Wood, M.A. 

IVUh FrotUispuce and 60 Woodcuts, Crown 
^0, *js. 6d, 

Homes without Hands ; 

a Description of the Habi- 
tations of Animals, classed 
according to their Principle 
of Constrtution. 
By Rev. J. G. Wood, M.A. 

With about 140 Vignettes on Wood. %vo. I4r. 

Out of Doors ; a Selec 

tion of Original Articles 
on Practiced Natural His- 
By Rev. J. G. Wood, M.A. 

With 6 Illustrations from Original Designs 
engraved on Wood. Crown Sz'o. ys.6d. 

The Polar IVorld : a 

Popular Description of 
Man and Nature in t/ie 
Arctic and Antarctic Re- 
gions of the Globe. 
By Dr. G. Hartivig. 

With ChromoxylographSf Maps, and Wood- 
cuts. 8z^. icxr. 6d. 

The Sea and its Living 


By Dr. G. Hartwig. 

Fourth Edition^ enlarged. %vo. with many 
Illustrations, \os. td. 

The Tropical IVorld. 

By Dr. G. Hartwig. 

With about 200 Illustratians. 8tv. lOr. 6d. 

The Subterranean World. 

By Dr. G. Hartwig. 

With Maps and Woodcuts. $vo. lOs. 6d. 

The Aerial IVorld; a 

Popular Account of the 
Phenomena afid Life of 
the Atmosphere. 
By Dr. George Hartwig. 

With Map, 8 Chromoxylographs^ and 60 
Woodcuts. %vo. price 2\s, 

Game Preservers and 

Bird Preserver Sy or ' Which 

are our Friends ? * 

By George Francis Moranty 
late Captain 1 2th Royal 
Lancers & Major Cape 
Mounted Riflemen. 

Crown 2ivo. price y. 

A Familiar History of 


By E. Stanley, D.D. late 
Ld. Bishop of Norwich. 

Fcp. ^o. with Woodcuts^ 3x. 6^. 

Insects at Home; aPopu-- 

lar Account of British 
InsectSy their Structure 
HabitSy and Transforma- 
By Rev. J. G. Woody M.A. 

With upwards of IQO Woodcuts. %vo. %ls. 

Insects Abroad ; being a 

Popular Account of Foreign 
Insect Sy theirStructurCy Ha- 
bitSy and Transformations. 
By Rev. J. G. Woody M.A. 

Withupwardsofioo Woodcuts. ^vo.Zlt. 



Rocks Classified and De- 

By B. Von Cotta. 

Engiish Edition^ by P. H. Lawrence {^h 
Engiish, German, and French Syno- 
nymes), revised by the Author, Post 

Heer's Prinueval IVorld 

of Switzerland. 

Translated by W. S. Dal- 
laSy F.L.S. and edited by 
James Hey wood, M.A. 

2 vols, ^0, with numerous Illustrations, 

[In the press. 

The Origin of Civilisa- 

tion, and the Primitive 
Condition of Man; Men- 
tal and Social Condition of 

By Sir J. Lubbock, Bart. 
M.P. F.R.S. 

Third Edition^roith 2$ Woodcuts, ^0, \%s 

The Native Races of the 

Pacific States of North 

By Hubert Howe Bancroft. 

Vol, I, Wild Tribes, their Manners 
and Customs; with 6 Maps, %vo, 25 j. 

Vol. II. Native Races of the PaciHc 
States, 25X. 

%* To be completed early in the year 1876, 
in Three more Volumes — 

Vol. III. Mythology and Languages of 
both Savage and Civilized Nations, 

Vol, IV, Antiquities and Architectural 

Vol. V. Aboriginal History and Mira- 
tions ; Index to the Entire Work, 

The Ancient Stone Im- 
plements^ Weapons y and Or- 
naments of Great Britain, 
By yohn Evans, F.R.S. 

With 2 PlcUes and 476 Woodcuts. %vo. ^%s. 

The Elements of Botany 

for Families and Schools. 

Eleventh Edition^ revised 

by Thomas Moore^F.L.S. 

Fcp, ^ifo, with 154 Woodcuts^ 2x. 6d, 

Bible Animals; a De- 
scription of every Living 
Creature mentioned in the 
Scriptures, from the Ape 
to the Coral, 
By Rev. J. G. Wood, M^. 

With about 100 Vignettes on Wood. Zvc. 21s. 

The Rose Amateur's 


By Thomas Rivers. 

Tenth Edition, Fcp. 8tv. 4/. 

A Dictionary of Sciefice, 

Literature, and Art. 

Re-edited by the kUe W. T. 
BrandeftheA uthorjand 
Rev. G. W. Cox, M.A. 

New Edition, revised, 3 vols, medium 
Bivo, 6y, 

On the Sensatiofis of 

Tone, as a Physiological 

Basis for the Theory of 


By H, Helmholtz, Pro- 
fessor of Physiology in 
the University of Berlin. 

Translated by A. y. Ellis, 



The History of Modem 

Music, a Course of Lec- 
tures delivered at the Royal 
Institution of Great Bri- 

By John Hullah, Pro- 
fessor of Vocal Music in 
Queen! s College and Bed- 
ford College, and Organ- 
ist of C/iarterhouse, 

New Edition^ I voL post %vo. [/« the press. 

The Treasury of Botany^ 

or Popular Dictionary of 

the Vegetable Kingdom ; 

with which is incorporated 

a Glossary of Botanical 


Edited by J. Lindley^ 

F.R.S. and T Moore, 


With 274 IViwdcuts and 20 Steel Plates, 
Two Parts, fip. S/vo. I2s, 

A General System of 

Descriptive and A nalytical 


Translated from the French 
of Le Maout and De- 
caisne, by Mrs. Hooker. 
Edited and arranged 
according to the English 
Botanical System, by y. 
D. Hooker, M.D. &c. 
Director of the Royal 
Botanic Gardens, Kew. 

IVitA $,$ooJVoadatts, Imperial ^vo,S2s,6d. 

Loudon's Encyclopcedia 

of Plants ; comprising the 
Specific Character, Descrip- 
tion, Culture, History, &c. 
of all the Plants found in 
Great Britain. 

With upwards ofi 2, 000 JVoodcuts, %vo, \2s. 

Handbook of Hardy 

Trees, Shrubs, and Her- 
baceous Plants; containing 
Descriptions &c. of the 
Best Species in Cultivation ; 
with Cultural Details, 
Comparative Hardiness, 
suitability for particular 
positions, &c. Based on 
the French Work of De- 
caisne and Naudin, and 
including t/ie 720 Original 
Woodcut Illustrations. 

By W. B. Hemsley. 

MediuM Svo, lis. 

Forest Trees and JVood-- 

land Scenery, a^ described 
in Ancient and Modern 

By William Menzies, De- 
puty Surveyor of Wind- 
sor Forest and Parks, &c. 

In One Vb/ame, imperial ^o, with Twenty 
Plates, Coloured in facsimile of the 
original drawings, price £$, y. 

[Preparing for publication. 




Millers Elements of 

Chemistry y Theoretical and 

Re-edited, with Additions, 
by H. Macleod, F.C.S. 

3 vols, 9vo. £^, 

Part I. Chemical Physics, 15J. 

Part II. Inorganic Chemistry, 2Ij. 

Part III. Organic Chemistry, New 
Edition in the press, 

A Dictionary of Che- 

mis try and the Allied 
Branches of other Sciences. 

By Henry Watts, F,C.S. 
assisted by eminent 
Scientific and Practical. 

6 vols, medium %vo, £$, 141. 6d, 

Second Supplement to 

Watts s Dictionary of 
Chemistry, completing the 
Record of Discovery to 
the year 1873. 

8w. price 42J. 

Select Methods in C/temi- 

cal Analysis, chiefly Inor- 
By Wm. Crookes, F.R.S. 

With 22 Woodcuts, Crown Sev. I2j. bd, 

Todd and Bowman s 

Physiological A naionty, and 
Physiology of Man. 

Vol, II, with numerous lUustraiions, 25/. 

Vol. I, New Edition by Dr. Lionel S. 
Beale, F.R.S. Parts I, and II, in %z'€. 
price ys, 6d, each. 

Health in the House, 

Twenty-five Lectures on 
Elementary Physiology in 
its Application to the Daily 
Wants of Man and Ani- 
By Mrs. C. M. Btukton. 

Crown Svo, Woodcuts, 51. 

Outlines of Physiology, 

Human and Comparative. 

By y. Marshall, F.R.C.S. 
Surgeon to the Univer- 
sity College Hospital. 

2 vols, cr, Sivo, with 122 Woodcuts, 321. 




By William B. Scott. 

I, Ballads and TaUs, II, Studies from 
Nature, III, Sonnets &*c. 

Illustrated by Seventeen Etchings by 
L. Alma Tadema and William B. Scott. 
Crown 2vo. 151. 

Half hour Lectures on 

the History and Practi^t 
of the Fine and Ornamen- 
tal Arts. 
By W. B. Scott. 

Third Edition, with 50 Woodcuts. 
8tv. %s. 6d. 



In Fairyland ; Pictures 

from the Elf- World. By 
Richard Doyle. With a 
Poem by W. Allingham. 

With 1 6 coloured Plates y containing 36 De- 
signs, Second Edition^ folio^ \^s, 

A Dictionary of Artists 

of the English School: 
Painters y Sculptors, Archi- 
tects, Engravers, and Orna- 
mentis ts ; with Notices of 
their Lives and Works. 

By Samuel Redgrave. 

%vo, i6f. 

The New Testament, il- 
lustrated, with Wood En- 
gravings after the Early 
Masters, chiefly of the 
Italian School. 

Crown 4/<7. 63^. 

Lord Macaiilay's Lays 

of Ancient Rome. With 
90 Illustrations on Wood 
from Drawings by G. 

Fcp, ^o, lis. 

Miniature Edition, with 

Scharf s 90 Illustrations 
reduced in Lithography. 

Imp, i6mo, 10/. 6d. 

Moore's Lalla Rookh, 

TennieVs Edition, with 68 
Wood Engravuigs. 

Fcp, 4/^. 2 1 J. 

Moore's Irish Melodies^ 

Maclises Editio7t, with 161 
Steel Plates. 

Super royal %vo, 31/. td. 

Sacred and Legendary 


By Mrs. yameson. 

6 vols, square crown 8r<?. Price £$, 15/. 6d, 
as follows : — 

Legends of the Saints 

aftd Martyrs. 

New Edition, with 19 Etchings and 187 
Woodcuts, 2 vols, 3 1 J. 6d, 

Legends of the Monastic 


New Edition, with 1 1 Etchings and 88 
Woodcuts, I vol, 21/. 

Legends of the Madonna. 

New Edition, with 27 Etchings and 165 
Woodcuts, I vol, 21/. 

The History of Our Lord, 

with that of his Types and 

Completed by Lady East- 

Revised Edition, with 13 Etchings and 281 
Woodcuts, 2 vols, 42/. 





Industrial Chemistry ; a 

Manual for Manu/actu- 

rers and for Colleges or 

Technical Schools. Being a 

Translation of Professors 

Stohmann and Englers 

German Edition ofPayetis 

^ Precis de Chimie Indus- 

trielU; by Dr. J. D. Barry. 

Editedy and supplemented 

with Chapters on the 

Chemistry of the Metals ^ 

by B. H. Paul, Ph.D. 

^0, with Plates and Woodcuts, 

\In the press, 

Gwilfs Encyclopcedia of 

A rchitecture, with above 

1, 600 Woodcuts. 

Fifth Edition, with Altera- 
tions and Additions, by 
Wyatt Papworth. 

Svo. S2S. 6d, 

The Three Cathedrals 

dedicated to St. Paul in 
London ; their History 
from the Foundation of 
the First Building in the 
Sixth Century to the Pro- 
posals for the- Acbrnment 
of the Present Cathedral. 
By W. Longman, F.S.A. 

With numerous Illustrations. Square crown 
$vo. 2ls. 

Lathes and Turning, 

Simple^ Mechanical, and 


By W. Henry Northcott. 

With 240 Illustrations, ^o. Z&r. 

Hints on Household 

Taste in Furniture, Up- 
holstery, and other Details. 
By Charles L. Eastlake, 

yiew Edition^ with about 90 lUustrations, 
Square crown 8zv. 14T. 

Handbook of Practical 


By R. S. Culley, Memb. 
Inst. CE. Engineer-in- 
Chief 0/ Telegraphs to 
the Post-Office. 

Sixth Edition, Plates &» Woodcuts. &v. idf. 

Principles of Mechanism, 

for the use of Students in 
the Universities, and for 
Engineering Students. 

By R. Willis, M.A. F.R.S. 
Professor in the Univer- 
sity of Cambridge. 

Second Edition, with 374 Woodcuts. feA i8r. 

Perspective ; or, the Art 

of Drawing what one Sees : 
for the Use of those Sketch- 
ing from Nature. 

By Lieut. W. H. Collins, 
R.E. F.R.A.S. 

IVitA 37 Woodcuts, Crown Saw. 5/. 

Encyclopcedia of Civil 

Engineerings Historical 
Theoretical, and Prcutiail. 
By E. Cresy, CE. 

With above 3,000 Woodcuts. &v. 42/. 



^ Treatise on the Steam 

EngifUy in its various ap- 
plications to Mines^ Mills, 
Steam Navigation, Rail- 
ways and Agriculture. 

By y. Bourne, C.E. 

With Portrait^ 37 PlaUs^ and 546 Wood- 
cuts. 4/^. 4zr. 

Catechism of the Steam 

Engine, in its various Ap- 

By yohn Bourne, C.E. 

New Edition^ with 89 fVoadcuts, Fcp, ^o. 6r. 

Handbook of the Steam 


By y. Bourne, C.E. form-* 
inga Key to the Author' s 
Catechism of the Steam 

With 67 Woodcuts. Fcp, Svo, Qj. 

Recent Improvements in 

the Steam Engine. 
By y. Bourne, C.E. 

With 124 Woodoitt, Fcp. ^o. 6s. 

Lowndes's Engineer's 

Handbook ; explaining the 
Principles which should 
guide the Young Engineer 
in the Construction of Ma- 

Post Svo. 5/. 

Ure's Dictionary of Arts, 

Manufactures, and Mines. 
Seventh Edition, re-written 
and greatly enlarged by 
R. Hunt, F.R.S. assisted 
by numerous Contributors. 

With 2, 100 Woodcuts. 3 vols, medium Sfvo. 

Practical Treatise on 


Adapted from the last Ger- 
manEdition of Professor 
KerVs MetaUurgy by W. 
Crookes, F.R.S. &c. and 
E. Rohrig, Ph.D. 

3 vols. ^0. with 625 Woodcuts. £4. 19/. 

Treatise on Mills and 


By Sir W. Fairbairn, Bt. 

With 18 Plates and 322 Woodcuts, a vols. 
8tv. 32/. 

Useful Infortnation for 


By Sir W. Fairbairn, Bt. 

With many Plates and Woodcuts. 3 7)ols. 
crown %vo. 3 1 J. (ui. 

The Application of Cast 

and Wrought Iron to 

Building Purposes. 

By Sir W. Fairbairn, Bt. 

With 6 Plates and 118 Woodcuts. %vo. its. 

Practical Handbook of 

Dyeing and Calico-Print- 


By W. Crookes, F.R.S. &c. 

With numerous Jllustraticns and Specimen^ 
of Dyed Textile FaMcs. ^o. 4ZS. 



Occasional Papers on 

Subjects connected with 
Civil Engineerings Gun- 
nery ^ and Naval Archi- 
By Michael Scatty Memb. 

Inst. C.E. & of Inst. 


a vols. Svo. with PlaUs^ 4zr. 

MitchelVs Manual of 

Practical Assaying. 
Fourth Edition, revised, 
with the Recent Disco- 
' veries incorporated, by 
W. Crookes, F.R.S. 

%vo. Woodcuts, 3 1 J. 6</. 

Loudon's Encyclopcedia 

of Gardening ; comprising 
the Theory and Practice of 
Horticulture, Floriculture, 
Arboriculture, and Land- 
scape Gardening, 

With i,ooo Woodcuts, %vc. 21s. 

Loudon- s Encyclopcedia 

of Agriculture ; comprising 
the Laying'Out, Improve- 
ment, and Management of 
Landed Property, and the 
Cultivation and Economy 
of the Productions of Agri- 

With 1,100 Woodcuts. 8tv. 2ix. 


An Exposition of the 39 

Articles, Historical and 

By E. H. Browne, D.D. 
Bishop of Winchester*. 

New Edition, Zvo, i6s. 

Historical Lectures on 

the Life of Our Lord Jesus 

By C. y. Ellicott, D.D. 

Fifth Edition, ^tvo. I2s. 

An Introduction to the 

Theology of the Church of 
England, in an Exposition 
of the y^ Articles. By Rev. 

T. P. Boultbee, LL.D. 

Ftp, 9vo. 6s. 

Three Essays on Reli- 
gion : Nature ; the Utility 
of Religion; Theism. 

By John Stuart Mill 

Second Edition. 8f *, price \os, 6d, 

Sermons Chiefly on tJte 

Interpretation of Scrip- 

By the late Rev. Thonfos 
Arnold, D.D. 

9vo. price *ls. 6d. 

Sermons preached in the 

Chapel of Rugby Sclwol ; 
with an Address before 

By the late Rev. Thomas 
Arnold, D.D. 

Fcp, ^foo, price y. W. 



Christian Life, its 

Course^ its Hindrances^ 
and its Helps; Sermons 
preacfied mostly in the 
Chapel of Rugby School 
By the late Rev. Thomas 
Arnold, D.D. 

Christian Life, its 

Hopes, its Fears, and its 
Close ; Sermons preached 
mostly in the Chapel of 
Rugby School 
By the late Rev. Thomas 
Arnold, D.D. 

Svo. 7x. 6(i. 

Synonyms of the Old Tes- 
tament, their Bearing on 
Christian Faith and 

By Rev. R. B. Girdlestone. 

Svo. 1 5 J. 

The Primitive and Ca- 
tholic Faith in Relation to 
the Church of England. 
By the Rev. B. W. Savile, 
M.A . Rector of Shilling- 
ford, Exeter; Author of 
* The Truth of the 
Bible' &c. 

9ivo, price 7/, 

Reasons of Faith; or, 

the Order of the Christian 
Argument Developed and 

By Rev. G. S. Drew, M.A. 

Second Edition Fcp, Svo, 6s. 

The Eclipse of Faith ; 

or a Visit to a Religious 

By Henry Rogers. 

Latest Edition, Fcp. &ifo. 5/. 

Defence of the Eclipse of 


By Henry Rogers. 

Latest Edition, Fcp, Svo, ys, 6d. 

A Critical and Gram- 

matical Commentary on St. 
PauVs Epistles. 

By C 7. Ellicotty D.D. 

8zv. Galatians, &r. dd, Ephesians Sx. 6</. 
Pastoral Epistles, I or. dd, Philippi- 
ans, Colossians, & Philemon, lor. &/. 
Thessalonians, 71. 6</. 

The Life and Epistles of 

St. Paul. 

By Rev. W. J. Conybeare, 
M.A. and Very Rev. J. 
S. Howson, D.D. 

Library Edition, with all the Original 
Illustrations, Maps, Landscapes on Sted^ 
Woodcuts, &*c, 2 vols, 4/tf. 4zr. 

Intermediate Edition, with a Selection 
of Maps, Plates, and Woodcuts, 2 vols, 
square crown Svo. 2is. 

Student's Edition, revised and concUnsed^ 
with 46 Illustrations and Maps, I vol. 
crown dfvo, 9/. 

^n Examination into 

the Doctrine and Practice 
of Confession. 

By the Rev. W. E. J elf 
B.D. • 

8tv. price 7j. 6</. 



Fasting Communion, how 

Binding in England by the 
Canofts. With the testi- 
mony of the Early Fathers, 
An Historical Essay, 

By the Rev, H. T, King- 
dony M,A, 

Second Edition. Sfvo, los. 6d. 

Evidence of the Truth 

of the Christian Religion 
> derived from the Literal 
Fulfilment of Prophecy, 

By Alexander Keith, D,D, 

i\pth Ediiion, with numerous Plates, 
Square 8v<?. I2j. bd. or in post ^o. 
with 5 Plates J dr. 

Historical and Critical 

Commentary on the Old 
Testament; with a New 

By M, M. Kalisch, Ph.D. 

Vol, I. Genesis, ^o. i&r. £W adapted for the 
General Reader, I2J. Vol, II. Exodus, 
15/. or adapted for the General Reader^ 
I2J. Vol, III Leviticus, Part /. 15J. 
or adapted for the General Reader, %s. 
Vol, IV Leviticus, Part IL 15J. or 
adapted for the General Reader, %s. 

The History and Liter a- 

ture of the Israelites, ac- 
cording to the Old Testa- 
ment and the Apocrypha. 

By C De Rothschild and 
A. De Rothschild. 

Second Edition, 2 vols, crown ^0. I2s.6d, 
Abridged Edition, in I vol, fcp, 2fvo. y. 6d, 

Ewald's History of 


Translated front the Ger- 
man by y. E. Carpenter^ 
M.A. with Preface by 
R. Martineau, M.A. 

5 vols. 9vo. 6y. 

The Types of Genesis, 

briefly considered as rez^eal- 
ing the Development of 
Human Nature. 
By Andrew Jukes. 

Third Edition, Cravm S^v. 'js. 61/. 

The Second Death and 

the Restitution of all 
Things; with some Pre- 
liminary Remarks on the 
Nature and Inspiration of 
Holy Scripture. (A Let- 
ter to a Friend. ) 
By Andrew Jukes. 

Fourth Edition, Crown %vo. y, 6d. 

Commentary on Epistle 

to the Romans. 

By Rev. W. A. OConar. 

Crown Svo, yt. $d 

A Commentary on tite 

Gospel of St. John. 

By Rev. W. A. OConor. 

Crown ^0, los. 6d, 

The Epistle to the He-- 

brews; with Analytical 
Introduction and Notes. 

By Rev. W. A. GConor. 

Crown Bvo. 41. 6d, 



Thoughts for the Age. 

By Elizabeth M. Sewell. 

Neto Edition, Fcp, Bfvo. 3J. 6d, 

Passing Thoughts on 


By Elizabeth M. Sewell. 

Fcp. %vo, 3J. 6</. 

Preparation for the Holy 

Communion ; the Devotions 
chiefly from the works of 
Jeremy Taylor. 

By Elizabeth M. Sewell. 

Bishop yere^ny Taylor's 

Entire Works; with Life 
by Bishop Heber. 

Revised and corrected by 
the Rev. C. P. Eden. 

10 vols. £5. 5j. 

Hymns of Praise and 


Collected and edited by Rev. 
y. Martineau^ LL.D. 

Crown Svo, 41. 6d. ^2mo, is. 6d. 

Spiritual Songs for the 

Sundays and Holidays 
throughout the Year. 

ByJ. S. B. Monsell, LL.D. 

9M Thousand. Fcp, 2vo. 5^ iSmo. 2/. 

Lyra Germanica; Hymns 

translatedfrom the German 
by Miss C. Winkworth. 

Fcp, 9vo, $s. 

Endeavours after the 

Christian Life; Discourses. 

By Rev. y. MartineaUy 

Fifth Edition. Crown Zvo, Js, 6d. 

Lectures on the Penta-- 

teuch & the Moabite Stone; 
with Appendices. 

By 7. W. Colenso, D.D. 
Bishop of Natal. 

%vo. 12s. 

Supernatural Religion; 

an Inquiry into the Reality 
of Divine Revelation. 

Fifth Edition, 2 vols. %vo, 24s, 

The Pentateuch and Book 

of yoshua Critically Ex- 

By y. W. Colenso, D.D. 
Bishop of Natal. 

Crown %UQ, 6r. 

The New Bible Com-- 

mentary, by Bishops and 
other Clergy of the An- 
glican Churchy critically 
examined by the Rt. Rev. 
y. W. Colenso, D.D. 
Bishop of Natal. 

2^0, 25/. 




Italian Alps ; Sketches 

in the Mountaifts o/TicinOy 
Lojftbardy, the TrentinOy 
and Venetia. 

By Douglas W. Freshfieldy 
Editor of * The Alpine 

Square crown Sz/o. Illtistrations. 15J. 

Here and There in the 

By the Hon. Frederica 

WUh VigfutU-iitle, PostZvo, 6f. dd. 

The Valleys of Tirol; 

their Traditions and Cus- 
toms, and How to Visit 

By Miss R. H. Busk. 

With Frontispiece and 3 Maps, Crotvn 
^JO. J2S. M. 

Two Years in Fiji, a 

Descriptive Narrative of a 
Residence in the Fijian 
Group of Islands; with 
some Account of the For- 
tunes of Foreign Settlers 
and Colonists up to the time 
of British Annexation. 

By Litton Forbes y M.D. 
L.R.CP. F.R.G.S. late 
Medical Officer to the 
German Consulate, Apia, 
Navigator Islands. 

Crown Szv. Zs, M, 

Eight Years in Ceylon. 

By Sir Samuel W, Baker, 
M.A. F.R.G.S. 

New Edition^ with Ulustrationf engmz'ed 
on Wood by G, Pearson, Craaon 8tv. 
Price *js, 6d, 

The Rifle and the Hound 

in Ceylon. 

By Sir Samuel W. Baker, 
M.A. FR.G.S. 

New Edition^ ivith Jliustrations engraved 
on l^oodby G, Pearson. Crown Svo, 
Price *js, 6d, 

Meeting the Sun ; a 

Journey all round t/te 
World through Egypt, 
China, Japan, and Cali- 

By William Simpson, 

With Heliotypes attd Woodcuts. &v. 24J. 

The Dolo7nite Moun- 
tains. Excursions through 
Tyrol, Carinthia, Carniola, 
and Friuli. 

By y. Gilbert and G. C. 
Churchill, F.R.G.S. 

With Illustrations. Sq. cr. 8«?. %is. 

The Alpine Club Map 

of the Chain of Mont 
Blanc, from an actual Sur- 
vey in 1863-1864. 
By A. AdamS'Reilly, 
FR.G.S. M.A.C 

In Chromolithography, on extra stout 

ing paper los. or mounted on commas 
in a folding case, 12s. 6d. 



The Alpine Club Map 

of the ValpellinCy the Val 
Toumanchey and the South- 
ern Valleys of the Chain of 
Monte Rosa^ from actual 

By A. AdamS'Reillyy 
F.R.G.S. M.A.C. . 

/Vi» 6j. on extra Stout Drawing Paper^ or 
p. 6d, mounted in a Folding Case, 

Untrodden Peaks and 

Unfrequented Valleys; a 
Mtdsummer Ramble among 
the Dolomites. 

By Amelia B. Edwards. 

With numerous Illustrations, %n.*o, 21/. 

The Alpine Club Map 

of Switzerland^ with parts 
of t fie Neiglibouring Coun- 
tries^ on the scale of Four 
Miles to an Inch. 

Edited by R. C Nicliols, 
F.S.A. F.R.G.S. 

In Four Sheets, in Portfolio^ price 42J. 
coloured, or 34J. uncoloured, ^ 

The Alpifte Guide. 

By John Ball, M.R.I. A. 
late President of tlie 
Alpine Club. 

Post Sifo, with Afaps and other Illustrations, 

Eastern Alps. 

Price lox. 6</. 

Central Alps, including 

all the Oberland District. 

Price *ls, 6d, 

Western Alps, including 

Mont Blanc, Monte Rosa, 
Zermatty &c. 

Price 6s, 6d, 

Introduction on Alpine 

Travelling in general, and 
on the Geology of the Alps. 

Price is, Either of the Three Volumes or Parts 
of the * Alpine Guitle * may be had with 
this Introduction prefixed, is, extra. 
The * Alpine Guide ' may also be had 
in Ten separate Parts, or districts^ price 
2s, 6d, each. 

Guide to the Pyrenees, for 

the use of Mount ai?teers. 
By Charles Packe. 

Second Edition^ 7vith Maps «Sr-V. artd Ap- 
pendix, Crown 2^0. ys. 6d, 

How to See Norway; 

embodying the Experience 
of Six Slimmer Tours in 
t/tat Country. 
By y. R. Campbell. 

With Map and 5 Woodcuts, /cp, $vo, $/. 

Visits to Remarkable 

Places^ and Scenes illus- 

trative of striking Passages 

in English History and 


By William Howitt. 

2 vols, 8tv. Woodcuts, 25/. 





IVhispers from Fairy- 

By the Rt. Hon. E. H. 
Knatchbull - Hugessen, 
M.P. Author of' Stories 
for my Children^ &c. 

IVith 9 lllustraHoiis from Original De- 
sigfts engraved on IVood by G, Pear- 
ton. Cro7vn Svo. price 6s. 

Lady IVillotighby' s 

Diary during the Reign of 
Charles the First, the Pro- 
tectorate, and the Restora- 

Crown Zvo. *js. 6d. 

The Folk-Lore of Rome^ 

collected by Word of Mouth 
from the People. 

By Miss R. H. Busk. 

Crorivn Svo. I2s. 6d. 

Becker's Gallus; or Ro- 
man Scenes of the Time of 

Post^o. *js. 6d. 

Becker's Charicles : Il- 
lustrative of Private Life 
of the Ancient Greeks. 

PostZvo, *js, 6d. 

Tales of the Teutonic 


By Rev. G. W. Cox, M.A. 
and E. H. Jones. 

Crown %vo. lOr. dd. 

Tales of Ancient Greece. 

By the Rev. G. W. Cox, 

Crown %vo, 6s, 6d, 

The Modem Novelists 


AUurstone Priory^ 2s. boards ; 2j. 6</. cloth. 
Mile. Mori, 2s. boards; 2s, td. clot A. 
7/ie Burgomasters Family^ 2s. and 2s. 6d. 
Melville's ZHgfy Grand, 2s. and 2s. 6d. 

Gladiators, 2s. and 2s,6d. 

I Good for NotAing,2s. &^2s. 6d. 

— — — llolmby House, 2s. and %t, 6d. 
— — — Interpreter, 2s. and 2s. 6d, 
— ^— -.. Aate Coventry, 2s. and 2s. 6d. 
' Queen's Maries, 2s, and %t, 6d. 

General Bounce, 2s. and 2s. 6d. 

Trollope's Warden, is. 6d. and 2s. 
^— ^_ Barchester Towers, 2s. &'2s.(id. 
BRAkfLEY-MooRE*s Six Sisters of the Vol" 
leys, 2s, boards ; 2s. 6d, cloth. 

Novels and Tales. 

By the Right Hon. Benja- 
min Disraeli^ M.P. 

Cabinet Editions, complete in Ten Voluma^ 
crown Svo. 6s. each, as follows i — 

Lothair, 6s. 
Coningsby, 6s, 
Sybil, 6s. 
Tancredf 6s. 

Venetia, 6s. 
Alroy,Ixion, 6g*c. 6s, 
Young Duke, 6v, 6s. 
Vivian Grey, 6s. 

Henrietta Temple, 6s. 
Cotitarini Fleming, 6^c, 6s. 

Stories and Tales. 

By Elizabeth M. Sewell^ 
Author of * The Child's 
First History of 
Rome^ ^Principles 
of Education,^ &c. 
Cabinet Edition, in Ten 
Volumes : — 

Amy Herbert, 2s. 6d. 
Gertrtide, 2s. 6d. 
EarPs Daughter, 
2s. 6d. 

Experience of Lifr, 

2s. 6a. 
Cleve Hall, 2s. 6d. 

Ursula, ys. 6d. 

Ivors, 2s. 6d, 
Katharine Askton, 

2s, 6d. 
Margaret Perctval, 

y. 6d. 
Laneton Parsona^, 

3J. 6d. 




Ballads and Lyrics of 

Old France; with otJter 


By A. Lang. 

Square fcp, %vo. ^s, 

Moore's Lalla Rookh, 

TennieVs Edition^ with 68 
Wood Engravings. 

Fcp, 4/9. 2 1 J. 

Moore's Irish Melodies, 

Maclises Edition, with 161 
Steel Plates. 

Super-royal %vo. 3IJ. dd. 

Miniature Edition of 

Moore's Irish Melodies^ 
with Maclise's i6i Illus- 
trations reduced in Litho- 

Imp. i6mo. los. 6<i, 

Milton's Lycidas and 

Epitaphium Damonis. 
Edited, with Notes and \ 

Introduction, by C. S. \ 

y errant, M.A. 

Crorwn %vo, 2s. 6(f. 


Lays of Ancient Rome; \ 

with Ivry and the Ar- \ 
mada. \ 

By t/te Right Hon. Lord 

l6mo, y, 6ff, 

Lord Macaulay' s Lays 

of Ancient Rome. With 
90 Illustrations on Wood 
from Drawings by G. 

Fcp, ^ti\ 2is, 

Miniature Edition of 

Lord Macaulay s Lays 
of Ancient Rome^ with 
Scharf s 90 Illustrations 
reduced i7t Lithography. 

Imp, i6mo. los. 6d, 

Horatii Opera, Library 

Edition^ zuith English 
Notes, Marginal References 
and various Rcadi^igs. 

Edited by Rcv.y.E, Yonge. 

8: 'P. 2 If. 

Sotitheys Poetical JVorks 

with the Author's last Cor- 
rections and Additions. 

Medium Zvo, itnth Portrait, \\5, 

Poems by yean Ingelow. 

2 vols. Fcp, Zvo, I or. 

First Series, containitrr ^ DiviiUd* • The 
Star's Monument ^^ 6*r. i6M Th<msand, 
Fcp, 8tv. 5/. 

Second Series, M Story of Doom^^ * Gla- 
dys and her I si ami,' <>r. ^th Tliousand. 
Fcp, %vo, 5j. 

Poe^ns by yean Ingelow. 

First Scries, with nearly 
100 Woodcitf Illustrations. 

Fcp. 4/". 2U. 



Bowdler's Family S/iak- 

speare, cheaper Genuine 

Complete in i vol, medium %ivo, large type, 
with 36 IVoodait Illustrations^ i^r. or 
in 6 vols, fcp. Svo. price 21 s. 

The ^neid of Virgil 

Translated into English 
• Verse. 

By y. Conington^ M.A. 

Crown 9ivo, gs. 



Down the Road; or, 

Reminiscences of a Gentle- 
man Coachman. 
By C. T S. Birch Rey- 

Secoftd Edition^ ivith 12 Coloured lllustro' 
lions from Paintings by H, Aiken, 
Medium %vo, price 21s. 

Blaine' s EncyclopcBdia of 

Rural Sports; Complete 
Accounts, HistotHcaly Prac- 
tical, and Descriptive, oj 
Hunting, Shooting, Fish- 
ing, Racing, &c. 

IVith above 600 IVoodcuts {20 from Designs 
4r John Leech). %vo, 21s, 

A Book on Angling: 

a Treatise on tlie Art of 
Angling in every branch, 
ifuluding full Illustrated 
Lists of Salmon Flies. 
By Francis Francis. 

Post Zvo, Portrait and Plates, 1 5 J. 

Wilcocks's Sea-Fisher-- 

man : comprising the Chief 
Methods of Hook and Line 
Fishifig, a glance at Nets, 
and remarks on Boats and 

Ncio Edition^ with 80 Woodatts, 
Post %vo, I2J. (id. 

The Ox, his Diseases and 

their Treatment ; with an 
Essay on Parturition in tlie 

By y. R. Dobson, Memb. 

Crown Svo. with Illustrations Js, 6d, 

Youatt on the Horse. 

Revised and enlarged by W. 
Watson, M.R.C.V.S. 

Svo, IVoodcuts, lis. 6d, 

Youatfs IVor/z on the 

Dog, revised and enlarged. 

%vo. Woodcuts^ 6s, 

Horses and S ladles. 

By Colonel F. Fitzwygram, 
X V. tlu King s Hussars. 

With 24 Plates of Illustrations., lOf. W. 

The Dog in Health and 


By Stonetunge. 

With 73 Wood Engravings, Square croant 
Svo, 7s, 6d, 

The Greyhound. 

By Stonehenge. 

Revised Edition, with 25 Portraits of Grey* 
hounds^ <Sr*f. Square crown wo. 151. 



Stables and Stable Fit^ 
By W. Miles, Esq. 

Imp, %vo, xvith 13 Plat€S^ ISj. 

The Horse's Foot, and 

how to keep it Sound. 
By W. Miles, Esq. 

Ninth Edition, Imp, $V0, Woodcuts, 12s, 6d, 

A Plain Treatise 


By W. Miles, Esq. ' 

Remarks on Horses' 

Teeth, addressed to Pur- 

By W. Miles, Esq. 

Post%vo, IX. 6d, 

The Fly-Fisher's Ento- 
By Alfred Ronalds. 

With 20 coloured Plates. $vo. 14s. 

on I The DeadShot, or Sports- 

tfians Complete Guide. 
By Marksman. 

Sixth Edition. Post %i'o. Woodcuts, 2s. td. 

Fcp. 8w. with Plates, 5/. 



Maunders Treasury of 

Knowledge and Library of ' 
Reference; comprising an 
English Dictionary and 
Grammar, Universal Ga- 
zetteer, Classical Diction- 
ary, Chroftology, Law Dic- 
tionary, Synopsis of the 
Peerage, Useful Tables, &c. 

Fcp. %vo, 6s, 

Maunder' s Biographical 


Latest Edition, recon- 
structed and partly re- 
written, with about i,ooo 
additional Memoirs, by 
W. L. R. Gates. 

Fcp. &'<?. 6j. 

Maunder' s Scientific and 

L iterary Treasury ; a 
Popular Encyclopcedia of 
Science, Literature, and 

New Edition, in part re- 
written,with above i,ocx> 
new articles^ by y. V. 

Fcp, 8w. 6s. 

Maunder^s Treasury of 

Geography, Physical, His- 
torical, Descriptive, and 

Edited by W. Hughes, 

WUh 7 ^faps and 16 PUUs. Fcp. Bvo. 6s. 



Maunder' s Historical 

Treasury ; General Intro 
ductory Outlines of Uni- 
versal History^ and a 
Series of Separate His- 

Revised by ike Rev. G. W. 
Cox, M.A. 

Maunder' s Treasury of 

Natural History; or Popu- 
lar Dictionary of Zoology. 

Revised and corrected Edition, Fcp. ^o, 
wit A 900 fVoodcuts, 6s, 

The Treasury of Bible 

Knowledge ; being a Dic- 
tionary of the Books y Per- 
sons. Places^ Events, and 
other Matters of which 
mention is made hi Holy 

By Rev. J. Ay re, M.A. 

With Maps, 15 Plates, and numerous Wood- 
cuts, Fcp, Svo. 6s, 

Collieries and Colliers: 

a Handbook of the Law 
and Leading Cases relat- 
ing thereto. 

By y. C. Fowler. 

Third Edition. Fcp, ^0, *js, 6d, 

The Theory and Prac- 
tice of Banking. 
By H. D. Macleod, M.A. 

Second Edition, 2 vo/s, Sz'o. 3or. 

Modern Cookery for Pri- 

vate Families, reduced to a 
System of Easy Practice in 
a Series of carefully-tested 

By Eliza Acton. 

With% Plates^ l^o Woodcuts, Fcp.%vo,6s. 

A Practical Treatise on 

Brewing; with FormuUe 
for Public Brewers, and 
Instructions for Private 

By W. Black. 

Fifth Edition, 9fvo, lor. 6d, 

Three Hundred Original 

Chess Problems and Studies, 

By JorS. Pierce, M.A. and 
W. T. Pierce. 

With many Diagrams, Sq,fcp, Zvo, 7x. 6d. 
Supplement, price ^j. 

The Theory of the Mo- 
dem Scientific Game of 

By W. Pole, F.R.S. 

Sn'fftth Edition, Fcp, 8rv. 2s. 6d, 

The Cabinet Lawyer ; a 

Popular Digest of the Laws 
of England, Civil, Crimi- 
nal, and Constitutional. 

Twenty-fourth Edition, corrected and cr- 
tendcd, Fcp. 8tv. ^j. 



Pewtners Comprehensive 

Specifier ; a Guide to tJie 
Practical Specification of 
every kind of Building- 
Artificer's Work, 

Edited by W. Young. 

Crown 8z'<?. 6s, 

Protection from Fire and 

Thieves. Including the Con- 
struction of LockSy SafeSy 
Strong-Room^ and Fire- 
proofBuildings ; Burglary^ 
and the Means of Prevent- 
ing it ; Fire, its Detection, 
Prevention, and Extinc- 
tion; &c. 

By G. H. Chubb, Assoc. 
Inst. C.E. 

IVtth 32 IVoodcuts. Cr, %vo, 51. 

Chess Openings. 

By F. W. Longman, Bal- 
liol College, Oxford. 

Second Edition^ revised, Fcp, Svo, 2s, 6d. 

Hints to Mothers on 

the Management of their 
Health during the Period 
of Pregnancy and in the 
Lying-in Room. 

By Thomas Bull^ M.D. 

Fcp. 8w. 5j. 

The Maternal Manage-- 

ment of Children in Health 
aftd Disease. 

By Thomas Bull, M.D. 

Fcp, 8w, 51. 


AciotCs Modem Cookery 38 

Airds Blackstone Economised 39 

Alpine Qub Map of Switzerland 33 

Alpine Guide (The) 33 

^Mtf/j Jurispnidenoe xo 

Primer of the Constitution 10 

AndirunCs Strength of Materials 19 

/frMx/yv«u''j On;anic Chemistry 19 

Arnolds (Dr.) Christian Life 29 

— ^— ^— Lectures on Modem History 2 

Miscellaneous Works 12 

School Sermons 28 

. (TJ Manual of English Literature 12 

Atherstone Priory 34 

Autumn Holidays of a Country Parson ... 23 

Ayrii Treasury of Bible Knowledge 38 

^oTMt'i Essays, by WhaUly xo 

Life and Letters, by Spedding ... 10 

Works xo 

Bain's Mental and Moral Science xx 

—^ on the Senses and Intellect xi 

Baker's Two Works on Cevlon 33 

Balls Guide to the Central Alps 33 

Guide to the Westem Alps 33 

Guide to the Eastern Alps 33 

Bancroft's Native Races of the Pacific...... 22 

Beckers Charides and Gallus «.... 34 

^/n^A'j Treatise on Brewing 38 

BlackUy's German-English Dictionary 15 

Blain/s Rural Sports 36 

Bloxam's Metals 19 

Boulibee on 39 Articles 28 

Bourne's Catechism of the Steam Engine . 27 

——Handbook of Steam Engine 27 

Treatise on the Steam Engine ... 27 

Improvements in the same 27 

BowdUr's Family Skakspeare 36 

BramUy-Moore's Six Sisters of the Valley . 36 
^n»ui!^'x Dictionary of Science, Literature, 

and Art 22 

Bray's Philosophy of Necessity 1 1 

Brinkley's Astronomy x8 

Browne's Exposition of the 39 Articles 28 

Brunets Lilb of Brunei 7 

Buckle's History of Civilisation 3 

-^-^— Posthumous Remains 12 

Buckton's Health in the House 24 

Bults Hints to Mothers 39 

Maternal Management of Children . 39 

Buigomaster's FamilyJThe) 34 

Burkes Rise of Great Families 8 

Burke's Vicissitudes of Families 8 

Busk's Folk-lore of Rome 34 

-~—— Valleys of Tirol 32 

Cabinet Lawyer 38 

Campbells Norway 33 

Cates's Biographical Dictionary 8 

and \voodwards Encyclopaedia ... 5 

Changed Aspects of Unchanged Truths ... X3 

Ckesney's Indian Polity .'. 3 

Modem Military Biography 3 

Waterloo Campaign 3 

Chubb on Protection 39 

Clough's Lives from Plutarch 4 

CodringtoHs Life and Letters 7 

Colenso on Moabite Stone &c 31 

's Pentateuch and Book of Joshua. 31 

— ^— Speaker's Bible Commentary ... 31 

Collins's Perspective 26 

Commonplace Philosopher in Town and 

Country, by A. K. H. B 14 

ComUs Positive Polity 8 

Congreve's Essays 9 

— — Politics of Aristotle xo 

Conington's Translation of Virgil's iGoeid 36 

Miscellaneous Writings 13 

Contanseau's Two French Dictionaries ... 14 
Conybeare and Howson's Life and Epistles 

of St. Paul 29 

Counsel and Comfort from a City Pulpit... 13 

Cox's (O. W.) Aryan Mythology 4 

Crusades 6 

History of Greece 4 

School ditto 4 

— — ^^— Tale of the Great Persian 

War 4 

— — — ^^ Tales of Ancient Greece ... 34 

and Jones's Teutonic Tales 34 

CrawU/s Thucrdides 4 

Creasy on British Constitution 3 

Cresy's Encyclopaedia of Civil Engineering 26 

Critical Essays of a Country Parson 14 

Crookes's Chemical Analysis 24 

— ^— Dyeing and Calico-printing 27 

Culley's Handbook of Tel^raphy 26 

Dead Shot (The), by Marksman 37 

Dt Caisne and Le Maouts Botany 23 

Dt Morgan' s VvjnAoxt.^ 13 

Dt TocquevilU's Democracy in America... 9 

Disraeli's Ix)rd George Rentinck 7 



/>»inM/rj Novels and Tales 34 

DobsoM on the Ox 36 

Dcv^s Law of Storms 18 

DoyUs Fairyland 25 

Dnw's Reasons of Faith 39 

Eastlakis Hints on Household Taste 26 

Edwards* s Rambles among the Dolomites 33 

Elements of Botany aa 

Ellicotfs Commentary on Ephesians 29 

Galatians 29 

— — — Pastoral Epist. 29 

Philippians,&c. 29 

Thessalonians . 29 

— ~ Lectures on Life of Christ 28 

^vajtyj Ancient Stone Implements 22 

Ewaids History of Israel 30 

FairhairtCi Application of Cast and 

Wrought Iron to Building... 27 

— — ^— Information for Engineers 27 

— ^— Treatise on Mills and Millwork 27 

Farrar*5 Chapters on Language 13 

Families of Speech 13 

Fitxvjygram on Horses and Stables 36 

Forbes's Two Years in Fiji 33 

Fowler's Collieries and Colliers 38 

Francis's Fishing Book 36 

FrumaH*s Historical Geography of Europe . 6 

Frtskfitlds Italian Alps 32 

Froudcs English in Ireland 2 

History of England 2 

Short Studies Z2 

Gairdntf^s Houses of Lancaster and York 6 

Ganot's Elementary Physics 19 

' Natural Philosophy 19 

Gardiner's Buckingham and Charles 3 

Thirty Years' War 6 

Gilbert and ChurchilCs Dolomites 33 

Girdiestone's Bible Synonyms 39 

Goodevts Mechanics 19 

■ Mechanism 19 

Grant's Ethics of Aristotle 10 

Graver Thoughts of a Country Parson 14 

t7fwi7/f'i Journal z 

Griffin's Algebra and Trigonometry 20 

Grove on Correlation of Physical Forces ... 18 

Gwiifs Encyclopaedia of Architecture , 26 

Harrisons Order and Progress 9 

//iir/Arx on the Air 18 

Hartvoi^s Aerial World si 

Polar World 31 

Sea and its Living Wonders ... 21 

Subterranftin World 3Z 

■ Tropical World 31 

HaugKtons Animal Mechanics 19 

//t/jrtoffnf J Biographical and Critical Essays 7 

Heath on Energy 20 

Heer's Switzerland 2a 

HelmhotM on Tone 22 

HelnUtotz's Scientific Lectures z8 

HelmsUy's Trees, Shrubs, and Herbaceous 

Plants ...r. 33 

Herschets Outlines df Astronomy 18 

Hollands Fragmentary Papers 20 

Recollections 7 

Howitfs Visits to Remarkable Places 3a 

Hullah's History of Modem Music 33 

Hume's Essays zz 

Treatise on Human Nature zi 

/Ane's History of Rome 5 

!ngehw's Poems 35 

Jamesons Legends of Saints and Martyrs . 25 

Legends of the Madonna 25 

Legends of the Monastic Coders 25 

— — ^ L^ends of the Saviour 25 

^/^ on Confession 29 

^enkin's Electricity and Magnetism 19 

ferram's L^ddas of Milton 35 

ferrolds Life of Napoleon i 

Johnston's Gec^graphical Dictionary 16 

^tfi^i'j Types of Genesis 30 

— on Second Death 30 

JCalisch's Commentary on the Bible 30 

Keith's Evidence of I^ophecy 30 

JCerts Metallurgy, by Crookes and Rdhrig, 27 

Kin^don on Communion 30 

Kiny and Spence's Entomology ao 

Knatchbull'Hugessen's Whispers from 

Fairy-Land ,. 34 

Landscapes, Churches, &c. by A. K. H. B. 13 

Lang's Ballads and Lyrics 35 

Latham's English Dictionary Z4 

■ Handbook of the English Lan- 
guage 14 

Laughton's Nautical Surveying 18 

Lawrence on Rocks aa 

Lechy's History of European Morals 5 

Rationalism 5 

I.,eaders of Public Opinion 8 

Leisure Hours in Town, by A. K. H. B.... 13 

Lessons of Middle Aee, by A. K. H. B.... 13 

Lewes' s Biographical History of Philosophy o 

Liddell and Scoffs Greek-English Lexicons 15 

Lindlty and Moore's Treasury of Botany... 33 

Lloyd's Magnetism 30 

—■^ Wave-Theory of Light 30 

Longmans ( ,'hcss Openings 39 

Edward the ITiird a 

«-^— — I-ectures on Historv of England a 

Old and New St. Paul's 36 

Loudon s Itlncyclopicdia of Agriculture ... 28 

Gardening 28 

Plants 23 

IjnonJes's Kngineer's Handbook 37 

Lubbock's Origin of Civilisation 3a 

Lyra Germanica 31 




idacaulays (Lord) Essays 8 

History of England -^ a 

Lays of Ancient Rome ^5, 35 

■ L^fc and Letters 7 

Miscellaneous Writings ta 

Speeches la 

•- Works a 

McCullocKs Dictionary of Commeroe ...... 16 

hiacUods Principles of Economical Philo- 
sophy ^ xo 

Theory and Practice of Banking 38 

Mademoiselle Mori 34 

MalUson's Genoese Studies 3 

— — Native States of India 3 

tdanhaUs Physiology S4 

klarshman*s History of India 3 

Life oir Havelock 8 

il/arf»jMa«'j Christian Life 31 

Hymns 31 

Maundi/s Biographical Treasury 37 

Geographical Treasury 37 

Historical Treastlty 38 

Scientific and Literary Treasury 37 

Treasury of Knowledge 37 

Treasury of Natural History ... 38 

fdaxweUs Theory of Heat 19 

May's History of Democracy a 

History of England a 

MeluilUsTi\ghyGT3Xid 34 

— — ^ General Bounce 34 

' Gladiators 34 

Good for Nothing 34 

Holmby House 34 

Interpreter 34 

Kate Coventry 34 

Queen's Maries 34 

Mendelssohn's Letters 8 

MtntUs* Forest Trees and Woodland 

Scenery 33 

MerivaUs Fall of the Roman Republic ... 4 

General History of Rome 4 

— ^— Romans under the Empire 4 

Merrifields Arithmetic and Mensuration... 19 

^— ^— Magnetism x8 

Miies on Horse's Foot and Horse Shoeing 37 

on Horse's Teeth and Stables 37 

Mill (J.) on the Mind 10 

Q. S.) on Liberty 9 

Subjection of Women. 9 

on Representative Government 9 

-» Utilitarianism 9 

—'j Autobiography 7 

" Dissertations and Discussions 9 

. Essays on Religion &c a8 

. Hamilton's Philosophy 9 

.. System of Ix>gic * 9 

Political Economy 9 

Unsettled Questions 9 

Miller's Elements of Chemistry 34 

Inorganic Chemistry 19 

Mintds(\jor^) Life and Letters 7 

Mitchells Manual of Assaying 38 

Modem Novelist's Library 34 

il/<wMW/'j • Spiritual Songs • 31 

A/tf(?r«'j Irish Melodies, illustrated 25,35 

Lalla Rookh, illustrated 25,35 

Morant's Game Preservers ai 

Morelts Elements of Psychology 11 

Mental Philosophy 11 

MiilUrs Chips from a German Workshop. la 

MUlUr's Science of LflAguage ta 

Scienoe of Reli^on • 5 

New Reformatiour by Theodorus 4 

New Testament, Illustrated Edition 25 

A^dr^Ao?//'! Lathes and Turning a6 

(y Conor's Cbhlttlfentary on Hebrews 30 

Romans 30 

St. John 30 

Owen's Compdmtive Anatomy and Physio- 
logy bf Vertebrate Animals ao 

/Vxfi<'j Guide to the Pyrenees 33 

Pattison's Casaubon 7 

Payen's Industrial Chemistry 26 

Pewtnef's Comprehensive Specifier 39 

fVenre'x Chess Problems 38 

Plunkefs Travels in the Alps 3a 

PoU's Game of Whist 3* 

/Vmd^TOJ/'i Mastery of Languages 15 

Present-bay Thoughts, by A. K. H. B. ... 14 

/VtvAyr'j Astronomical Essays vj 

Moon 17 

OrbsaroimdUs 17 

Other Worids than Ours 17 

Saturn 47 

■ Scientific Essays {New Series) ... ab 

Sun 17 

Transits of Venus 16 

Two Star Atlases 17 

Universe 16 

Public Schools Atlas x6 

Modem Geography 16 

— ^ Anaent Geography f6 

Rawlinson's Parthia • 5 

Sassanians « 5 

Recreations of a Country Parson 13 

i?^^/^atv'j Dictionary of Artists 25 

Reilly's Map of Mont Blanc s> 

Monte Rosa S3 

Reresby's Memoirs 1 7 

Reynardson's Down the Road 36 

i?(VA' J Dictionary of Antiquities 15 

River's Rose Amateiu''s Guide ^.. » 

Rogers's Eclipse of Faith 39 

— ~— ^ Defence of Eclipse of Faith 29 

— ~— ^ Essays. 9 

Rogets Thesaurus of English Words and 

Phrases t4 

^^^AaAfj Fly-Fisher's Entomology 37 

Rothschilds Israelites «. 30 

^«jj^// on the Christian Religion.... 6 

's Recollections and Stiggestions ... a 

«S<i;u;{i{r/j Justinian's Institutes : to 

Savile on Apparitions 13 

-^-^ on Primitive Faith , 99 



SchtUetis Spectrum Analysis z8 

Scott s Lectures on the Fine Arts 24 

Poems 24 

— Papers on Civil Engineering a8 

Seaside Musing, by A. K. H. B 13 

Sttbokwis Oxford Reformers of 1498 3 

— ^— Protestant Revolution o 

Stwelts Passing Thoughts on Religion 31 

^-^— Preparation for Communion 31 

Stories and Tales 34 

— ^^ Thoughts for the Age 31 

5A«^fe/j Workshop Appliances 29 

^Aorrj Church Histoiy 6 

Sim/sam's Meetiiig the Sun... ga 

SmiiJk's (SydH€y)EsssLys xa 

^-^— ^--^— Life and Letters.. 8 

Miscellaneous Works ... 12 

Wit and Wisdom la 

(Dr. R. A.) Air and Rain 18 

Sautheys Doctor 13 

— — — Poetical Works 35 

Stanleys History of British Birds 36 

Sief ken's Ecclesiastical Biography 8 

5/i>/iii!^j Secret of Hegel ix 

Sir WilUamHamilton xi 

Sionehengt on the Dog 36 

— — on the Greyhound 36 

Sunday Afternoons at the Parish Church of 

a University City, by A. K. H. B 13 

Supernatural Religion 31 

Swinboume's Picture Logic 10 

Taylor's History of India 3 

Manual of Ancient History 

' Manual of Modem History 6 

{Jeremy) Works, edited hjEden, 31 

Text-Books of Science ao 

Thomson's Laws of Thought xi 

Til«i]^j Quantitative Analysis X9 

— and Muir^s Qualitative Analysis ... 19 

Todd (A.) on Parliamentary Government... a 

and Bowman's Anatomy and 

Physiology of Man a4 

Trench s Realities of Irish Life za 

TroUopis Barchester Towers 36 

Warden 36 

TyndaUs American Lectures on Light ... 

Belfast Address 19 

^— ~— ~ Diamagnetism ao 

Fragments of Science X9 

-^— ^ Lectures on Electricity ao 

Lectures on Light ao 

Lectures on Sound ao 

— — ^ Heat a Mode of Motion ao 

Molecular Physics ao 

CledervMi/s System of 4jogic zt 

Ur/s Dictionary of Arts, Manufactures, 

and Mines a/ 

Warburton's Edward the Third ...m 6 

Watson's Geometry 19 

Watts's Dictionary of Chemistry a4 

Webb's Objects for Common Telescopes ... 18 

WeinAold's Experimental Physics 19 

Wellington's Life, by Gleig 8 

Wkaiefy's English Synonymes 14 

Logic II 

— — Rhetoric 11 

WAite and Donkin's English Dictionary... 15 

and Riddlis Latin Dictionaries ... 15 

Ii7/rarAf'j Sea-Fisherman 36 

Williams's Aristotle's Ethics xo 

Willis's Principles of Mechanism a6 

Willoughbys (Lady) Diary 34 

Woods Bible Animals aa 

-^-^ Homes without Hands ai 

-^-^ Insects at Home 31 

-^-^ Insects Abroad ai 

-^-^ Out of Doors ai 

Strange Dwellings ai 

Yonge*s English-Greek Lexicooft 15,16 

Horace 35 

KMia// on the Dog 36 

■ on the Horse 36 

Zeller'sSocnXes 5 

Stoics, Epicureans, and Sceptics... 5 

SAottistvoode ^ Co., Prin/ert, Neuhttrett Square. London. 


*«■. ' 


<• •" 


» • 


^ A 

• i« 


* »